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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

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University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/reviewofreviewsw24newy 



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The American Mo^"tilLV 



Review of Remews. 




AX INTERNATIONAL 



MAGAZINE 



EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW. 



Volume XXIV. 



JuLY-DfXEMBHR, 1 00 1 



THE RKVIKW OF REVIEWS COMl'ANV 



New York: 13 Astur I'i.aci: 



Copyright, 1901, by The Review ok Reviews Co. 



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■^1 



INDEX TO THE TWENTY-FOURTH VOLUME OF 



THE AMKRICAX MOXTIILY 
REX'IEW OF RE\'IE\VS. 

JULY-DECEMBER, 1901. 



Adams, Cjtus C. New Phases of Polar Research, fiT. 

Adams. Hert>ert B.: .\ Sk»'tc-h. »Z]. 

Adams, J. Q. The Exposition of the Artist Colonv in 

Darmstadt. -201. 
Afirhauistau, Atfairs in, t)GO, 731. 
Afgiianistan, Ameer of, Deatli of th»', 534. 
Afghanistan, Ameer of : Instructions to His Son on 

Visiting England, 215. 
Africa : 

Kgj-pt, Rejuvenation of, 211. 

Morocco, Sultan of, and His Government, 213. 

Slave Trade in Northern Nigeria, '212. 

War in Stiuth Africii : see South Africa. 
Agricultural Conditions, 3. 150. 
Agricultural .Science, Progress of, 261. 
Airship: Is It Coming V :i38. 
Airship. Santos-Dumoiit's, 14.5, 340. 
Alabamju Political Affairs in. 2", 527, 6.50, 6.53. 
Alfrt'd. King, L'nveiling of the ."^tatue of. 401. 
America!' Did the Buildhists Discover, 'Jl. 
Anarchist Problem, 387-;iM», 4T2. »»4. 
Andersen, Hans Christian, as .Man and Poet, 733. 
Animal, N'ew Wild, Discover}' of a, 35'.». 
Apes Anthropoid, of Java, 622. 
Arbitration of International Disputes, 143. 
Arctic Regions, Flora of the. IKt. 
A I ilia reviewed, 107, 367, 501, 756. 
Art: 

Darmstadt. Exposition of the Artist Colony in, 201. 

Forte-scue-BricRdale, Miss, a New Painter. 494. 

Greenawaj', Kate, the Illustrator of ChildhiHjd, 679. 

Pictures : How They Are I'ainted, 95. 

Stained-Glass Window : How One Is Made, 4'.i4. 
Asia : England and Russia in the Far East, 660. 
Astronomy, Mcxlern, Problems of, 97. 
AtbtnticMrmthlu reviewed, 104, '236, 365, 500, 6'28, 754. 
Australasia : 

Census Disclosures, 90, 480. 

Martia, Australian, 216. 

New Zealand, Premier Richard Seddon of, 482. 

Socialism, ."^late, in .\u•^t^alia, 354. 
Automobile-Making in .Anifrica, '297. 
Automobiles and the Hor>e .Market, 145. 
Azore Island.s, Exposition in the, '263. 

B.VGDAD Railwav Project, 6%. 

Balkan Affairs, 19, 151, 6«J1. 

Ball(Hj!i, .Saiitos-Dumont, 145. :i4't. 

Barker, Rotx-rt M. The Economics of Cattle-Ranching 

in the Smthwest, :i<)5. 
Basketrv, Indian, in the Far West, 219. 
Battleship, The : Is It (Obsolete l' 352. 
Belgium, .Affairs in, 139. •2>i2. 
Benjamin, Park. Winheld .Scott Schley, a Rear-Admiral 

of the United States Navy, 'wW. 
Besant, Sir Walter, Death of, 2'2. 

Bigiis, Hermann .M. RotM-rt Koch and His Work, 3'24. 
Bismarck, Tin- Berlin .Monument to, IH, :{.">9. 
Blackmar, Frank W. Kansas After tin- Drouglit, 314. 
lilai-kiiortil's Mminzim reviewed, '243, '**\. 
Books, riie N<-W.'ll6. '247. 377. 5N«i. 59'2, 701, 739. 
Ho<jth, fien. William, of the .Salvation Army, 94. 
Boston, The Twentiflh Century ("lubof, 73. 
Boutelle, Charles A., D.al h of, '22. 
Bridgeport, Conn., .\ .Stoker as .Mayor of, 6.5.5. 
Bridnman, Howard A. The Twentieth Century Clnl« 

of Boston, 73. 



BnMiks, ,Iohn Graham. John Fi.ske, 175. 

Buffalo. After the Fair. (V5tJ. 

Burns, RolH-rt, An Unpublished Poem by, 738. 

Business Affairs: see Agriculture, Indii.strial Affairs, 

Railroads, Trade, Trusts. 
Butler, Nicholas Murray. The Washington Memorial 

Institution, 56. 

Calvisism, The Revival of, 726. 

Campoamor, ."spjijirs Greatest Po«'t, 232. 

Canada, Ct-iisus Disclosures in, 278, 4M». 

Canada, Duke ;ind Duchess of Cornwall and York in, 402. 

Canlitld, .lames H. Setii lx)w, 545. 

Carlyles, The, and Their Hon.semaid, 6'20. 

Carnegie, Andrew, at Play, 618. 

Carnegie, .\ndrfW : HisGift toScottish Universities, 19. 

Cartoons, Current History in, '27. 1.57. ■2s7. .VJ'.t, tWi'.t. 

Ca.ssatt. President, of the'Pennsylvania Railnwul. ".«. 

Cattle-Ranching in the .Southwest, Economics of. :{ii."i. 

Census Data, .S)me New, t'>4S-tV)0, 7'2:{. 

Cciiturn MiKinzim reviewed, 10-2, '234, 361, 497, 6'25, 753. 

Character Sketches : 

Ad.iTus, Herbert B.. .321. 

Crispi, France.sco, 457. 

Fiske, John, 175. 

Greenawav, Kate, 679. 

Koch, Dr. 'Robert. :t24. 

1 J Hung Ch;ing, 677. 

Low, Setli, 545. 

.MrKinley, President William. 430. 

I'e.irsons, Dr. D. K., .5.80. 

Pillsbury. (Jov. .lolin S., 689. 

Redmond, .loiui. 7iNi. 

Ro<j.sevelt, President Theixlore. 4.'i5. 

Schley, Rear-Admiral Winlield Scott, "Jfti. 

Shepard, Edwjird .Morse, ."hl8. 

Taft, (Jov. William II.. 179. 

Tolstoy. Count Leo, 'Xi. 

Virehow, Prof. Rudolph, 67.5. 

Whipple, Bishop Henry B., 575. 

'\' eat man, .I;imes K., isl). 
Charity Organization, Christianity and, ?25. 
Chicago's Fr.inchlse T.ixes. j'hii;. 
Chiltlrens Exhibition at I'aris. The, '222. 
Child-Saving .Movement, The, •2'25. 
China : 

.Affairs at Peking, 1.50. 151, 400. 

Famine and Its Relief, 17. 

Fin.ince. Chlnesj-, 91. 

Li Hung Chang, Career of, 6.57. 658. 677. 

Manchuria, .Situation in, t'lO. »'(I3, (1.58, »yi9. 

Settlement, Chinese, 17. 400, (^59. 
Christmas Island. The Romance of, 6'20. 
Civilization, Occidental. Denunciation of, 353. 
Cirilld CdttnUiii reviewed, -246, .507. 
Coal E.xports, .American, (Jrowth of. 722. 
Colombia and X't-ne/uela. '27.5, 4U5, .5'2«'>. 
Complexions. Fair and Dark, Characteristics of People 

with, :M4. 
Congression.'il .\ffairs: 

Cabinet Ollice, .New, Pro|M)s«sl. «M6. 

Connre.H^H, Fifty-seventh, tVt:i. 

Conservatism the .S-asons .Vote, (M6. 

House, OrKani/.ation of the, M'.i. 

.Message of Presi<|ent RcM»st-velt. 64.5. 

Reciprocity l^ueHtion, •'>47. 

Seli.ite, ('ondltious ill the, t'>43. 



JV 



THi-. .-isitiRiCAS Mosrni.y Ki-r/i-w of rhi'ihu's. 



Shinpinu Subsidy Issue, 52J, 523. 

•l"i>;fr ,^ III F^-irly Ivsiie. MS M». 
1 .'. Politiial r.uiii>j(ii;ii in, 528, 652. 

1 :i : Ml' Mttlical .^i-it'licf. 

' '1/ li< rhir r.'vii-\vi-<l. IU\ 241. 5a^ ftW, 75S. 

1 -!.lv T;»l)li- of. 1. ri-A 2:.7, IK-j, 5i;i, (Ul. 

< li. l).-iitl» of. 152. 
' < w.hI. 24,H. ;i7a. 

< r;i rt-viewetl, 1(V^. 23.5. 3»>2, 498, 626, 753. 
I — 'II. ,v I (( r/io/ /<•»*• re viewetl, 115. 24(5. 

I • nttni Llff reviewttl. 627. 

t n-to, AfT.iirs in, 1.V2. 

(,'rispi, Fn»ncesco : Italy".s Foremost Statesman, 457. 

Culvi : 

Affairs in CuJw, 278. 

I'uba's Aooept.uico of Conditions, 14. 

Election IMans. .".20. 

Havana's Healtli and Cuba's F'uture, 132. 

Industrial Possibilities of Cuba. 1%. 

Palina. Kstrada, Candidate for the Presidency, 520. 

Tariff Problems, 520. 

Darmstadt. The p]xposition of the Artist Colony in, 201. 
De Blot-h. .Tt-an. on the Kesults of the Boer War, 140, 141. 
Denmark. Litvral Victory in. 282, 452. 
Diutschc lievuc reviewed. 246. 
Dititurhc Ruudxchini reviewed. 115. 246, 507. 
Digestive System, Bacteria of the, 341. 
Dramatic Profession ? Is There a, 101. 
Dunn. Arthur W. The Government of Our Insular 
Possessions, 697. 

Ei>iXBCTJGH Review reviewed, 372, 760. 
Education : 

Colleue Course, Three- Year, 223. 

Columbia University, Seth Tjow Retires from, 530. 

Educational Notes. 21, 1.52, .534. 

Cifts to American Collej^es and Universities, 1.52. 

Johns Hopkins I'niversity, New President of, 20. 

Philippines, Education in the, 623. 

Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, 21. 

South, Educational Conditions in, 649-651. 

Trend. Modern, of Education, 651. 

AVashiiifiton Memorial Institution, 21, .56. 

Yale's Bicentennial Celebration, 534, 601. 
Egypt. The Re.iuvenation of, 211. 
Ely, Richard T. Herbert B. Adams : A Sketch, 821. 
Empire Review reviewed, 372. 
England : see Great Britain. 
Epilepsy, The Dangers of. 343. 
Episcopal Convention and Its Work, 449. 
Europe : Will She Fight the United States? 206. 
ErcryhoCliffi Mafjdzine reviewed, 236, 364, 627, 754. 
Expositions, Some European, 262. 

Faux^, Polar, Similarities of the, 230. 

Fenn, Courtenay Hughes. Li Hung Chang, 677. 

Fiction Read and Written in 1901, 586. 

Fiske. John. Death of, 1.52 ; sketch of, 175. 

Flojna reviewed. 11.5. 

Flying Machines, The Latest in, 737. 

Folwell, William Watts. Bishop Whipple, the Friend 

of the Indian, 575. 
Fortnifjhtl]! Review reviewed, 110, 241, .369, 505, 631, 757. 
Forum reviewed, 106, 238, 367, 501, 029, 7.5.5. 
Foulke, William Dudley, Appointed Civil Service Com- 
missioner, 517. 
France : 

Academy, Election of Edmond Rostand and Frederic 
Masson to the, 18. 

Affairs in France, 18, 281. 

Associations Law, Xew, 137, 534. 

Czar, Visit of the, .39.5-.398. 

England and France, 84. 

Fetes, Monuments, and Exhibitions, 262. 

Morocco, Relations with, 137, 281. 

Turkey. Strained Relations with, 398-400, 662. 

"Waldeck-Rousseau Ministry, Length of the, 534. 

Young People in France, Social, Political, and Reli- 
gious Tendencies of, 222. 
Franchi.se Corporation, The Piracy of a, 471. 
Frank Leslie's Monthly reviewed, 363, 498, 627, 754. 
Frederick, Empres.s, Tributes to the, 489. 



Gaflio Revival in Ireland, 141, 188, SK\. 
Game, The .\ wakening Coiu'erning. .571. 
"(ienius, Determining of," Lombroso on the, 738. 
Gerni.any : 

AtT.tir.s in Germany, 17, 281. 

Emi)eror. (Jerma!). and His Hobbies, 86. 

England's Trjule Rival, (Jcrmany as, 4*.)1. 

Frederick. Kiniucss. Death of the, 281. 

Population of (Jermany, 90. 

Sc-liools, (lernian, 223. 

South America, (Jerman As]>irations in, 610. 

T.u-iff Proposals, Xew, 282, .534. 

Triple Alliance, Future of the, 85. 
Ocscllsriuift reviewed, 115. 
Great Britain : see also Australasia, South Africa. 

Affairs in England, 401, 533, 663. 

America, lOngland's Commercial Rivalry with, 207. 

Americans : Tiieir Feelings 'I'oward England, 349. 

Argentine Republic, Britain in the, 7!i4. 

Buller, General, B^pisode Over, .533, 663. 

Court of Appeals, Imperial, Organizing an, 142. 

Duke and I)ucliess of Cornwall and York, Imperial 
Tour of the, 402, 664. 

"Edward, King: How Will He Govern ?" 87. 

Empire, Relations of Canada and Australia to the, 141. 

England's Industrial Future, Mr. Carnegie on, 78. 

France, England and, 84. 

Germany as England's Trade Rival, 491. 

Handicaps, England's, 264. 

Honors to Conquering Heroes, 267. 

Hou.se of Lords, Trial of Earl Russell by the, 267. 

Invasion of England : Is It Possible ? 728. 

Ireland, England and, 89, 663. 

Labor Party, Independent, Aims of the, 729. 

Liberal Part.y, Paralyzed, 136. 

Nationality Sentiment, Growth of, 141. 

Oath, Royal, Question of the, 265. 

Parliament Prorogued, 209. 

Population Data, 90, 139. 

Railroads, Is England Handicapped by Her, 80. 

Redmond, John, Leader of the Irish Party, 706. 

Rosebery, Lord : How He Threatened France with 
War, 350. 

Rosebery, Lord, Position of, 483, 484. 

Strait of Gibraltar, British Interests at the, 138. 

Trade-Unions, British, The Plight of the, 485. 

Victoria Memorial, 264. 
Greenaway, Kate, the Illustrator of Childhood, 679. 
Grimm, Herman, The Late, 356. 
Guizot, M., and Princess Lieven, Friendship Between, 

617. 
Gunt07Vs Magazine reviewed, 108, 238, 502, 630. 

Harper's Magazine reviewed, 102, 234, 361, 497, 625, 753. 
Harrison, Frederic : His Impressions of America, 77. 
Hawthorne, H. L. The Viewpoint of the Filipinos, 567. 
Hay, Adelbert S., Death of, 153 ; portrait, 153. 
Heme, James A., Death of, 22 ; portiait, 24. ^ 
History and Biography, American, in 1901, 592. 
Holland, New Ministry in, 282. 
Howard, L. O. Mosquitoes as Transmitters of Disease, 

192. 
Hudson, Horace B. A Public Servant of the North 

west, 689. 
Hudson Palisades, Preserving the, 49. 
Hygiene : see Medical Science. 

Immigration and the Census, 723. 
Immortal ? Do Men Wish to Be, 492. 
Industrial Commission, Work of the, 646, 711. 
Industrial Conditions : see also Agriculture, Labor, 
Railroads, Trade, Trusts. 

British Discussion of American Industry, 6. 

Cabinet Portfolio of Commerce and Industry, 646. 

Capital, American, Growth in Four Years of, 9. 

England's Industrial Future, Andrew Carnegie on, 78. 

Prosperity in the United States, 3, 260, 261. 
Insular Cases, Supreme Court and the, 9-11. 
IntcrnnUoyii a Monthly reviewed, 108, 239,368,503,630,757. 
Iowa, Political Campaign in, 277, 652. 
Ireland, The Gaelic Revival in, 141, 188, 233. 
Lsthmian Canal : 

Isthmian Canal Commi.ssion, Final Report of the, 645. 



INDEX TO y GLUME XX/K 



Treaty with England Xettotiatod. .VJ4. tUt*>. 

I'nitfd States aud tlie Isthmus, ■JTti, .Vi4. 
Italy : 

Hirth t)f a Daujjhter to th«' Kiii^, IS. 

(lispi, Kraiitesio. Italy's Foremost Statesman, 457. 

Kamiiie-Smitteu Italy. 354. 

Triple AUiaiicf. Future of the, 85. 
Jaiiane.se Affairs, ♦kk*. 

Johns Hopkins I'niversitv, New Pre.sitlent of, 20. 
Johnson, Tom L., A Sketl-h of. -Mi. 
Johnston, J. Wesley. The Methodist Ecumenical Ck»n- 
fereuce, 440. 

K.VNSAS After tlu- Droufrht, 314. 

Kentucky, Political I'anipaiun in. 6.V2. 

Kin^maii, J. A. Automobilf-Making in America, 997. 

Knaufft, Krnest. Kate Greenawa}-, the lUu.strator of 

C'hildho.Hl. 079. 
Koch. RoJjert. and His Work. :W4. 
Kriiger, Mrs. Paul, Death of, 152; portrait, 130. 
Kyle. James H., Death of, 152. 

Labor : 

Ent:lish Versus American Conditions, 273. 

Issues in the Steel Strike. 14i;-149. 328, 335. 

Steel Strike, 272-27.5. 4(»4. 

Trade-l'nionism and the Steel Strike, 272, 273. 

Trade-Unions, British. Plight of the, 485. 
l>jil)rador. Tlie Fascination of, 732. 
Litdirs' Home JouDial reviewed, 104, 235, 3»33, 499, 627, 

7,54. 
Lakes. Cireat, Ships of War on the. 475. 
Languajies, Universal, The Two. 'MS. 
Leadinti Articles of the Month, 77, 20.3. .33.5, 409, 001, 719. 
Le Coute, .loseph. Death of, 152 ; portrait, 150. 
Leprosy, :}42. 

Li Hurig Chang. Career of, 657, i'taS. 077. 
Lind.sjiy. Samuel .McCune. A Colossal Incjuiry Com- 

jileted (I'. S. Industrial Coinniission), 711. 
Llpi'lticotVs M(iijnziii>' reviewed. 4!K). 
I..ipton. Sir Thoma.s, A Sketch of. '.i'M. 
Locomotive, Anierii-aii, The, 208. 
London in Ten Years' Time. 4iH>. 

Long. H. K. C. Count Tolstoy in Thought and Action, 33. 
luow, Seth, 545. 

McClure'S Magazine reviewed, 103, 235. 362, 498, 626, 7.53. 
Macfarland. Henrv B. F. Tlie Character of William 

McKinley. 4:{i). ' 
McKinlev. President William : 

Address at Buffalo. .S-oteniher 5, 1901, 4.32. 

Assiissination of President McKinlev, 3S7-390. 

Character and Career. :{'.k), 891, 430. 

International Sympathy. 3'.M. 

Last Days of President McKinley, 414. 

Memr)rials Proposed for tlie Late President, 532. 

Promoter of Peace. .Mr. McKinley as a, 39.5. 

Koosevelt. Theodore, Kelations with, 393. 

Third Term, Kejection of a, 13. 
Maltliie, Milo Koy. New York's Municipal Campaign, 

.551. 
Man. TheStudv of, 217. 
-Manchuria, Situation in, 60, 613, 658, 659. 
-Manners for Men, 215. 
Mai»s : 

Bagdad Hailroad, Projected, 687. 

Bermuda Islands, ~:m. 

Manchuria, 6(>. 

North- Polar Region. 09. 

Railway Systems of t he United States, 107. I(W, 171, 172. 

Siljeria, Principal (iold-Bearing Districts of, 479. 

Sil)eriaii Railway ."system. 0H4. 

South -Africa. -Maps .Sjiowing Effective Occupatiou of 
tlie British Forces in, 2«W. 

South Atnerican Disputed Boundaries, 143. 

South-Polar Region, 71. 

Venezuela. Colomhia. and Ecuador. 405. 
Marylanil. Political Affairs in, 277, CM. 
.Massachusetis, Politiciil Campaign in, .527, 0.52. 
-Mearkle, A. L. Minnesota Primary Election Law, 40.5. 
Me<lical .Science : 

Bacteria of the Digt-stive System, 'M\. 

Consumption, Campaign Against, .'MO. 



Disease. Progn's.H in the .Study of, 259. 

Epilepsy, Dangers of, :V4;i. 

Health Conditions in the I'nited States 'MO. 

Ko.li. Ri(U-rt, and His Work. 

Leprosy, ;t42. 

-Mt)s<iuito, How to Fight the, 228. 

Mos<fuitoes as Transmitters <(f Disease, 192, 238. 

Seasickness, Ct(ni;ress Against, 2«il. 

TuIktcuIosIs Congress in I.rf>ndon, 2.59. 

TuImm( iilosis. Prevention of. 22."). 

Typhoid Bacillus and the BIimkI, 97. 
Men, Young, of the United ."states. Facts About the, 725. 
Metluxlist Kcnmenical Conference, 44«>. 
Minnesota Primary Election Law, The, 405. 
Missing Link. The'."s<'arch for the. 217. 
Mission of .^aii Xavier<lel Bac, Arizona, 358. 
Monastery at Petschenga, Norwav, :C>7. 
MnmitKxi'hriH Mir Stndt uml Lu'ikI reviewed, 115, 240. 
Miintlilii l{i viiw reviewed, 112, '.M2. 5»i»'., fhU, 759. 
Morgan, .1. P., The tJreat Financier, 44i9. 
Mormonisin, The Late President ."snow on, ?27. 
Morocco, The ."sultan of, and His (iovernnient, 213. 
Morris, Ceorge Perry. Dr. 1). K. Pearsons, the Friend 

of the American Small CoUegt-, .5s(i. 
Mos(|uitoes and Disease : see Medical .Science. 
Motor, A Sun-Power, 493. 

Municipal Affairs: .see Bridgejwrt, Ruffahi, Chicago, 
Cincinnati, Cleveland, New York, Philadelphia, 
Rochester, St. Louis. San Francisco. 
Municiiial (Joveriiment. Business Idea in, 05;i 
Mintsi i/'x Mnijitziitc reviewed. 'M'H. 
Murder Trials, Motlern, and the Newspapers, 606. 

NatioXAI, Rkvikw reviewe«l. Ill, .50)5, 634, 758. 
Xation.s, Relative Future of. IW. i:!9. 
Nebraskii, Political C.iiiipaign in. i'>52. 
Negro Density in the Far .South, CM. 
Negro lUiteiacy. Stat isiics of, 049. 
New England Village. -\, 402. 
New .Jersey, Political Campaign in, 527, 652. 
New York City : 

Anti-Tammany Ticket Successful. ('>.">;V 

Appointive I'ower K.xeicised by Air. Low, 054. 

Fianchise Coriioratlon, Piracy "of a. 471. 

Franchise Ta.\ and the Corporations. 057. 

Low, .Seth, Aiiti-Tamin.iiiy Candidate, 400, 545. 

Magnitude of -Metropolitan -Vffair.s, .532. 

Metropolitan -Museum of Art, Jacob Rogers' Gift to 
the, VM. 

Municinal Campaign, 134, 270, 528-532, 551, 053. 

Police Protection, Price of. -i'l'X 

Sliepard, Edward Morse, Tammany Canditlate..5;«), .548. 

Strmahan, Nevada N., A])[tointeil Collector of the 
P<»rt. 0.")7. 

Tammany Rule. M.irk Twain on. ('>07. 

Tammanv. The ."^treimth .iiid the Weakne.s,s of, ('^17. 
Newcomi), 11. T. The Recent Great Railway Combina- 
tions, K'hi. 
Nicaragua Canal : .see Isthmian Canal. 
Xhnteiiith Cnitury <«»</ After reviewed, 109, 2:W, 369, 

■.04, CfcVi. 7.58. 
Nordi'iiskjiild. till- Explorer. 0O3. 
Nortlhoff.'ciijirles, De.ith of. I.V2. 
i\o/(/ ituil SUil reviewed. 115, 24«>, .507. 
A"ojf/i Aintricitn Jlrviiti reviewed, 10,5, 237, 366,500, 

021». 7.54. 
NnttrcUc lii'vnc reviewetl, 113, 244, 374, 702. 
Nuuv<i Antolufjia reviewed, 115, 245, 370, 607. 

OitiTfARV Note.s, 22, 1.52. 

ODonnell. 'I'homas. The (Jaelic Revival in Ireland, 1S8. 

Ohio, I'olitical Campaign in, \'X\, 277, (i52. 

Oklahoma. Farms by Lot in, 279. 

<)scar. King, of Sweden, 220. 

Uiltimj reviewed, »>27. 

Pai.isadks, Hudson. Preserving thi', 49. 
Panama Canal : see Isthmian Can.il. 
Pan-.\merican Congi-ess : 

Arbitration -\greement. Dilllcultiesof an, 143, 144, OXk 

Opening of the Congres.s, .525. 

Peru. ( Jrievance of. .")20. 

Second Pan-.\merii-.iii Conference, 143. 



vl 



THE AMERICAN MOXTHl.Y Rl-riI'M' OF RHyiEH'S. 



PrtrkiT, John H. Tlu» Iwtst Plm.Ho of tho IMiilippine 

i; " ' •' . I{«->uUin>: I'mliU'iiis. .vvj. 

\'M' (ioM-riior Tiift 1111(1 t)ur Philip- 

V:\\- nil Morton. The Pot'trj" and Criticism of 

1 riTP Ftwt4?r. KthvHni Morae Shepanl, 548. 

I ,.iiida. The Future of. 848. 

1 |). K., the Friend of tiie American Small 

< s>. 

Pear iiant : \\\s Work in I'.tOCI and IWI. 407, GOl. 

!'■ I. Political C'ampniviii in. -T(>. ,VJT, t>.V2. 

1' Index to. V2A. -'.Vi. :i^(l. ."rfiS. VM\. TIM. 

\ - lievifwed. The. H>-i, -^^A. M\\. 4<.tT. (•.•25, 753. 

r '.iilf. Kuropi-an Nations in tlic. i'*'A. (iS(J. 

r Ilia. Municipal Campaign in. '27(j, 527, 5~>S, C52. 

1 ■ i-,s : 

-\ii:iir^ in the Philiiii)ines. 12, .5.S.3. 
h^iiu-.'ition in the Philippines, (i2;3. 
Filipint^s. The Viewpoint of the. 5C7. 
Katipunan Society, H4."). 
MacArthur, Geu. Arthur, Keturn of, to the United 

States, 278. 
Philippine Policy. Our. Governor Taft and. 179. 
Phili|>pine Kebellion. Last Phase of the, and the Prob- 
lems Kesultinji Tlierefrom. 5()2. 
Taft, Judge \\ illiam H., Inaugurated as the First 
American Civil Governor. 131. 
Pill-lnirv, John S. : A Public Servant of the Northwest, 

(VSlt. 
Pingree, Hazen S., Death of, 22. 
Piatt, Thomas C, of Xew York. 720. 
Poetry and Criticism of KK)1, 70]. 
Polar Kxploration of Lieutenant Peary, 407, 601. 
Polar Hesearch. New Pha.ses of, 67. 

Political Affairs in the United States: see also Con- 
trressional AtTairs. Municipal Affairs. 
Off Year. Mild Politics of au, 13. 
Shepard. E. M . as a New Democratic Moses, 531. 
State Political Campaigns, 276, 277, 527, 5;2S. 
P<)rto Kico : 
Hunt. William H.. Successor to Governor Allen, 278. 
Outkwk in Porto Kico, 12. 
Problem of Government. 229. 
Tariff. Porto Kico, End of the, 132. 
Portraits : 
Abdul Hamid, Sultan of Turkey, 400. 
Ab<lur Kahman Khan, Ameer of Afghanistan, 538. 
Adams, Charles K., .5:^4. 
Adams, Herbert B., 321, 323. 

Albany, Duchess of, with her son and daughter, 186. 
Alderman, Edwin A., 58. 
Allen. Gov. Charles H., 378. 
Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel, and Tin 

Plate Workers, Executive Committee of the, 274. 
Andersen, Hans Christian. 733. 
Andrade. Ex-President, of Venezuela, 537. 
Armour, Herman O., 410. 
Atkinson, Fred. W., 624. 
Bacheller. Irving. .591. 
Baden-Powell. Major-General, 270. 
Baldwin, Evelvn B., 285. 
Balfour, A. J.. 401. 
Barrett. Nathan F., .53. 
Baudoin. M.. 2-Sl. 
Beit, Albert, iW>. 
Bell. Alexander Graham, 59. 
Benham, Kear-Admiral A. E. K., 273, 407. 
Be.sant, Sir Walter. 22. 
Biddle. A. J. Drexel, 74:3. 
Bond, Premier Koljert, ti65. 
Booth, William, 94. 
Brady, Cyrus T., 745. 
Brewer, David .J., 11. 
Broadbent, Sir W. H., 258. 
Brouardel, Dr., 25S. 
Brown, Sir G. T., 258. 
Brown. Henry B., 11. 
Buchanan, Robert W., 24. 
Burnham. George, Jr., .560. 
Butler, Nicholas .Murray, 57. 
Butterfield, Daniel, 1.53. 
Caillard, Admiral, 662. 



Caine. Hall, 589. 

Calliiwav. Samuel H., 5. 

Ciui.llin," \W\. (Jec.rge T., 448. 

C.iss.'itl. .\. .1.. ICiS. 

Castro. Cii>riaiio, 40(). 

CalluMWood, .Mary llartwell, 593. 

Chai)pell. .lohn. 274. 

Christcnsen, .1. ("., 456. 

Cliun. Prince, 400. 

Churchill. Winston, 588. 

Clarke, Albeit. 646. 

Coate.s. HiMirv T., 600. 

Coiistaiis. .M.. 399. 

Cook, Kt'V. .Joseph, 152. 

Cornwall and York, Duchess of, 403. 

Cornwall and York. Duke of, 403. 

Cortelyou, (ieorge H., 416. 

Cowen, .John K.. 171. 

Crane, W. .Murray, .535. 

Crichtoti-lirowne, Sir James, 258. 

Crispi, Francesco, 4.57. 

CuUom, Shelby M., 645. 

Cummins, Albert B., 277, 653. 

Czar of Russia and his family, 396. 

Dabnej-, Charles W., 57. 

Davis, Ben. J., 274. 

Davis, C. H., 274. 

Davis, W. C, 274. 

Davison, Rev. W. T., D.D., 447. 

De Bloch, Jean, 140. 

De Ronde, Abraham, 53. 

De Wet, Gen. Christian, and staff, 411. 

Dewey, Admiral George, 271, 407. 

Deuntzer, Professor, 452. 

Doane, Bishop William C, 449. 

Dodge, Miss Mary A., 747. 

Dowden, Edward, 705. 

Durham, Bishop of, 283. 

Edward VII. and Queen Alexandra, with Princess 

Victoria and the Duke of Coruvvairs children, 264. 
Edwards, Clarence R., 699. 
Evans, Rear-Admiral Kobley D., 598. 
Fiske, John, 175, 176, 177. 
Fornes, Charles V., 554. 
Frederick, Dowager Empress, 386, 488. 
Frencli, Gen. Sir John, 6{)4. 
Frye, William P., 644. 
Fuller, Melville W., 11. 
Galloway, Bishop Charles B., 447. 
Gilman, Daniel C., 58. 
Goggin, Miss Catharine, 657. 
Gorky, Mdxim, .590. 
Gould, George J., 173. 
Gray, Horace, 11. 
Greenaway, Kate, 679. 
Gregory, Gov. William, 665. 
Grimm, Herman, 3.56. 
Grout, Edward M., 554. 

HabibuUah Khan, Ameer of Afghanistan, 731. 
Hadley, President Arthur T., 57, 514. 
Haley, Miss Margaret, 657. 
Halsey, Francis W., 594. 
Hanna, E. P., 407. 
Hardie, James Keir, 729. 
Hardy, Arthur S., 703. 
Harlan, John M., 11. 
Harper, William R., 57. 
Harriman, E. H., 173. 
Hart, Albert Bushnell, 597. 
Hay, Adelbert S., 153. 
Hearst, Mrs. Phoebe A., 58. 
Henderson, David B., 644. 
Henty, G. A., 749. 
Heme, James A., 24. 
Hewitt, Abram S., 53. 
Hill, James J., 170. 
Hodge, John, 274. 
Hope, Authonj', .589. 
Hopkins, Franklin W., 53. 
Horup, v., 456. 
Hovey, Richard, 703. 
Howison, Rear-Admiral Henry L., 273. 
Hunt, William C, 648. 



IMDEX TO yOLUME XXI y. 



vu 



Hunt. William H.. 278. 699. 

HuiitiiiKtoii. K.-V. W. 1{ . n.D., 449. 

Hurst. Hishop .lohu F.. 44*. 

Ito. .Marnuis. .=>:t4. 0«W. 

Jarvis. Cli'iii. '274. 

Jekius, Klias. '274. 

Jeronu". William Travers, 5.')*). 

Jesup. Morris K.. 7. 

Johnke. Vii-«'-AiliniraI, 455. 

Johnson. Clifton. 744. 

Johnson, Tom L.. '2<W. 

Jones. Thomas G., 518. 

KasM)n. John A., Sl'.i. 

Katsura, Visfount, "j:?. 

Killxmrne. Janu-s, i:i4. 

K(K^h. Dr. KolH-rt. iVV 3-24. 

Kriiyt-r, IVi'sideut, and Mrs. Kriiger. 130. 

Kuvi)er, Abraham, "iSa. 

Kyie. .lames H.. 1.V2. 

La^eriyf, ."selma, 5'.H>. 

l.,;irkins, Walter. 274. 

Le Conte. Joseph. l.V). 

Lemly, Capt. Samuel C, 271, 407. 

Le.s.siir, Paul. 151. 

Lewi.s, Lorain L.. 3iK). 

Li Hunj; Chan^'. W2, t>58. 

Lipton. Sir Thomas, X\~. 

Littlejohn, Hishop Aliram N., '2f*'>. 

Low, .Seth, 40<), 52\), .■>;i7. 

Ludlow, Gen. William, 413. 

Lynn. William A., 52. 

MacArthur, (ien. Arthur, 131. 

Madsen, Col. V. H. O., 4.>4. 

Magoon, Charles K., Oyj. 

Mann. M. U., 42u. 

Matthews, Brander, 704. 

Maxwell, Sir H. E.. 25S. 

McHurney, Charles. 421. 

McCrady, Edward. .")'.»5. 

McKenna. .loseph, 11. 

McKinlev, .Mrs. William. 414. 

McKinley. President William, 386, 389, 391, 414, 431. 

Meredith, George, 703. 

Merrill, J. G., 5:38. 

Milburn, J. (i., 416. 

Miliier, Lord, 16. 

Mitchell, S. Weir .>^S. 

Morgan, John A., 274. 

Morgan, J. Pierpont. '.70, 275, 469. 

Morris, Mi.ss Clara, 747. 

Muir, John, 744. 

Miilai .Vlxlul Aziz, Sultan of Morocco, 214. 

Mulvihill, Uenis, »».5. 

Murphy, Franklin. 6.*>2. 

Mynter, Herman, 421. 

Mvrick, Herl>ert, tUH. 

Xi'chols. Hishop W. v.. 449. 

Nonlenskjold, liaron, 6<J3. 

Norris, Frank, .591. 

Northrop. Cvrus, .").S. 

O'Donuell, Thomas. MP., 188. 

Orleans. Prince Henry of, 282. 

Park, Koswell, 420. 

Parker, Cant. .lames, 407. 

Parker, Gillx-rt, 591. 

Patti.Hon, KolK-rt E., 5«50. 

Pearsons, Dr. D. K., :">!*). 

Peckham, Hufus W., 11. 

Penney, Thomas, 3'.H). 

Perkins, George W., .52. 

Peterson, Mau<l Howard, 591. 

Pichon, .M., isK 

Pierce. .John, 274. 

Philip II.. 741. 

Phillips, Stephen. 701. 

Pillshury, John S., rm, 689, »M. 

Pingree, Hazen S., 22. 

Portugal, King and gueen of, 26.3. 

Pritchi-tt, Henry S., 58. 

Qu» -a Victoria .Memorial Committee, 264. 

Quincv, .losiah, .535. 

Hatiisjiy, Kcar-.Admiral Francis M., 4<»7, 410. 

Kaynor, Isidor, 407. 



Kedmond, .lohn, 706. 

Kees, David. 274. 

Keiiz. Secretary. Tlie seven younger sons of, 135. 

Hichanl.Min, Siimuel, 740. 

Kem.s«'n, Ira, 2«i. 

Kidgely, William H.irret, 516. 

Uiis, Jacob A., 598. 

Kives, George L., 654. 

Hixev. P. -C. 421. 

K.xlenUck, A. J.. 656. 

HluKles, Cecil J., 666. 

K(M)t. Elihu. f.l»7. 

KoseU-rv. Lord. 13«;. 

Hothermel. P. Frederick, Jr., .558. 

Koosevelt. President The<Hlore, .fX\ 4.37. 

Koosevelt, Mrs. Theo<lore, and d.iughter Ethel, 439. 

H<M>sevelt. President, The children of, 440. 

Saintsbnry, George E., 705. 

Santos-Dumont, .M., 2H4. 

Schlev Court of lM(|uirv, 407. 

SchleV. Rear Admiral \V. S., 292, 407. 

Schmitz, Eugene E.. tV55. 

Schwab, .lohn C.. 5y5. 

Scribner. Charles, ,59. 

ShaflFer. The.Mlore J., 147, 274. 

Sharretts, Thaddeus S.. 5:15. 

Shepard. Edwanl .M.. 531. 

Shiras, (ieorge, .Jr., 11. 

Sloiine. William .M., 745. 

Snow, Ixjrenzo, 728. 

Sorenson. Enevold, 4.53. 

Sparks, Edwin E., .593. 

Stauffer, I). McXeelv. .5.3. 

Sternln-rg. (ieorge >(., 59. 

Stevens, Edwin A.. .52. 

Stillnian, William J., 283. 

Stoddard, Eliz.ilK-th, 742. 

Stone, .Miss Ellen M., 'yXi. 

Stranahan, Nevada X., 657. 

Taft, William H., 179, 181, 699. 

Tighe. .M. T., 274. 

Tolstoy, Count Leo. 2, 35, 41. 43. 

Tolstt>y, Count, and his wife. 30. 

Tol.stoy, Count, and his family, 37. 

Tratitmann. l{alph. .52. 

TuU'rculosis Congress at London ; some of the meni- 
l)ers **5S 

•Tjler.' Prof. Moses Coit, 3.56. 

L ril)e-l'ribe. General. .*i2»). 

Vanderbilt, Willi.im K.. ir.8. 

Virchow, Dr. Hudolpli. 67."i, 676. 

Von Hoheidohe, Prince, 1>V). 

Von Mi(juel, .loh.'innes. 412. 

Von Siemens, (Jeorg, Otvs. 

Walcott, Charles D., .V.t. 

Waldeck-Housseau, Premier, 137. 

Ward, .John T., 274. 

Wivsdin, Eugene, 420. 

Wa.shington, H<«>k»-r T., .598. 

Wellliv, Capt. .M. S., 743. 

Wendell, Harretf. 7m. 

Westcott. Kev. Dr. Hrook Fos.s, 283. 

Whipple. Hishop Henry H., 409, 577. 

Whit.-. Edw.ird D., 11. 

White, .1. Dn Pratt., 52. 

Williams. F. J., 274. 

Wil.s,,ii. .Irrc .M., 407, .VW. 

Woo«l. Maj.-tM-n. I/<'onard, 60B. 

Wo.Kllu-ad. Dr. (;. Sims, 258. 

Wright, Carroll D., 59. 

Wu Ting Fang, 151. 

Veatman, .James E., 186. 

Yeats, Willi.im H , 701. 

Yerkes Cluirli-s T,. 7. 

Verkes, Harmon, .ViO. 

Ziegler, William, 2'C>. 
Price, Hiram, Death of. 'J2. 
Primary Election Law. Minnesota, 46R. 
Progress of the World, The. W. 131, iV.i, as7, 51.\ 643. 
l'ubli?.lier«' .Metlnuls, .Some Changes in, .599. 



Ql'AKTKUI.V KKVIKW reviewed, 371, 760. 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REIIEW OF REI^IFM^S. 



Xhf llxn.llrnpinsl h\ Hit liiillro»ul».? HO. 



/ 

I 

I. 

/. 

/. 

/. 

h 

I: 

7. 

/ 

I: 

IC 

I; 



I. 
I: 



..a 



.. 370. 

.'AV flrtR. 
I'lirty. 706. 

i. ll.im:»73, 0»5, 701. 

in. 052. 
.1. r i>f tilt* Currency, "(15. 
\»-<l. :i70. 
Ml n*vit'\vi'il, 240. 370. 
» liiiliistri.il l*o.s.sibilities, 196. 
_'I1 ill. f>.Vi. 

■i. \. as7. 

'U\ tStiite Fnir, September 2, 

ii. 

V. Pnrsident, Relations with, 393. 
Mtiiu'iit. 51."), 516. 

N\-\v l'n-si<l»'nt, 394. 
• . at Work. 719. 
(lianiitcrizjition of, 435. 
..17. 518. 

Mr. Koosevelt's Theory of the, 392. 
,. I.;:.- 111. 7:». 
. f also China, Silx'ria. 

I, IS. ,534. 
I Intliit'iice in, 60, 151. 

I'.tiitv. 281. 

t of the Czar to, 395-398. 
I Hussia. 82. 



All.i;r- 
• 'liitia, 

T 

1 u; arc - _- 

Ku.>vsi;i and tin- Kiis.sians, 476. 

St. Ix»ri8. Before the Fair, 656. 

.<■ .'s Mayor-Elect. ri,">4, 655. 

^ A Inijuiry. 272. 400. 

fcH.li.1 \ .- iniji-oM Coiitruver.»v, 27<>-2?2. 

Schh'v. Winfield Scott, Rear-Aduiiial, 29:2. 



1 ). 
M.. 



ii*l lljUl. 1 

SmIiI.iii. I 

s- 

fchaw, \N 



in 1901. 592. 



my. Moflern. Problems of. 97. 
t. The Dynamicii of, 735. 
udy of, 217. 
i.iik. Search for the, 217. 
• a.surements. .^igiiiticance of, 622. 

iuc ri-viewed, 103, 235. 301. 407, 025, 753. 
:i. Hichard. of New Zealand, 4S2. 
11 of 1'eji.sant.s, 83. 
revifwe<l, 368. 
lui ii. American History and Biography 



li 



Fe. 

Soiuii . 
Wariri - 



.ird Morse, 548. 
Mines of, 478. 
nous. 013. 

1 Northern Nigeria, 212. 
II .-Vustralui, 3.54. 
il Democracy of the, 719. 
• ai-Mj Great Britain. 
It liermuda and St. Helena, 736. 
I*, from "Kooinek.s,"' .351. 
Effective. Extent of. 2»;9. 
■ n the Results of the War, 140, 141. 
- luth Africa, 474. 
To-morrow, Oil. 
! ricji, 15, 10, 135, 144, 267, 268, 401, 533, 664. 



iblic, Britain in the, 724. 
LU-.u .ai'J ii-r Neighbors, Trouble Between, 143. 
Colombia and Venezuela, Conditions in, 274, 405, 526. 
Gei itions in South America, 010. 

S<^> :' Will Europe Fight the Uiiited States 

for, >J.'J. 
Trade with South America, .523, .525. 
? . I-xlucation Board, 650, 6.51, 

fairs in. 19. 
siiii^e, ir ceuch, Behind the Scenes on the, 221,619. 



Steiul. .\lfred. From Peking toSt. Petersburg by Uail, 

|W2 
Steel Corporation. United States, in Working Order, 014. 
Steel Strik.-. 140-149. 272-275, 328, 335, 4(>1. 
Stillman, W. .1.. Death of. 152 ., ,^.,- 

Sl<K-k Market as a .Sifegii.ml for C;ipital, .5.5.5. 
Stone. .Mi.ss Ellen .M., Abduction ol, 533. 
Strikes : see Labor. 
Surrvftx reviewed, 2:3.5, 304, 028. 
Sun-Power Motor, A, 493. 

T.\KT, (Jovernor. and Our Philippine Policy, 179. 
Telegraph. The. in (Jreat Hritain. 729. 
Tehgiapli. Wireless, Actually Working, 279. 
Tigers Killeil to Order, 218. 
T>>lstoy, Count, in Thought aud Action, 33. 
Trade : 

Business Situation. 404. 

Foreign Trade, Value of Our, 8. 

Sea|)orts. Our (irowing, 8. 

South .America. Trade of United States with, 523, 525. 
Transvaal : see South Africa. 
Triple Alliance. The Future of the, 85. 
Trusts : see also Labor. 

Monopolies and the I^aw, 495. 

Publicity the First Demand, .521, 522. 

Hailwav"("ombinations, The Recent Great, 163. 

Steel Trust and Its Labor Policy, 14(;-149. 

Steel Trust, Dr. Ely's Analysis of the, 205. 

Trust-Making Season, Unprecedented, 4. 
Tuberculosis : see Medical Science. 
Turkey : 

Demoralization of the Government, 661. 

France, Strained Relations with, ,398-400, 662. 

Indemnity to the United States, Payment of the, 152. 

Sultan's Reign, Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the Com- 
mencement of the, 399. 
Tuttle, Rev. Joseph F., Death of, 22. 
Twins, Siamese, 734. 
Tyler, Dr. Moses Coit, The Late, 355. 

Ukbf.r L.\ND UND Meer reviewed, 115, 507. 
United States : see also Census, Congressional Affairs, 
Cuba, Lsthmian Canal, McKinley, Pan-American 
Congress, Philippines, Political Affairs, Porto Rico, 
Roo.sevelt, South America. 

China, Relations with, 151. 

England's Commercial Rivalry with America, 207. 

Europe : Will She Figlit the United States ? 200, 609. 

Insular Possessions, Government of Our, 097. 

Supreme Court and the Insular Cases, 9-11. 

Vecchia, Giovanni Delia. Crispi : Italy's Foremost 

Statesman, 457. 
Venezuela and (Jolorabia, War Between, 275, 405, .526. 
Virchow, Dr. Rudolph, a Hero of Modern Progress, 075. 
Virginia, Political Affairs in, 277, 527, 652. 
Vou Hohenlohe, Prince, Death of, 152 ; portrait, 155. 

Wau Department, Secretary Root's Conduct of the, 142. 

"War of the Future, 475. 

"War Ships on the Great Lakes, 476. 

"Washington Memorial Institution, 56. 

Wellinan, Walter. The Last Days of 
Kin ley, 414. 

Wcst)iimster lieview reviewed, 112, 242, 

Whipple, Bishop, the Friend of the Inilian, 575. 

Williams, Talcott. Fiction Read and Written in 1901, 
580. 

Williams, Talcott. The Steel Strike, 328. 

Winslow, Florence K. The Episcopal Convention, 449. 

Wi.se, .John S. The Awakening Concerning Game, .571. 

Woodruff, Clinton Rogers. The Philadelphia Cam- 
paign, 558. 

World's Work reviewed, 104, 236, 364, 499, 028, 754. 

Wright, G. P'rederick. The Russian Problem in Man- 
churia, 60. 

Yacht Races for the America's Cup, 280, 407. 

Yales Great Jubilee, 534, 601. 

Yeatman, James E.,— A Great Citizen, 186. 

ZUKUNFT reviewed, 246. 



President Mc- 
370, 505. 



The American Monthly Review of Reviews. 

kdiiki) 15 v albhrt shaw. 

CONTENTS FOR JULY, 1901. 



Count Tolscoy Frontispiece 



The Progress of the World — 

Another Grent Crop Year 

Pri)>^>erity and tlie Kconoiuic I'lmd 

An L nprecedtMiteci Trust-Ma kinj.; Season 

Some Larue (,'onipanies of lyoi 

A Philailelphia Instance 

Where Are tlie Anti-Trust Leaders? 

Iron and Steel Monopoly 

Hriti-^h Discu-^sinii of American Industry 

Our ( irowinti Sea()orts ' 

Vi>hnne of ( )ur Foreij^n Tirade 

Enormous (irowth in Four Years of American 

Capital 

The Supreme Court and the In.sular Cases 

Ours a Sovereitcn Nation 

Questions of Policy. Not of Or^janic Law 

An Inevitable Conclusion 

Our K.xtended Horizons 

Improvement in the Philippines 

Other Philippine Notes 

Porto Kico's Outlook 

The President's Hejectioii of a Third Term 

The Mild Politics of an Off Year 

Cul>a"s AcceptJince of Conditions 

Hard Winter in South Africa 

Victory l>y l)epo[)ulation 

Milners Honor.s, — For What ? 

The Mines and the War Bills 

The Chinese Settlement 

An I'npleasatit Prospect 

Famine and Its Relief 

Germany in the Center of the Stage 

French Topics of the Month 

A IJauKhter to the H(ju>e of Savoy 

In Kiissia, Spain, ami the Malkans 

Mr. Carnejiie's Scotch (iift 

A New President at I he .Johns Hopkins 

The WashiiiKton Memorial Institution 

Other Kducational Notes 

Obituary Notes 

With portrHJts of SHniiiel K. Ciillawiiy. Morris K. Jesiip. 
Charles T. V.rk.v-. Daviil J. Hnw.r, KufusW. I'e.k- 
ham. John M. Harlan, (il•((r^;l• Sliiras. .Jr.. .Melville 
\V. Fuller. Kilwanl I). Wliitf, Horai-e tirav. .I<>»i-i>h 
McK<-tiiia. HiMiry H. Hrowri, l.onl .Mihu-r, Ira Ki-in- 
f»en. the late Hazeti .*<. pjiitfree, anil the late Sir 
Walter Besant. carlootis. atxl other illustrations. 



Record of Current Events 



3 

3 
4 

4 
5 
5 
6 
6 
8 
8 

9 
9 

9 

10 

10 

11 

1-J 

VI 

18 

13 

13 

1.5 

1.5 

16 

It) 

U5 

17 

17 

17 

17 

18 

18 

18 

19 

•-H) 

21 

•21 
•>i 



23 



With |M>rtrnits of Viscount Kafsiira. the late James A. 
Heme, and the late Ko>>ert W. Muchnnan. 

Topics of the Month at Home and Abroad in 
Caricature 

With n-pHHl actions from American and foreign Jour- 
nals. 



Count Tolstoy in Thought and Action 

By R. E. C. Lonif. 

With portraits of Count T ' ToUloy, and 

the nieiuU-rH of C'ouii ' 

Preserving the Hudson Palisades 



m 



49 



With iMirtrahs i.f K<l«iti .\. 
<i«M>ri;e W. I'l-rkiiix. .1. l)ii 
liiaiin, Ahratii S. |l- " '•' 
Neel) StautTi-r, 1 
Ue Kiiiiile, anil ot : 



^Ihs, and Abram 



50 



60 



The Washington Memorial Institution 
Hy Nii'holas .Murray Itutler. 

With i)ortrails of .\rthur T. HhiH. v Vi, t,,.' .. m,,. 
Htitler. William H. HariKT, ■ 
Daniel (". (Jilman, H.-nry ."s. 1 
A. Hearst, Cyrus Northroi), |-..r.\ii. A. .\ 
tJeorite .M. SternlM'rjt, Carroll l>. Wriu-ht. c ;. . 
Wall ott. ami .Mfxaiiihr (iraliam liiil. 

The Russian Problem in Manchuria 

By (i. Frederick Wright. 

With map i.f Main huria. ami other Illustrations. 

New Phases of Polar Research 67 

By Cyrus C. .\iiaiii!i. 

With maps of the mirth-jHilar iiiul snutli-ixilar rejflons. 

The Twentieth Century Club of Boston 78 

By Howard A. BriilKman. 

Leading Articles of the Month — 

Mr. Fritleric Harrison'."* impressions of Anjer- 



ica. 



Mr. Carnegie nil Knulaiid's Industrial Future.. 78 

Is Knuland Handicapi>ed by Her Kailroads *. ... 80 

Hv Hail to India 80 

Tlie Future of Kns.sia KJ 

Servia a Kini;dom of Peasants 88 

Kn^land and France lil 

The Future of the Triple .Mliaiice s5 

Tlu- (iermaii Kmperor and HisHoljbies Nrt 

" How Will KiiiK F.I I ward (Jovern ?" h7 

The ProsjM'cts of Iri^h Home Kiile «» 

(iermany s Population 00 

The New Census of the I'nited KiuKilom 90 

( 'hiiiese Finance 91 

Did the Huddhists Dist'over America* 91 

President Cass^itf of th«- Pennsylvania Hailnind W 

(ieiieral HiMith. of the .Sjilvatioii .Vrmy 'M 

IIiiw Pictures are Painte<l 95 

The Typhoid Hacillus and the HI<nmI 97 



Problems of .MiMlern A- 
The Flor.i i>f the .Vnfii I 
Is There a Dramat i' 
With jiortralt «if \\ 

The Periodicals Reviewed 

The New Books 

Index to Periodicals 



and cartoon*. 



97 

'.« 
101 

uri 
116 
1«4 



[.."Kla year in advanre; i'> rents a iiiiinlMT. Forelifii |xiNtntt<- $l.i«ti» ynr itililltliuiul. Sm 
t-olflie or ex|>ri--- '■!..■.•■> ..■-.i.'- ..'■ .< . .i.L , I,.., 1. . ,ir.M. ,1- r. _•;-(. r..: I.tT.r- M..' 
iti-m-vv as i-arlv ■ 



rKH.MS: a. 

\>y post- 

Tirik. iti-m-vv as farly 

Newxlfalers ri-'fivi- sir 

.Mr. W. T. Sti-ail in Lomliui. ma) in- witt io ilii:i •>iU< 



mny rrtiill In us 



mill itnliT^ 



.tl r. *i . 1 . .^1 i'itil I II I.IIIII1IM1. lllit) IH* rM*iti Id I iiin i»iiii f, jkini III •••*■ ^ 

for the yearly sulim-ription. imluiliuK poHtat{e. or 'i& cents fur * 
13 Astor Place. New York City. 




COUNT TOLSTOY. 
(From a recent photograph.) 



The AMHRiCAN Monthly 

RcT/t'zv of Rcviczis. 



Vol. XXIV 



Ni:\v vouK. .iri.v. r.M)i. 



No. 1, 



Till- rR()(;Ri:ss oi' riii-: world. 



The harvesting uf ilie wheat crop he- 
Qreat Crop gau about the luiiltUo of June along 
''*'"'■ the southern line of t)ur vast ceroal- 
growing area. A splemlid crop is n'porteii from 
California, and the Kansas vieM, if not so 
prodigious as had V>een lioped for in April, 
proves highly satisfactory. As the army of har- 
vesters has moved steadily northwanl to the chief 
regions of spring-wheat production, it has l^e- 
come certain that the aggregate crop of this par- 
ticular cereal would be the greatest in acreage, 
and probably in aggregate yield, in the entire 
history of tlie country. The weather of spring 
and early summer was not favorable to the 
growth of the maize crop, although the high 
price of corn in the market has this year induced 
farmers to plant more acres l)y far than ever be- 
fore. It is too early to make any j>redictioiis or 
estimates about this year's production of corn ; 
but it is likely that the wheat crop of the United 
States will exceed 700, 000. 000 bushels, and sur- 
pass that of the record year, l.S'JS, which was 
about 07."), 000, 000. Last year's (about .').')0.(H)(»,- 
000 bushels) was tlie largest crop ever protluced, 
except that of I. SOS. The reports of the De- 
partment of Agriculture at Washington have 
l)een watched with keen interest by the business 
world, and their favorable character has been re- 
flecte<l in a tone of renewed confidence all along 
the line. While American trade and industry 
liave become so vast and varied that the agricul- 
tural conditions are no longer in any given year 
the supreme factor that they formerly were in 
the prosperity of the railroads an<l in the nation's 
business life at large, it remains true that farm- 
ing is at the very bjisis of our wealth-production, 
and that a high average yield of the three great 
staple crops, — wheat, corn, and cotton, — mu.sr 
for years to come l>e regarded as the most im- 
portant and vitalizing elenn-nt in «>ur economic 
life. And with the scientilic methods that are 
coming into use, American farming has a Uater 
prospect before it than ever. 



Irudent and careful management 
th, : througli a perioil of several years in 

'"■"" which gooil crops and good pricrs hava 
very generally prevailed, has wrought u marketl 
transformation in the farming States of the Mis- 
sissippi \' alley. Mortgages have Ikhmi so giMier- 
allv paitl off that what was once the immenso 
business of loaning Eastern money on West«'rti 
farms has been almost entirely eliminated. Tho 
West itself has an ample amount of free capital ; 
and nowadays when farmers wish to antici|»ato 
the future bv borrowing money to make improve- 
ments they can lintl plenty of money in their owa 
neighliorhoods to be loaned at ea.sy !ig<H)d 

security. One result of tlu-.s*' pi' . .i g and 

favorable conditions t)f agriculture and iiusinesg 
has been to dull the keen edge of jxtpMlar inter- 
est in subjects relaleil to the financial and indus- 
trial policv of thecountrv. <ireat coiisoiidationn 
of railroaii systems are going steadily forward 
under these prosjK'rous comlitions with<mt excit- 
ing the amount <»f opj>o8ition from so-c;-"- •' "iti- 
m(UUjpolists that movements of a far .■ ifi- 
cant and even revolutionary character were 
accustomed to provoke only a few years ago. 
The Wall Street panic of the early part of .May 
seems not to have disturlwd tho actual business 
life of the country to any extent whatever. It 
checked for a time the spirit of wihl sjH'culation 
on the stock exchanges, and such a r«'»ull was 
desirable rather than otluTwise. M<»ro lately, 
the principal cattses of sjx'cidative activity have 
In-en the rejKtrts that one railroad or another wait 
alK)ut to 1h» purchased for amalgamation with 
some larger system. In our n»xt numlM-r our 
readers mav exjH^cl to find from one or moro 
es|M'cially com|H'ti«nt contributors a summing up 
and review of what has artually taken place in 
the I'nited Stat«'s in " • di- 
rection of radroad c- ..■....» i nih, 

moreover, adils new chapters to the rectml. Tho 
re nmking of tho railroad map of America marks 
a gn-at epoch in llic history of tmnsiwrtation 



I 



THE AMERICAS MONTHLY Klillliir OI- RI-riEU'S. 



4t 



lln-n* ran 



: .. V...11- I'ini i.t.iiuisc's to surpass 

1. the woiultM'ful 

1 tilt' ninitrr of form- 

•il. Tho so-callt'd 

avt-ragi' largiM* in 

tlii'iroapUaliznt ion thou those of last 

■ 'v. Th«' average wouUl, of 

-TV higli l>y tlu' fact of tlie 

u of till' United States Steel 

»S1.100.uO(i.(U)0. Tlio recent 

\ en'tl widely (Hflferent lieUls. 

r exanjple. early in the year 

;ier a great nunii^er of cattle- 

• y\ the Anu'rioan ( 'at tie (i rowers' 

X ..IS we do not luulerstand to be 

an t consolidation of interests, but a union 

thai iii;giil well lead in the future to a unilieil 

■• n. The pineapple-growers of Floiida. 

iiier, formed a combination for the sake 
of controlling the marketing and transportation 
of th.'ir product. In New England there has 
U«on a great consolidation of brickyards. In tlie 
South llie Plantei-s' Distributing Company, so 
calle^i. has brought together sugarcane interests. 
A gri'at many flour mills in rennsylvania and 
Maryland have come under unified control this 
year, antl there have Ijeeu several other recent 
- Iiat are concerned with the production 
. ., , .. ■• of food, one of the imiK)rtaiit ones be- 
ing that which is to control the greater part of 
the salmon fishing and canning industry. Among 
these combinations having to do w-ith food sup- 
plies may l>e mentioned one to control the market- 




THE "OCTOPUS TRCSTIBCS." 

From the Journdi (Xew York). 



iiig and price of eggs that come from tiie south- 
western part of the country l>y way of Kansas 
Cilv; another is a union of conipaiiics making 
oatmeal ami other cereals; and aiiollier is a new 
packing, or meat supply combinalion, tlie Cana- 
dian salt industry also having been fiiiidy con- 
solidatecl. In March the American Can C()ini)any. 
commonly known as the "tin can trust," was 
incorporated in New Jersey with a capital stock 
of ^SS, 000, ()()(). This corporation now controls a 
very great part of the business of making tin cans 
in all parts of the country. In coal-mining, in 
the electric and gas supply business, and in other 
enterprises of a local-service nature, it is scarcely 
necessary to say that the tendency toward con- 
solidation goes steadily on throughout the coun- 
trv, and everv iiioiiili supplies new instances. 

One of the most important new com- 

some Large , . . . , '^ . , . 

Compa/i/es o/ l)inations IS knowu as the "machm- 
'*''"• ery trust," its title being the Allis- 
Chalmf!rs Company, formed about the beginning 
of May witli a capital stock of $50, 000,00^0. The 
firms that have gone into this union were large 
manufacturers of steam-engines, mining machin- 
ery, and the like, and one object of the corpora- 
tion is both to keep and to extend the foreign 
market tliat has been found for heavy American 
machinery, such as that needed by tlie mines in 
South Africa and other parts of the world for- 
merly supplied, in general, from England. There 
seems to have been some delay in carrying out 
the plan of consolidating various shipyards, as 
mentioned in these pages a month or two ago, 
but it is understood that tlie project is not aban- 
doned, and that it is to be taken up at an early 
day. Another very important movement relat- 
ing to the future of American machinery is the 
new locomotive combine, of which Mr. Samuel 
R. Callaway is to be the head, and on account of 
which he has resigned from the presidency of the 
New York Central Railroad, to be succeeded by 
Mr. W. H. Newman, an active and successful 
railwaj^ administrator who comes to the New 
York Central from the presidency of the Lake 
Shore road. Mr. Callaway's American Loco- 
motive Company has a capital of $50,000,000, 
and it includes, it is stated, most of the locomo- 
tive works of the country excepting the Baldwin 
works at Philadelphia and a company at Pitts- 
burg. It is reported that several independent 
competitors of tae Standard Oil Company in Ohio 
have surrendered and are to be absorbed in the 
great combination. It is also understood that 
much of the best of the new oil-producing prop- 
erty in Texas and elsewhere will pass into the 
hands of the Standard. The lighting companies 
of Cincinnati are said to be consolidating with a 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD, 



combined capital of $28,000,000 ; an<l anioiiff 
various oilier places whore electric pt)\ver aiul 
tran.*it companies are beinj; aiiial^ainateil iiiav \ni 
nieiilioned Uinaha and I'ouncil Hlutls, wlirre a 
great project is on fot)t to couii^ino various inter- 
ests with a capitalization of about :j!"JO,000, 000, 

the necessary 

motive power to 
be supplied from 
the riatte River 
for electric 
lighting, street 
railways, etc. 



Philadelphia 
Instance. 




Mli. .>A.ML bl. li. CALLAWAY . 

(I're&i<k'iU of American Locomotive 
Comimny.* 



One 

o f 

the 
largest of the 
street -railway 
projects is that 
which, accord- 
ing to reports, 
i s I o combine 
the traction 
companies of 
Philadelpiiia 
and Pittsburg, 
and to have a 
capitalization of >;<;5,000,000. Tremendous ex- 
citement was caused in Philadelphia last month 
by the grantmg of franchises for the additional 
street-railway lines on many miles of streets. Ac- 
cording to the best public opinion, the local au- 
thorities maile these grants with scandalous tlis- 
regard of the interests of the ta.xpayers and the 
public treasury. Before the mayor 
had signed the ordinances confer- 
ring tliese grants, the Hon. John 
Wanamaker, by way of making 
his prote^^t emphatic, olTertMl to pay 
|S2,.')00,000 for the privileges, d«'- 
positing !!?2.'>0,000 as a guarant.-.- 
of gootl faitli. In a letter to tiif 
mayor, Mr. Wanamaker stated that 
the amount he was ofTering was oidy 
a fraction of what the franchis»'s 
were really worth, although the city 
autiionties were granting them to 
favored private interests without compensation. 
The mavor, however, signed the ordinances. 
The agitation in IMiila.ielphia marks at least 
a great advance in public f.pinion. Neither in 
Chicago nor in New York would it now In; 
po.«sible to do anything at all comparalde with 
what tlie l'hila<ielphia authorities have done, 
although eight or ten years ago e.xactly such 
transactions woiiM have been perfectly ea.ny in 
almtist anv citv in the rnited States. Some of 



us, indeeil, who ten or fifteen years ago were 
trying to jM'rsuade the average Am«>rican business 

man to ' •' • ' ' ' ■ ■ • ' '■ • ' 

Were J 

with except for a suitable coosi^leration, were 
hehl up as dai: -'ill 

principles of ;. — — . ;;je- 

thing worse, in the public mind. The people of 
the United States have learned a great deal in 
•!;. ' • - ' -' •' are no longer 

I ., lie of pulilic 

morals. Philadelphia business men, for some 
reason which riiiiadflph' -nt 

to explain, ilo not take ;..• - m 

municipal linance and kindred topics tliat such 
Itodies as the Chamlwr of Conmn'rce and the 
Merchants' .•\>;.>;oeiation take in New York. And 
Uoslon now has a new record in tlu-s** resjK'cts. 

, As we have alreadv n'markrd, the 

Where Are the - , i ■ i ■ 

Anti-Trust uew movement toward coiiS4»iiilatiou 
Leaders? ^^^j ^j^^ creation of great corpora- 
tions has l)een going forward of late with almost 
none of that bitter anl;i ' ' " ' ch 

was so manifest even a } • ^ ng 

fact that some of the most intense of the fonner 
anti-corporation leaders are them.'*"' ng ac- 

tively into the company-promoting i. ........ .-.-. Kx- 

Senator I'ettigrew, o( South Dakota, is said to 
have been both active and successful in the 
stock market of late, and in various projin-ta 
not precisely compatible with the position he 
had been understood to hold for some years 
toward tlu' modern linancial world. Mr. Towne, 
of Minnesota, who was the most prominent of 




Tmk Tammajiv Tujkm : " I am only an «niiiU*ur tomiwrfU 
wlU» 111.**. l'lill««l«l|'lili« follow*." 

Frtim llii- lUraUl tSVw York). 



THE AMERICAN MOSTHl.Y Kf-r/EW OF REI^IEIVS. 




OIL ON THE TKOLBLEU WATEKS. 

From the Jiturnal (Minneapolis). 

Mr. Bryan's oratorical supporters, is out of pol- 
itics, and is associated with such other great 
Bryan leaders as Governors McMillin of Tennes- 
see and Hogg of Texas in promoting oil com- 
panies in the new Texas fields. 1 1 is said in various 
political quarlei-s that Mayor Tom L. Johnson 
of Cleveland, Ohio, is the coming man in the 
I)emr^ratic party, and Mr. Johnson is liimself 
a great street-railway num and company pro- 
moter. One might have expected the huge 
•leel company to arouse a great deal of public 
antagonism, but very little as yet can be discov- 
ered. It is not to be supposed that there will 
always l)e such smooth sailing for the corpora- 
tions ; but at present the skies are clear and the 
breezes are equable. 

There have been some further im- 

''^"moVo'UiI"' P*^'"^*"^ movements in the iron and 
steel business, among which has been 
the purchase of a controlling interest in the Penn- 
sylvania Steel Company on behalf of the Penn- 
eylvania Railroad system, and the acquisition by 
Mr/ Schwab, president of the great steel cor- 
poration, of the control of the steel plant at Beth- 
lehem. Pennsylvania. Apart from the details of 
these two and some other transactions in the iron 
and steel world, which it may take some time to 
complete, it is only to be said that these latest 
steps have probably increased, rather than dimin- 
ished, the prospect of slaVjility and harmony in 



that i^articular industry. .Ml those American 
ilfvelopmeiils contiiiue to lie looked upon in 
EngliiMil !Ui<l (!(M-niany with no small degree of 
consteriuUion. Sonni of the foreign observers 
show true appreciation of the facts, and give wise 
counsel ; others take a narrow and petty view. 

I*'or example, certain British interests 

British Discus-, . i , , , . 

sionof Anu-ri-naw HI tlie past iiiontli Ijeen making 
can Industry. ^ ^^^^^ violent attack upon the quality 
of the American locomotives supplied to railways 
ill India ; but such attacks will have very little 
effect, because the statements are so easily dis- 
l)roved. lentil English firms can make and de- 
liver prom])tly a type of locomotive that can 
fairly compete in quality and price, nothing 
will be gained by the })olicy of a concerted dis- 
paragement of the American article. A good 
many Englishmen, taking a more philosophical 
view of the situation, have already reconciled 
themselves to the fact that the United States is 
henceforth to surpass all other manufacturing na- 
tions, and they are calmly investing their money 
in the shares of the American industrial com2)a- 
nies. Thus, there seems to be a large and steady 
demand in England for the stocks of the United 
States Steel Corporation. The great intei-est now 
felt abroad in American industry and finance was 



^...^^^ 




MH. MOKGAN AS THE NEW ATLAS. 

Atlas: "Well, that takes a load off my shoulders, and 
how easily he seems to handle it I " 

From the Journal (Minneapolis), 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 




MK. MORKIS K. JESl'P. 

(President of New York Cliainlu-r of Commerce, anil 
prominent in I^omlon la»t montli.) 

reflected in the attention tliat was shown to the 
members of tlve New York Cliainher of Coin- 
merce who recently visited Englaiitl on special 
invitation of the London ('handit'r of Commerce. 
They were received liy tlie King and (^ueen at 
Windsor, and were gorireonsly entertained liy the 
Lord Mayor of Lmnion. Although they them- 
selves are not aware of it. the English are far 
more materialistic in their views and aims than 
the Americans, and much more eager to get 
money. Their prevailing idea of the typical 
American business man is as inaccurate as pos- 
sible. It is true that the titled aristocracy sets 
the standards in Englaml ; but it takes a great 











dejO of m-n. ...... 

it is not in 

liave mitney — l>y making tin-: usoful to 

the Tory party and tlio Church oi Y. — 1<» 

Ijreak their way into tlie aristiR-nwy. .- ^..tdu 
ally reconstituted under nuMlern intluencus, the 
British aristocracy is rapidly Injconiing one ItaM^l 
upon money. In America, where no c!.. ' 
tinctions are recognized, money will not 
cial consideration, other things being equal, nearly 
So reailily as in England. Mr. Carnegie and Mr. 
Morgan lieing in London, and both of '' ■ ■•■ '■• "■ 
inent memlx'rs of the New York ( 
Commerce, the prevailing English idea was liiat 
all of the visiting American delegates were multi- 




CoiXMiiiA : •• Kenlly. Mr. Hull, you fliituronew*." 
From tin- 1 If mill (New York). 



MR. rnARI.Efl T. TCRKER. 

(\Vlio Im to control umlirtcrotinil tninnit In London.) 

nulhunaires ; and the attenii<»n paid to th. 

by no means so much a mark of Hriti.^h a:. 

for America as of Englantl's natural and vnj^-r 

tribute to the jwwer and d.esirability of money. 

The attentions that were sht»wn to .At- ■ 

Itusiiu's.s men coidd not disguise the ren. 

ne»» of feeling in various quarters in England on 

a<'Ciiunt of tlie immense p' - • • r 

States a.s a manufacturing u.. . -.^ ■■■ 

(►no of the most n<)tal»lu American achic 

abr<iad has U'en that of Mr. Charles T. \ erkes 

and h'\n n- ' ' ' ' ' ••••;- 

control o, ■ . 

ground railroa<l systema of London, with a view 
to su' im, and ih ■• - 

uughl) ii ..../....K . . en wrelche.j.y 



THb AMERICAS MOMHI.Y Kr.lll-M' Oh KlillElVS. 




OLIt hECOXU UKi:ATb:>T SEAPOHT, — COTTON .SIlll'iS I.UADl>(i OX TIIK KEW OHLEANS WIIAUVES. 



antiquated and mismanaged properties. The op- 
pormnity was a great one ; and, moreover, it liad 
In-en so obvious for a number of years tiiat it is 
inocjmprehensihie wliy Englisli energy and capital 
were not equal to handling it. 

Q^^ The general development of our ex- 
Orowing port trade has had the interesting 
eaportt. f^Q^f.^ f^f increasing the relative ac- 
tivity of several of our seaports, and thus re- 
ducing somewhat the too heavy proportion of the 
foreign business cleared through the port of New 
^ ork. "We were doing a large export business 
:n tlie spring and early summer of last year ; but 
the gains of this year over last, as indicated in 
the statistics of the last few weeks, are nothing 
short of startling. The greatest gains have been 
in cotton and cattle, with a good gain also in 
breadstufTs. As the result especially of the great 
export business in cotton, aided by the increased 
movt-ment of cereals through Southern ports, 
Xew Orleans has for the first time taken a place 
next to New York as respects the value of its 
exi.ort trade, thus displacing Boston. In the 
j-ear 1900, Xew York was credited with only 47 
per cent, of the total foreign commerce of the 
country, as against an average of more than 50 
percent, for several previous years. Xew York 
still continues to receive considerably more than 
«0 i>er cent, (in value) of the country's imports, 
but last year it handled only about 37 per cent. 
of the exports. Boston and Philadelphia have 
been comparatively stable in the volume of their 
foreign trade, while Baltimore, Newport News, 



X'ew Orleans, and Galveston have made great 
gains, — as also have the Pacific coast ports, 
owing to tlift progress of our Oriental trade. 

Tiie fiscal year ending June 30 will 

Volume 11,1 , 1 

o/0;//-/^o/'e/5r/i probaltiy nave shown a total export 
^'''"'^- trade exceeding |1,500, 000, 000. The 
figures for eleven monlhs of the year, as an- 
nounced in the middle of June, showed nearly 
$100,000,000 gain over the cori-esponding pei-iod 
of the previous year, with every prospect that the 
remaining month of the year would show the 
same rate of gain. 'I'he imports for eleven months 
of the present fiscal year were valued, in round 
figures, at §7.35,000,000, this being $34,000,000 
less than for the same period of the pi-evious year. 
At this rate, the so-called "balance of trade" in 
favor of the United States for the fiscal year now 
ending would have reached the colossal sum of 
about 1700, 000, 000. No mistake should be made 
as to exactly what this implies. "While it may 
justly be regarded as a mai-k of great prosperity 
on our part, it is also evidently enough an in- 
dication of vast purchasing power — that is to say, 
of great accumulated wealth — in the countries 
which take our meats and breadstuff's, our cotton 
and petroleum, and in increasing quantities our 
machinery and other manufactured goods. Co- 
lossal sums of European ca})ital are still invested 
in the United States ; and the amount of in- 
terest and dividend money that we are obliged 
to earn and pay over out of our gross product 
represents a lai-ge part of this great sum that we 
call the balance of trade in our favor. The real 



THE PROOKFSS OF THE WOKl.D. 



9 



balances as between nations can never he pro|»erlv 
shown until some reasonably acciirat** estimate is 
made of what is due to invested capital. 

Enormous \[ js to be noted, on the otlier hand. 

Growth in Four i i • 

Years of Amer-\U)\\V\i.'V. tIlUt the llltelVSt acCOUnt of 

ican (fapitai. Euroj^e a^aiust the United States is 
steadily tliminishinj;, bi-cause Americans have 
been using their surplus wealth during recent 
veal's to buy back their own securities. The 
process by which this comes about is. of course, 
indirect and not perceived by the avt-rage man. 
It r«'presents, none the less, one of the strongest 
currents in the financial and business world, for 
four years past. The great railroatl c(^rporatioMs 
in particular are oijserving the fact that, whereas 
their payments of interest on bonds and of divi- 
dends on shares of stock a few years ago went in 
large proportion to foreign holders, they now go 
in the main to people living in the United 
States. The absorption of our best American 
railway and other standard securities by Ameri- 
can investors has l)een quite widely distributt'd, 
but it has been particularly noticeaVde in the case 
of great financial and fiduciary institutions like 
the principal insurance companies. Further- 
more, the very process and policy of railway 
amalgamation has of itself created a large ami 
determined demand for railway securities in this 
country on the i)art f)f the interests seeking to 
control specified properties for the sake of bring- 
ing about their absorption, or else their opera- 
tion in harmony with other companies. Our 
trade balances for the past four years have ag- 




gregated about ♦2.400,000,000. — a sum «l»oiu 

equal '•■ •'■-■ • •••^ •' •'• ■ ' • ■ • ' • - 

the pr. 

ter illustrate tlie almost revob. nature uf 

till ' •• in .Xnifrica's financiul utul ecouoniic 

Yv. • Kuii>i>e. 

The Su rem ^ ''*"* •^*'P'"'*"'*^ CoUrt of the 
Court antffAe States lilt' • •' • ■ 

Insular Cases. ■ . .. i . , 
iiiculeiita 

which involve constitutional questions. Thu», 
the recent ilecisions in t" 

have not by any mea 

settled all the various q . which have U*en 

raised resj>ecling the status of I'orto Hu-o. Ha- 
waii, and the I'liilijipines. Some of • 
that have l>een i)eiiding still remain ih 
of the court for future decision. Those that 
have now been deciiled. while sn- 

lias always seeme<l to us the only i. ... .> .... . 

tenable position, have, unfortunately, lai-ki'd the 
full support of the court itself, five ji; -us- 

taining the main conclusions and fc 
The court has, after all, merely di 
term United States has more than one meaning. 
So far as foreign countries are concerned, .\ri. 
zona and New Me.xico are a part of the United 
States, and so also now are I'orto Kico and Ha- 
waii ; but .so far as we ourselves are concerne<l 
in our own strictly domestic governnieiiial or- 
ganization, Arizona and Hawaii are not a part of 
the United States, iN^cause they have never lK?en 
admitted to the union of States, l>ul are merely 
territories 8ubj«»ct to the jurisdiction of tlie 
United Stat«'s, and to 1h' governed by Congress 
as directed by the Constitution. The I'onstitu- 
tion does not extend of itself to the i 
of the United Slates, but it extends . ■ 
gress, which must W controlled in its treatineut 
of territory belonging to the United Statt's by 
any ilirections or limitations containe<l in the 
Constitution. Thus, Congress may not author- 
ize or iK'rmit slavery in the territorii»s. InH-ause 
the Constitution expressly forbids it to do 
it may make any larifT arrangements it lii.^ 
tween the United ."States antl the territories. 

The (•i.iil'i^i"ii ■ ' ■ •■ i that 1;: • ■• 
Ouisa 11 / 

Soierrign Vailed in many •; - from 

nation. ginninir seems to l>e due targ«>ly lo 

the failure to lie iiaturi>of a 



and It 



11 to til" 



TIIK IIAI.AM K OK IKAM 

From llu- TiUtutu (.MIiiiifniMiMii). 



, of so\ y by a . it. There 

18 no nation in tiie worhl, and protwlily has never 
In'en on«', in which n i .i . 

it could deviM- a W) 

law which would effeclivt?ly prevent it«aurceio*«iri 
from availing themselves of op|Kirtunitio» that 



10 



THE AMERICAS MOSTHl Y Kl-rililf OF REriElVS. 



n\\\:h\ uriN* to oxtom) iheir lerritoriHl jurisdic- 

.• |triinary ohjocl «»f tl>e Aim'rirnii Con- 

-.' nil »>jTfiMiv«> ami ju'nim- 

lip Hhii union for n jifroiip 

oi SlHlfS whioli wei-e not suitably or- 

■ 1 Articli's of roiiftHU'iation. 

dWT of coui"se fii>:n iIr' vory 

■ this partiKM-sliip should constitute 
an aj>alile of acquiring; and governing; 

rv. If. iiid«'<'d, till' gn-ut expanses 
at weiv aotpiin'd oni' after another 
were for tlie in«>st part somewhat rapidly formed 
in!' ■- ': in (piick order were accepted 

as - . wie partnership, this course of 

pr< _- was not in tlie least due to any coii- 

8li: oMigations. but solely to the fact that 

It fcv..:;. i with the interest* and inclination of 
tlie American people to follow just that line of 
action. In other words, the United States, quite 
a|virt from any obligations incurred by treaty, 
or agreements of any other sort, rested under no 
temptation whatever to hold the great Nortli- 
wrsti'in Territory or tlie lands of the Louisiana 
ruichase in political subjection and bondage. 
The gentlemen who have been using the word 
empire so freely as a tenn of reproach to the 
present admini.*tration, and to the Supreme Court 
on account of its recent decisions, do not seem to 
have kept in mind the essential nature of govern- 
mental and jx)litical institutions. 

Q . , The people of the United States are 
Po • not aware of the slightest temptation 

Oti ^^ \\oV\ any other people in subjection. 

They have not hitherto kept Arizona and New 
Mexico out of the Union tlirough any pleasure 
or profit they can obtain from the existing status 
of thr.se territories, but simply because Arizona 
and New Mexico have not as yet become suffi- 
ciently develofted in population, resources, or 
stable institutions to entitle tliem to an equal 
place in the Senate with the great States of the 
Union. Meanwhile, for all practical purposes, 
they exercise self-government as unrestrainedly 
as their people could in reason desire. They are 
not separated by tariff walls from the United 
States, for the plain reason that it would be 
in every way inconvenient and useless thus to 
separate them, and no sane person could advance 
any common-sense argument for doing anything 
of the kin<l. According to the prevailing views 
of the people of the United States, the burden of 
proof must rest altogether with those who would 
interpose any kind of obstacles to freedom of 
commerce between different parts of the terri- 
tories under the jurisdiction of the United States. 
Because, therefore, the Supreme Court has now 
sustained the view that there mav be tariff 



charges upon commerce between Porto Kico 
anil the I'niled States i)roper, it does nf)t fol- 
low that the natural policy of the country 
will lie affected in the slightest degree. All 
the arguments of a more general sort remain, 
as heretofore, in favor of the ])()licy that had 
already lieeii decided upon — namely, that of un- 
restricted tiiide relations. As to the I'liiiippine 
Islands, the couuiiereial policy will simply liave 
to be worked out on its mei'its as the situation 
develops. One of the infirmities of the American 
mind is its uidiridled eagerness to rush to ulti- 
mate conclusions. "While, on the one hand, 
there can be no common sense in advocating the 
jiresent admission of Porto Kico to the Union, 
there could, on the otlier hand, be small com- 
mon sense in attempting to i)rove that at some 
future time under changed conditions Porto Rico 
ought not to be admitted and given its due quota 
of representation at "Washington. Several of 
the cases before the Supreme Court dealt with 
questions of a temporary nature, having to do 
witli the status of Porto Rico before the treaty of 
peace with Spain was signed and its status after 
the treaty, but before Congress had acted. These 
questions have only a slight importance. The 
main thing that has been decided thus far is that 
the Constitution of the United States is not a 
document that is going to interfere with the peo- 
ple of the United States in their proposal to do 
the very best thing that they can from time to 
time in providing for the government, develop- 
ment, and true progress of the territories that 
they have acquired by recent annexation. 

Tlie Supreme Court takes a long sum- 

^Conciusioii^ ^^^^^' "^'^cation, and these decisions 

handed down on May 27 came at the 

end of the term. With Justice Brown, who an- 




THE STRING TO THE CONSTITUTION. 

The Constitution will follow the flag when Congress says 
so.— From the HeraUl (Boston). 



THE PRO(]RF.SS OF THE H'OR! H. 



11 
I 




Copyriglr. 



u'. M. Bell,\Va5hmj;t..n. 

Iu>iit.e Peckliaui. Justice Miira>. 

Justice Brewer. Justice Harlan. Chief Justice Fuller. 



Jukiivc Uliiie. 

Justice Gray. 



THE Sl'PKE-ME COIMIT of THE fXITEIl STATES. 



noiinced the ilecision of the court on tin- main 
question, were Justices Gray, \Vhitt\ McKenna. 
anil Shiras. while dissfiitiii}^ were Chief Ju.-^tice 
Fuller, and Justices Harlan, Brewer, and I't'ck- 
ham. In the deci.>*ion that the President had no 
ri^rht to maintain the tariff with Porto Hico in tlie 
lirief period lietween the treaty of jx'ace and the 
j>as.sa^e of the Foraker act, Justice Hrown was 
sustained by the four who had not agi«M'd with 
liiin in tlie other case, — that is to say. tlic view 
that had been presented l>y Attornt-yCieneral 
Grijrus on Ijehalf of the Administration was 
steatlily 8Uj)ported V)y Justices Gray. White, Mc- 
Keniia. and Shiras, Justice Brown beinj; with 
them on llie main issue. ( 'hief Justice Fuller's 
dissenting argument was liij;hly ingenious, and 
it was strengthened by some of the early <lecisions 
of the .•Supreme Court. The fact is that the 
precedents have not been consistent, although the 
general tnuid of things has U'en toward the jKJsi- 
tion that has now liecome com]>letely estalilished 
as the result of the ."Spanish War. The conflict 
of theories was n-ally R<'ttle<l a generation ago, 
not by the arguments of constitutional lawyers, or 
the interpretations of ttie Supreme jiniieiuiy. but 
t)V the arbitrament of civil war. It may U* true 
that Mr. Calhoun's views of the Constitution Iw 



fore tiie Civil War were more strictly justifiable 
in pure htgic than tho.>*<' of the op|M)sing nation- 
alistic school : but the Civil War forever de- 
stroyeil the strict and narrow theory of the Con- 
stitution and the Government, and made us in tlie 
full sense a nuxlern nation. In coimection with 
the verv instructive ami reatlably presented 
opinions of the court in these latest cases, we U'g 
t<) suggest the reading of two new Ixntks. One 

of these is Mr. Winston Churchill's m: • •' v 

el " The Crisis, " in wliich one tinds H .: 

forth of the culmination of the struggle lietween 
the rival theories. The (.tlier is I>r. Curry's little 
volume on the •• Civil History of the Confetler- 
acy," which U-gins with an authoritative account 
of the old Southern view. 



Oui 



Now it was inevitable that after a 
Extendtd jM^riotl of two Of llire<> decadea »|H'nl 
Horuoni. jjj readjusting tur in «>ur do- 

mestic jiolitical life t«» the n« ., — . r «»f things, 
ami in actpiiring, moreover, the full inaj*tery of 
our own in«lu>«trial markel«, we should N'gin to 
extend our I -. l»olh ■ ' ' ' ' ' " '•' 

Thus, the «1. . :. of the - , ii 

means that we an* not to b*» liainperiMl in our 
serioutt j>olicie« by the ing<>niou« uae of logic in 



hi 



THk AMFRICAS MO.MHLY RF.riFM' OF RFllFWS. 



' ail nlK-i.l.t ilonillllMit tlint WllS 

sifcity, luuv liiul a 

mill iiuhistrv, niul 

' 'vinj; of affricMil- 

lit of nil kinds 

It ni««ans that our pn-s- 

konoil liv tlu> disclosure 

!i> uiMiii the nature and 

iiinent tliat would put us at a 

the legitimate rivalry for com- 

^^ !■'■• inlluenco. 



On tiie strenyth of these decisioqs llie 

im tit0 Adr • ition has felt encourajred 

Pkiii^piM*. ,^, ,. ^jg eflforts to establish 

normal conditions in the Thilippines. Even 
while men were continuing to ask one another " 
how we were ever to pet out of our desperate* 
pn>tlicament in those islands, — with its prospect 
of ten years more of dreary warfare, and the cer- 
t.i * ' an ever-frrowing hatred on the part of the 
1 s toward the verv name of America, — 

the terrors of the problem had been disappeariifg ^_ 
like a morning mist before the rising sun. ^^iie 
work of the Taft Commission is probably un- 
precedented in the entire history of public ad- 
ministration. In the face of wh3,t seemed the 
T: -couraging conditions, this commission — 

I -■ d of men of unimpeachable lionesty and 

Idgh-mindedness. well qualifietl to deal both with 
men an<l with difficult questions of government 
and civil society — proceeded to the islands and 
laid hold of its work in a manner that was bound 




FOGGY WEATHER IS PHILIPPINE WATERS— TRUST THE 

PILOT.— From the Inquirer (Philadelphia), 



to compel — first, the iitlculion of all intelligent 
men ; .second, their respect ; third, their confi- 
dence; and, (iiially.t heir allegiance and Cooperation. 
Among other important thijigs. the commission 
has completed a new code of laws, has arranged 
a judiciarv svstem. and has appomu-d the judges 
ami law ofTicers. While the intention has been, 
in appointing judges, to give the preference to 
Filipinos, it has also been decided that efficiency 
must be the first consideration ; and thus, while 
the Chief Justice, Arellano, is a native, four out 
of six of the associate justices are Americans. 
The Attorney -General is an American, while his 
assistant is a Filipino, as also is the Solicitor- 
(ieneral. Five out of eleven judges of the so- 
called Courts of First Instance are Filipinos. 

It is rei)orted that the promptness 
other Philip- ^^^^\ clirectness with which American 

pine Notes. ,111 

legal procedure dealt with tlie persons 
guilty of frauds in the commissary service of the 
United States has had a favoral)le impression 
upon the intelligent natives. Some of the former 
insurgent leaders have been appointed to re- 
sponsible posts, and thus General Trias is now 
Governor of the Province of Cavite, while Flores 
is Governor of the Province of Rizal, this name 
having been given to a jurisdiction composed of 
Manila and Morong. A modern American Hre de- 
partment is about to be established for Manila ; 
and this item is merely an illustration of the spirit 
of progress that the Americans are introducing 
with the establishment of peace. One of the most 
important things to be noted is the sending of 
several hundreds of American teachers, who are 
to reach Manila by the middle of August, the 
great majority of these being men. They are 
all of approved qualifications, and they will be 
used for a widespread reorganization of elemen- 
tary education. Several Congressmen, including 
Mr. Hull, the chairman of the House Committee 
on Military Affairs, are visiting the Philippines, 
and a number of officials connected with tlie War 
Department or staff bureaus at Wasliington are 
to make the journey this summer, these includ- 
ing Adjutant-General Corbin, Surgeon -General 
Sternberg, General Greely (Chief Signal Offi- 
cer), and Inspector-General Breckenridge. Sec- 
retary Root has been obliged to give up his 
plan of accompanying these officers. General 
Chaffee, who is to assume command, arrived at 
Manila last month, and General MacArtliur was 
announced as expecting to sail for home by way 
of Japan on July 1. Few casualties to the Amer- 
ican troops have been reported, while on the 
other hand the insurgent bodies have continued 
to surrender and give up their arms. The policy 
of releasing insurgent prisoners has been con- 



THE PROGRFSS OF THE WORLD. 



VA 



tinned, ami not many aro now iletainiMl in cus- 
tody. The full establislinu'nt of civil authorifv 
as superior to the military is to l»e imstpone.i 
until September, by which" time it is expi»cted 
that the work of pacification will in a general 
way be complete, except, of coui-se. for brijjan.ls 
and small bands of guerrillas. Archbishop Chap- 
jx-lle, of New Orleans, and Cardinal (;ibl>ons. of 
Baltimore, have been in conference with the 
\'atican authorities at Home over the various 
questions involve.l in the claims of the Philip- 
pine friars, (ieii. Frederick I), (frant has re- 
turned to the Unite.l States- after much active 
exjierience in the archipelago. 

The situation in Torto Rico i.s taking 
''"outlook".'" ^''^ ^"i"" fl'a/, "dgiit well have been 

expected. Thoroughly competent 
men had been sent there by President McKin- 
ley, and the Foraker act represeiited an enlight- 
ened attitude on the part of (.'ongress. The tariff 
feature of the Foraker act supplied Porto Hico 
with a temporary revetiue liy auth<jrizing the col- 
lection of a fluty ecpial to about one-seventh of 
the rates under the general Dingley tariff. This 
was to last merely while Porto Hico was creating 
a system of interjial taxes that would supplv or- 
dinary needs and make it ft-asilde to establi.'jh 
entire free trade between tliat island and the 
I'nited Stat(^s. On July 4 an extraordinary ses- 
sion of the Purtu Kican Legislature is to be con- 
vened, and it is expected that the Hollander tax 
plan will be fouiul adequate. In that case Pres- 
ident McKiidey will promptly announce the re- 
moval of all tariff barriers. It has l»een a use- 
ful experience to the Porto Hicans to have to 
work their way, so to speak, to a position of free 
acce.ss to American markets by providing other- 
wise for their domestic expenses. 

Ti. D -^ *. -Mtliough it is much too earlv to in- 

The President s 7^ 

Rejection of a terest the countrv in a serious discus- 
fhirdTerm. ^^^^ ^^ Presidelitial candidates for 

1904, the politicians themselves are always schem- 
ing for points in tlu* great game ; and the buzz- 
ing of the Presidential ]»•»; has be»'n louder in 
their ears this summer than the roar of industrial 
prosperity or the whir of the reajM-r in the yel- 
low wheat fields. There can Ik- n<» doubt of the 
fact that a large nutnber of influential iiepulili- 
can politicians had set on foot a movement to se- 
cure the renoniination of President M<'Kinley for 
a third Wvm. Interviews advocating it had In-en 
given to the press by prominent men. The 
movement had gone so far that the President 
felt it ni'cessary to take the matter up with hifl 
Cabinet, and t(» issue to tin- pulilic over his own 
name on .luiif lo the following statem«>nt : 



I njfret tliat thi* HUKU(*«tion of a third temi Iiaj. I*cn 
iiuuie. I <|<(iilit whi-tlicr 1 .1 It 

ii<>ti««'. lint then* ncH imw <|>i .,,. 

I' oil hidI (til* roiiiitry, 

"' - -I . .. .>! nut Im- preJuilUttl in 

till- |>ii»ilii- tiiind tiyewii t he Hii>.picioii of tht* thuiiulit of 
a tiiinl tfriii. In vi.-w, tl. ' .if tin- ,f 

tlif NiiifKeHtiuii. I will Hii\ ,.»• for (1 ,j{ 

H loiiK-M'ttK-<l c-oiivi<iioii. that 1 not only am not niid 
will not Im- h cniidi«iat«« for n thinl t«Tm. I»iit would not 
accept a nomination for it. If ii wt-n- t«iiden-<l m.- 

^'y ""' "11 i^to s»'rv»- tlimimh III 11 

to the a< . . of my roiintrynifn, w li _ .. .^ 

confi<i.nf»' I S41 dtMply appnM-inte, nnd then with them 
<lo my duty in the ranks of private citizeiiNhip. 

Willi \m .M« Kixlev. 

K.xeciitive .Mansion, \Va*ihinKton. .June Ul, lliui. 

The genth-men who launch third-term muvemento 
are, as a rule, not thinkini; »o much either of the 
country or of the President himwif as of th.iu- 
.><ilves and their own plans and objects. Hut tlie 
McKinley movenn-nt was in a ' 
otic. Mr. McKinley 's annou:. 
veisally commended. ll reniovinl all 
doultt. and it will have the goo«l effect to keep 
the spirit of partisanship at low ebb during 
the remaining years of the Pn«sidential term. 
The whole country rejoices witli the President iu 
the good news that Mrs. .McKiidey's health is im- 
proving. It was expected that the President and 
his wife would go to their Ohio home Iwfore the 
1st of .July. .Mrs. .McKinley's protracted illne-ng 
made it nece.s.saiy that the President should give 
up his plan of s|x'ndiiig the Fourth of Jidy with 
Secretary Long in .Massachusetts, although he 
had not al)andoned the idea of attending tho 
Harvard commencement late in June, on which 
occasion he was to ri'ceive the honorary de- 
gree of LL.I). 

The Mild Poll- ^^^^' P<'J'''fitt»8 are amusing fh.m- 
r/fi of an sidves with a long list of ; 
Off *ar. I{,.|,„l,|i,.m, oan<lidates. the m 
spituous of which are \'icel'resident !<■ 
and (lovernor Odell, of New York; ."-• 
Ilanna and Foraker of Ohio, .Senator L<Migi« of 
.Ma.'i.xachu.setts. Senat<ir Fairbanks of Indiana. ."Sen- 
ator C'llloin of Illinois, .Senator S|K>oiicr of Wis- 
consin, and laat, but not ieaat, .SiMintor Alli8«>n of 
Iowa. Two of llieso men are said to U* aAttidu- 

ously at work as deferminr ' i i .. i*. i-- 

four months of Mr. McKini< 

expired, and the country at largn will not liuther 

il.self much about |Militics fort! 

It is not likely, even, that m .j 

issues will mark the Cun^ kl eUs-tionH of 

next year. In an int4»rview, ."-HMiator Jon««s. chair* 
man of the democratic National Commilt<H>. 
Htate<l last tnonth that in his opinion the IhMiio- 
cratic {larty wouM take up the Philippine qutM 



14 



THE AMERICAS MOS'THLY REyiElV OF RE^IEIVS. 



. ...:.. .;....! ;<.,... H,. jmiiitt-tl out the 

n of the Supreme 

• \ AiiuTU'aii policy ono way or 

« ( • - -i-^^ fn>e to <le- 

, . Di'iuocrats, 

. ii«tor Join's, will oppose the pol- 

_r tin' riiilippiiH'S, aii<l will a<lvocjito 

......out thoro at the earliest possiMe 

: of nn in«U'i>endent repuMic under tlie 

ranloeand pn»lir(ion of the I'liitetl States. 

' ' . tleclared that it would be the 

•ratio policy to oppose the ship- 

'idv bill as against the Republican plan of 

_r it. 'i"he Senator remarked that the 

; ... . .....i-ntal railroads would have issued 

tlu'ir orders to Republican leaders to smother the 
Nicaragua Canal l>ill. an<l that the Republican 
Wavs and Means Coniniittee wouKl also prevent 
iho rejK.rling l»ack to the House of the Babcock 
tariff bill, aimed at trusts, — both of these topics 
preseiitinjr an opportunity to the Democracy. 
Rut it is not at all clear that the Democrats are 









rr<^ 











/^'^•^ -y ^Ofhr, 



KLSHIXG THE B.\BY SHOW. 

Tncle Sam: "You're altogether too early, ladies; the show doesn't open for a 
good while vet."— From the Journal (New York). 



SENATOR M'l-AUKIN SKK.MS TO BE HIOHT "IN IT." 

From the Trihune (Minneapolis). 

really in liarmony u])on any one of the subjects 
outlined by Sena-tor Jones as constituting a party 
programme. The great debate as to wliat really 
constitutes a Democrat which was to have been 
carried on all summer in South Carolina by Sena- 
tors Tillman and McLaurin has been abandoned, 
■-r. Senator McLaurin had been 

accused of too much sym- 
pathy with the broad plans 
and policies of territorial and 
commercial expansion for 
which the McKinley admin- 
istration stands. Tillman had 
proposed to McLaurin that 
they should both resign their 
seats in the Senate, and then 
appeal to the Democratic vot- 
ers of South Carolina to de- 
cide at a primary election 
which of them should be 
accorded the full Senatorial 
term as South Carolina's typi- 
cal and representative Demo- 
crat. They were subsequently 
persuaded to withdraw their 
resignations ; but it is un- 
doubtedly true that Mr. Mc- 
Laui'in represents a gi'owing 
element of Southern and 
Western business men of 
Democratic affiliations who 
are tired of the moral domina- 
tion of the Democratic party 
by its Populist allies. Under 



THE PKOGRF.SS OF THE iVORLD. 



i:» 



these circumstances it does not seem likely 
that the Deniocratic party can rally itself for 
a victory in the Congressional elections next 
year. The future of the Philippine (|uesti»»n 
as a party issue will Imj determined almost •mi- 
tirely liy the course of events. If ctmiplete 
peace should V>e secured at an early date, as now 
seems prohalde, antl if rapid progress U»gins to 
be sliown in civil government, educational work, 
settlement of the churcii and land questions, and 
the growth of commerce, so that the army can be 
reduceil ami tlie e.xpense of holding the arcla- 
pelago brought to a comparatively low point, the 
Philippine question will not be likely to assume 
the paramount place in our party contests. 

-^ . TheCubansnowe.xpect to launch their 
Cuba a . . . , f. , 

Acceptance of independent republic earlv next vear. 
Conditions, j,,^ original acceptance by the 'con- 
vention at Havana of the sclieme set forth in the 
so-called Piatt amendment as respects the future 
relations between the United States and Tuba 
was in a form that couM not be intlorsed at 
Washington. Secretary Root, on behalf of 
President McKinley, had offered the visiting 
Cuban committee frank and elaborate explana- 
tions of all the points set forth in the Piatt 
amendment, in order to reassure their miiuls 
and make plain to them the honorable intentions 
of the American Government. The Cuban con- 
vention thereupon availed itself of the commit- 
tee's report to make official incorporation of Mr. 
Root's remarks in that part of the Cuban consti- 





;iMR? 



U.^y- f: 








>^ 



CUBA >fAKRM A niHCOVEKY. 



TiiR Ynr\»i Navuiatoh: "Why. tlils lun't « colUr nflrr 
all: it'su llfi;-pri»«r%c-i!"— From tlie J-.mH<i/ (Mlniifii|»«>ll«i. 



tuiion which covered the subject of i- 
with the I'll ' - - The p- 

which the A :.on at W.. 

veyed to Havana its disappnivul • i 

tliat had iMH'n pursued caused - 
hatl aver- ■• ' i — -lo effect. »> 
Uool's e.\: had inniu«ilil. 

lucid and 8ound, they could not Ix* inndu a {wrl 
of the ••nat-tment to wldcii they " 
The Cuban convention on June ._ ... - 
voted that the Piatt amendment, just aa it %\< 
should Ik? made a part of tlie c« : n. A 

good many influential jieoph- in C ' ■ ! 

that the amenduicnt would ln« de^ 
reason that they desired outright annexation. 
The constitution as a whole will 
be re-offered to I'resident MtKin.' . . ...- ..j. 
proval. and meanwhile the convention ha.s U-t-n 
drafting an electoral law, with a view to the 
holding of an election a few m«>n'' ' 
When Congress convenes early in I>< 
will presumably be given an opportunity by tlio 
Presid»'nt to pa.ss upon the whole situation, and 
it may reasonably Ihj exjiected that the now 
Cuban government will be inaugurated and our 
troops wholly withdrawn at some early date next 
year. So far as our own <tover' 
cerned. this exjM'ditious solution 
cause of congratulation ; and the Cultan politi- 
cians are naturally happy in the | 
ting things into their own hands. •. i i. .. j....ii 
and serious truth is that it is unfortunate for the 
Cul)an |H>ople in all their l>est interests that the 
withdrawal of the I'nited .'^tat«'s could not '•«• 
postponed for tw»j more yeai"s, or. at the very 
least, another twelvemonth. Cul>a needs Amer- 
ican energy and exjM'rience in the work of g»'t- 
ting a school system created and • ■■■■ -iied. as 
well as in other branehes of admiii ;«. 

WliiN.' we have r«Hiuced our foreesi in 

Hard Winirr t ,i -i • i 

in South the Philippines to aljout 4" '••''' "len, 
Africa. 1,,'arly all of whom are . in 

quiet an<l comfortable garri.«on duty, with lit lie 

if aiiv higher rate of mortality thn' ' "' ■ ■ 

stationed at military |m>sI8 in the I 

it is far c)therwi.>te with the Hritish in South Af- 
rica, who still maintain then* an . 

'J .10, 0(10 men, greatly worn and fn 

ing from the hardshiiw of what is i 

in those regions, and con.'«tanily baitled by tl» 

astoiii-' ■ " 

The li: 

reiieat its aiW(<rtion that the war in over. The 

leaders «>f the H<M»rs the' ■ 

have not the i»llg' •<-• " • ...... 

that they are in .» on to i 

warfare goiufc on for an indetiniie lune. It is 



10 



THE AStLKl^AS MOM'Hl.Y Rl-llBr 01- RlillFM^S. 



ira» II 



tt>i 



i that iluTo art' fn.m i:..000 to L'O.OOd 
ill tW fieUl. u|H'ratJnK ordinarily in 

■ ■ of wliicli »)C- 

I luluinn t'qual 

in rt'ginjent. There 

_: ami tlifrr wi-re more Brilisli 

:o th»' tiujo of onr going to 

.. nionlhs previous ; and the 

MH'iue*! ill tlie majoriiy of cases to he 

HiH-rs. The attempt of General 

,p them cornered in the north- 

imrt of Ihe Transvaal proved wholly un- 
. for — divided into small companies — 
1v hroke through the British cordon 
.t' war into I'ape Colony itself. It 
is not necessary to recapitulate here the engage- 
ments in ileiad. the most important of which was 
on May MK at Vlackfontein, fifty miles from 
Johaniieshurg. in which the British lost more 
than JO killed and about I'JO wounded. 

The Boers, of course, are not in a 
'V position to hold prisoners ; and they 
Ofpopttiatiofi. jj^j. (iierefore obliged to release as 
many as they capture. The British, on the 
other hanil, have now no prospects whatever of 
succi-ss apart from their careful sequestration of 
all the men they can possibly capture, in order 
to bring the male lighting population to the van- 
ishing point. All the Boers in existence would 
not jtopulate an average ward of New York or 
Chicago. If only there were Boers to populate 
two such wards instead of one, they would defeat 
the British in the end. But as matters stand it 
is probable that the Boers must in a few months 
give up through lack of men and ammunition. 
Prisoners are being deported to Ceylon, St. 
Helena, Bermuda, and elsewhere, in great num- 
bers. Lord Kitchener reported that in the 
month of May 2,<j40 Boers were either killed or 
captured. Weyler's Cuban policy of concen- 
trating the non-combatant Boer population in 
sptTified camps has been put into force by 
Lord Kitchener, with the result of a deplorable 
amount of disease and suffering. In due time 
the British will win through the grim policy 
of depopulation. 

„ , , Sir Alfred Milner, Governor of the 
Honor,, -For Transvaal and Orange River Colony, 
'"'"" ' seeing no prospect of any immediate 
work for a civil governor to do in those regions, 
came home to England for a vacation in May, 
and was received with calculated ostentation by 
Lord .Salisbury, Mr. Chamberlain, Mr. Balfour, 
and the other leading members of the govern- 
ment. He was, furthermore, immediately con- 
ducted to the King, who raised him to the 




m 



\ \ 






LOUD MILNEK, OK CAPE TOWN. 

peerage under the title of Lord Milner of Cape 
Town, — all in recognition of his alleged great 
services to the empire. The rest of the world 
has been looking on with curiosity and wonder- 
ing what these services can have been. It is the 
prevailing opinion outside of England that Mil- 
ner's unfortunate conduct of the negotiations 
with President Kriiger did more than almost any 
other one thing to bring upon England this in- 
glorious and disastrous war, which can now have 
no possil)le outcome that would justify it as a 
profitable or fortunate thing for England. Un- 
doubtedly, Milner is an excellent and upright 
gentleman, full of honest zeal for the extension 
of the British empire everywhere and by all 
means. He has served his masters to the best of 
his gbility. But he has cut an unenviable figure 
in the eyes of the world ; and his elevation to 
the peerage at this particidar juncture was prob- 
ably as remarkable an instance of trying to put 
a good face on a bad matter as history has ever 
recorded. Lord Milner is booked to return to 
South Africa in August. 

Ti. ,.■ ^ Much discussion in England has fol- 

Tne mines and ^ r-,- -r^ 

the War lowed the report of Sir David Bar- 
^"'^- hour, head of the Transvaal Tax 
Commission. This commission had been ap- 
pointed to study financial conditions and resources, 
wdth the special object of advising as to the abil- 



THE PROGRESS OF THE H^ORLD. 



ity of South Africa to pay the cost of England's 
devastating war. It is proposed, anionj; other 
things, by Sir David to levy a lO-iKjr cent, tax 
on the net prolits ot the gold mines. This is not 
very agreeable to the English holders of mining 
stocks, and it is even less pleasant news to the 
French. (Jerman. and other Continental investors 
who own a great part of the shares of the 
mining companies of the Rand. The general 
work of tiie parliamentary session is not proving 
very productive of results, although there have 
Iw^en floods of fruitless talk and plenty of evidence 
oT discord in the ranks of both British parties 

AVitii the amount of indemnitv juac- 
^SeWeLVnu ^'^i^'lb' agreed upon, aiu! also the de- 
tails of the scheme by which China is 
to raise the money and pay it over, the great 
episode of the international e.xpedition to Pekin"'- 
is rounding out the second chapter. Four hun- 
dred and lifty million taels, equal to liSlo.OOU.- 
OUO, is the sum that is said to have been (i.xed upon. 
The method adopted, it seems, is an issue of Chi- 
nese 4 per-cent. bonds which will be received at 
par and distributed among the powers in such pro- 
portion as they will thenuselves determine. The 
United Slates and England successfullv resisted 
the proposal urged by Russia and Japan that 
these bonds should be jointly guaranteed by the 
group of creditor powers. An increase of the 
tariff iluties at the treaty ports, and the income 
from certain other specified ta.xes, will provide 
money enough to pay the yearly interest charge 
and to accumulate a sinking fund for the ulti- 
mate liquidation of the principal. Thus, China 
will have paid very heavily in the end for the 
folly and villainy of the high oilicials who en- 
couraged the Boxers. 

It is not reassuring to tliink of tlie 

''%?oS°'''^''^'''''"*'''^' *^f the European forces 
with the atrocious old Empress Dow- 
ager still exercising absolute power ; and it 
would seem as if Chinas worst troubles were only 
beginning, rather than ending. It will be 
strange, indeed, if formida'ole revolutions against 
the Nlanchu dynasty do not orcur in the 
early future. Count von Wahlersee, the com- 
mander-in-chief, left Peking on June 3, and the 
British, French, and Germans are retaining in 
the disturl«d region of China, chiefly around 
Tientsin, only about 3,(»(M) troops each, the Ital- 
iaus leaving l,'J(»o. We have no American 
troops in Chiiui except a legation guard at Pe- 
king of aijout l.'iO men. The Russian troops left 
Peking months ago. but of course a great Ru."*- 
sian army is maintained in Manchuria, without 
the slightest pros{)ect of withdrawal either now 



"I 'It any 
court is iu>t 
until September. 



•s© 
2U 



Famine an? ■ *■'-- - " ' w 

ii, R^i.^t war, anti i , ^n 

to that rule. Starvatiou pri'vails in 

some e.\ in the prov- 

i"t^«' of - ..il,l,o{ New 

York, always so energetic in relief work, is 
raising a large fund, and \\h» alreadv aent 
*ii),oi>(». In helping •' -^ '' ^ 

women anil children in ^ nt 

emergency, we are not only showing kimlnoss to 
a gentle antl patient j^ople who have never tlone 
us any wrong «'ven in thought. — for tlu-se {K'uple 
were not Boxers. — luit we are also doing some- 
thing to insure gooil relations U-tween this country 
and China, a consummation much to ' ■ ' 1. 

The distribution of the ('linstiuu li uj 

is intrusted to a committee of leading mission- 
aries than whom no men could |>ossiblv haiidh* it 
more wisely. The brother of the Eniix«ror is to 
visit Berlin to apologize officially for the murder 
of the Baron von Ketteler. and a statue of the am- 
bassador is to l>e erecteil by the Chinese • : -i- 
meiit in Peking on the sjKit when* he wa a 
year ago. Our sjK'cial commissioner, Mr. Rock- 
hill, who has Ix'en representing us in China dur- 
ing the visit of Mr. Conger to the Cnited States, 
will soon return ; and Mr. Conger, on the other 
hand, has announced that he will sail early in 
July to resume his duties ns United ^ min- 
ister at Peking. It is regarded as \ . that 
-Mr. Conger may Ije nominated for tlie governor- 
ship of Iowa in September, in which case he 
wt>uld presumalily resign his diplomatic post. 

Qtrm n I '^^rliu is now the great center of Eu- 
the Center ropeau influence and activity, and our 
of the stage. .\ „„.,.i^.a^, iiewspa|H*rM ought to have 
a much l>etter and fuller news service from Ger- 
many than they are now giving their readers. 
By far the most energetic and con<»picuo' '" - :■« 
in all EurojHi is the Em|>»'roi William . lii 

movements and utterances alone each month cuni- 
prise a large |)ro|M)rtion of the i ' ' it 

history. The EminTor has of lati .. j ;ic 

mood, and he continues on all < ^ to de- 

clare that the joint e.x|HHlition to Ciiina hM 



'ne in i' 



o: , and in w. Iii 

tion with one or two fresh incidents can>fully 

I) i the KMis<'r has \< • the 

I I army that have j ^.4 ''i« 

(tallic su.sceplibilities. It is the sin y 

of Germany to cultivate the friendship oi Hoi- 
land in all (Kissible ways, and every altentiun 



15 



THE AMERICAN MOSTHl.Y RF.llFAr OF KI'J'IEW'S. 




THE XKW UI8MAKCK STATUE AT BEKLIN, 

was sliown Queen Wilhelinina and her German 
husband last njontli on the occasion of tlieir visit 
to Berlin. The most explicit denials have been 
oflBcially made in Germany of the rumors about 
the proposed purchase of Margarita Island from 
Venezuela. It is declared that Germany is under 
no temptation whatever to seek an acquisiti(ni 
that would arouse antagonism in the United 
Stales ; nor has Germany, it is added, any use 
for an island in tliose waters. On June I'J, tlie 
great lieinhold statue of Bismarck, which lias 
been placed in front of the Reichstag building in 
Berlin, was unveiled in presence of tlie Emperor 
and Empress and a vast and imposing array of 
notabilities and visiting delegates. A very elo- 
quent address was delivered l>y Chancellor von 
Buluw. The statue represents Bismarck in mili- 
Ury dres.s, lielmeted and stern. While bountiful 
hai-vests are general throughout thd United States, 
serious crop failures are reported in Prussia, and 
the government departments liave been ordered 
to provide state aid in one way and another. 

The spirit of France is illustrated m 
7/^eMont" t''e fa^^t that a greater popular inter- 
est was aroused by the election last 
month oT two '^Immortals" to fill vacancies in 
the Academy than by any current events of apoliti- 
cal, industrial, or financial nature, although there 
were many passing public topics of a considerable 



degree of importance. One of tlic phici-s in the 
Acmiemy that had to be fillt'd was that of the 
liitr hue de Brogli*' ; ami the Maniuisch' N'ogiie, 
tliough obliged to makw a hard fight, was chosen 
after a number of l)all,)t.>*. The i)ul)lic was most 
concerned, however, with tii(! contest for the re- 
maining seat, tlie leading candidate lieiiig the 
juipular young ])oet, M. Edmoiid Rostand, wliosi; 
•Cyrano de Bci-gerac " had made him widely 
known throughout the world. Against him was 
pitted the serious historian, Fi-ederic Masson. 
The situation was deadlocked until M. Fai^i 
Dt'scliancl, the most fastidious and popular of all 
the younger school of Erencii scliolars in ])olitics, 
had to leave the Academy to take liis place as 
))residing officer of tlie Chaml)er of Deputies. 
lie was persistently against Rostand. M. de 
Freycinet, to break the deadlock, clianged liis 
vote, and the young poet was successful, to tlie 
gi-eat joy of Madame Bernhai'dt and the Parisian 
public. The general parliamentary elections of 
France do not come off until May of next year, 
l)ut every sign points to a determined struggle. 
The monarchical parties are dead, and tlie most 
significant phenomenon is the rapid rise of the 
Radicals and Socialists as against the Moderate 
Republicans. Domestic questions, rather tlian 
foreign, are engrossing the French mind. Tlu; 
anti-Semitic leader Druinont has been expelled 
from the Chamber of Deputies ; and mutual accu- 
sations of the other leaders of the so-called Na- 
tionalist movement have brought to light much 
that has tended to the discredit of that danger- 
ous menace to the repulilic. 

. „ ,, Oil June 1 tliere occurred the birth 

A Daughter ,.■,,. t -t t „ ■, 

to the House 01 the urst cliild of the voung King 
of Savoy. ^^ j^^|^,_ r^^^^ ^^.^.-^^^ ^| ^ daugliter 

instead of a son was a keen disappointment, 
chiefly because the Salic law excludes all women 
fi'om succession to the throne. The young son of 
the Duke of Aosta, cousin of the King, thus re- 
mains heir presumptiv^e for the present. In spite 
of the large and constant immigration from Italy, 
the population of the peninsula continues to in- 
crease substantially. The statistics of the recent 
census give tlie total population as 32,449,754. 
The last census was taken twenty years ago, and 
disclosed a total of 28,46U,000. Italy, like most 
other European countries, especially France, 
Spain, and Russia, has been the scene of pro- 
tracted and very disturbing labor strikes, with 
riotous accompaniments. 



In Russia, C)ther matters that were of concern to 
Spa /«, awrf </ie Russia w^ere for the moment forgot- 
ten in the news that on June 18 the 
fourth daughter was born to the Czar. A son 



THE PROGRFSS OF THE WORLD. 



19 



ha'l }>«vn anl»M»tly hoped for, and Dr. SduMirk's 
tli»'ori»'s an'-airaiii tiiscmliU'd. LitiK' Aiiastasia 
will not be iM'^Iected, howrvor, and will doubt- 
less be as carefully and wisely rran-d ami taught 
as her sisters, who are : ( )l>ra, now six vears 
old ; Tatiana. now four, and Marie, a^eil two 
years. Tlie (Jrand \>\\.\iv Michael, the Czar's 
brother, is still the lieir apparent. It is a pitv 
that Salic laws shouUl stand in the way of the ac- 
cession of women to several European thrones, 
for they make quite as useful .'^overeitrns as men ; 
and there ought not to be any ground lor un 
liappiness over the birlli of royal dau;jhtei-s. 
En-^laiid's experience is in everybody's nu'mory, 
and Holland would not exchange Wilhelmina for 
a veritable paragon of the other sex. Tlie (.^ueen 
Regent of Spain is a better ruler than any of her 
Peninsular stat«'smen, and it is to be regretted 
that she is so soon to retire. New Spanish elec- 
tions have been held, tlie Ministerialists winning 
by a consideral»le majority. On the 1 1th of June 
the Queen Regent openetl tiie Cortes for the last 
time, inasmuch as the young King will have at- 
tained the legal age of sixteen next year, and the 



VVmdelri 






Umi,' '• '"'V ■! >< ' 




.\I.KXA.NUKII OK HKIIVIA UOI.N«» OI'T «IK BUBINKKK 

< 'lonlliK out, on acriMltil of r|rriifn?<tnili rf, a fllK'ly . 
8U«k of liifiiiilB' furiilnliiiit^H. Kroiii L'lU (Hcrllii). 



regency will tenninaie. Ii is reporiixl, by the 
way, that he witnessed his first bull light on % 
certain ."^un<lay ' ^' ' ' ' r.- 

|K)intinents in ti :Ǥ 

that has niatie the most extraordinary H-naation 
|M'rtains to the unhappy reigning lious«« of .S-rvia. 
The accompanying cartoon from a <feniiaii 
pa|M'r shows the w<K?-beg<in« face of King .\!«'X- 
ander as he turns his back on the parapliernalia 
that had been provided for tlie e.\: ' and 

heir. It is reportetl that an an „ haji 

1 11 made l»etw»>en this same King Alexander 

of ."-Jervia ami tlie Russian (JovernnuMit by which 
Russia is tt» resume the ovi-rshadowing iiifbiencc- of 
twenty yeai-s ago. Kver since the Ru-so-Turkish 
War, there has Ijeen intense and inces.«i«nt rivalry 
between .\ustro- Hungary and Rus>ia for the vir- 
tual domination of the Balkan statf- 

Mr. Carnegie's bestowal of ^ilo ihh) 

" Scotch yif't' """• a""^">"<^*^J •" our issue of ..t>l 
month, upon the four ."^ctittish uni- 
versities is the largest outright ancl complete<l 
gift to e<lucalion «>ver nunle by anv indivi'! '' 
.Mr. Rockefelh-r's successive gifts to the l :.- 
versity of Chicag«j — that institution having just 
now celel>raled its tenth annivei-sary with great 
erbtt — have now amounted in less than a ih'zen 
years to about as great a tiital ; and statements 
made by Mr. Rockefeller himself bust month 
made it <-lear that his giving is ii<>t at an end. 
I'ut the Scotch universities were poor, and they 
were in danger of falling far W-hind the new 
standards of university life and work. As finally 
arranged after much «li.-<cussion, the proceeds of 
Mr. Carnegie's gift, wliich will be :ji.'»ito,oO0 a 
year, will be divide*! into two ]>art8. one of 
which, acconling to the «leed of gift itself, is to 
be applied as follows : 

One-half of the net nnhUHl in<i>nii- i- to 1m- :t|>|ilii<4l 
toward (lie iinprovfiiiciit ami ('.\|>Hii»itiii of thi- itni- 
viT>itii'H of ,*»eotlaiul in tlie factiltirs of wii-iu'i- and 
nie^lirine, al^) tor iiuproviii^ and i-xtfiidiiiK tlio op|M>f 
t unities for HcieiitiHc r»M'arch and for Iner^Hwinn the 
facilities for a<-(|iiirinK a knowl«'d>ff of ' • .•- 

iioinicH, KiiKli^h literat iiri-. /iiid iniMlcrn la .•! 

such other .stihjeetM co^nati* t«i a l<-<-hiiii-nl or conimiT- 
(ial ediuation a>« inn Ih- l>rou^ht within the n<-u|n' <if 
tin- iiiiiverHity iiirriciilinn ; by tin- enn'tion of Imlld- 
iiiK"*. lalK'ratorii"». l•la^•»•rl">ln«. iiiiim-imii-. or lihrarien, 
the providing of flllrinit apiuiratUH. IxNikt. ami i-<|ni|>- 
nieiit. the inHtlttition and endowment of |irr)renM>p>hi|Mi 
and ht tMrrHliip-". Inrlildinn 'iM>-.t-Krnduate h-ef nn'«hll»s 
and wliolafhip"' more «'t«|HTiall) MlM>|ar<hl|» for the 
piir|MiH4> of ciironrauinu n^warrh hi an> om- or inorf of 
the HitlijiTtH Iti'fori' iiametl. or in Mm-h other tiiiiniiir un 
till- eommittee may fnim lime m tiniv di^hlp. 

It was nt first Mr. Carnegie'» idea to nw his 
endowment for tlio sake of making tuition free 



*• 



THE AMLKl^AS MONTHLY REl/EU^' OF KEIIEU'S. 




I>K. IKA KEMSKN, FKE8IDENT-ELECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITV. 



to all Scotch students in r.lie universities. Tliis 
idea was (rreally modifi3d, however, and it is 
now arran>;ed that the universities will continue 
to charge sucli tuition fees as they like, but that 
t' ••»es of the Carnecjie fund will pay the 

w . . r a part of the tuition of such deserving 
students as may thus be enabled to obtain a 
higher education. The trustees have the right 
also in their discretion to use a part of this sec- 
ond half of the fund to promote university-ex- 
tension lectures, and other educational objects. 

1 .. o • Frt^sh interest has been aroused in the 

A Mew Presi- _ . , -it . • 

dent at the affaiFS of the Johus Hopkins Univer- 
johns Hopkins, gj^^^. ^^, ^Yie completion of twenty- five 

years of its marvelously successful career, and by 
the election of a new president to succeed Dr. 
Oilman, who had detei-mined to retire. Prof. 



Ira Remsen had been at the head of the depart- 
ment of cliemistry ever since the university was 
opened, and in absences of Dr. Oilman on various 
occasions he had served as acting president. Dr. 
Rowland, whose death we noted last month, and 
Professor Oiidersleeve, like Dr. Remsen, had been 
associated with President Oilman for a quarter 
of a century in the brilliant work of creating the 
most widely famed of all American universities. 
Altliough even then a distinguished specialist and 
professor, Dr. Remsen was only thirty years of 
age when he organized the department of chem- 
istry at Baltimore, and his reputation at home 
and abroad has steadily grown. He is still in his 
prime at fifty-five. As we have said more than 
once before, there is no one institution for higher 
education in this coUntry where at the present time 
a large increase of endowment would be so pro- 



THE PROGRESS Of- THE liORl.D. 



91 



ductive of rosults. Post-^ia.lnate stiuly and re- 
search literally be^an in this couiitrv at the Johns 
Hopkins Univei-sity : and wlial luus l»e»>n >lone 
elsewhere has been chietty owin^ to the initiative 
ami leadership of that inslitutioji. 

The Washing. P^'e^i'lent Dahney of the Tniversity 
ton Memorial of Teiinessec, ill siH^akiiii; of the 

institution. \\^„ \-. . \f -11 

\N a8lunj;ton .Moiiional Institution 
last montli, assuivd us that in his opinion it 
would be a greater educational agency ten vears 
hence than the University of Berlin.' Dr. Dah- 
ney was jubilant, and was e.xpressing his enthu- 
siasm rather than attempting e.xact forecasts. 
Yet he would be ready, doubtless, to make a s»' 
rious defense of his prediction. Elsewhere in 
this numl^r, Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler, of Co- 
lumbia University, has at our re<|uest e.xplainetl 
to our readers just what the Washington Me- 
morial Institution is designed to ilo. It was a 
happy coincidence that as President Gilman was 
retiring from a meeting of the board of directoi-s 
of the Johns Hopkins University, in which he had 
been participating in the choice of his successor, 
he was met by a committee of the trustees of tlu^ 
new Washington Memorial Institution, whose 
object it was to inform him lliat he had been 
unanimously chosen as the man to initiate aii<l 
direct its work. The new institution will l)e under 
the auspices of the leading universities and higher 
technical schools of the country, with the active 
aid and participation of all the departments an<l 
bureaus at AVashington, incliuling .not only the 
scientific and teclinical establishments and agen- 
cies of the Government. I)ut also great institutions 




TiiK ('<>i.r,K<.K (iKADi'ATK t>r 1W»I : "Tin- »v«>rlil (•« mine!" 
From tliv yiirth Ainrrlctin (I'hIluilflplilH). 



like the Congrejwional Libmrr. the Smithsonian 
I"- •:. and the National Museum. It will 

t'"-' .iidnMU of Kludent« in llie c..- • «r, 

and thou.sanilrt in the near futur«*. 'I _ . m 
finally worked out, has come quite am much from 
e.xjH'rience.l heads of the ii 

Work a8 fn»m the univei- ,...,. 

The advisory boarti will include the TreRident 
and Cabinet, and other high officiaU. Presi- 
dent (iilman is to !>«> congratiila'' ' ' 
great national op|>orlunity for u- 
lies before him. 



oth^r -^part fi""» the organization of the 
educational WiLsliiiigton Memorial Institution, the 

notes. ...-•«•. , ■ ■ 

most signihcanl new undertaking in 
the educational World is perhaps tin- f^ ' ' of 
the Kock«'feller Institute for Medical k .;ih. 
This enterprise is not to be carried on in rivalry 
with existing medical college.^, but is to cooj>«rate 
with them all in the field of sjiecial and extended 
investigation. Its hea«lquarters will U* in New 
York, l>ut the president of the lM>ard of directors 
is at present Dr. William 11. W.Ich. of the Johns 
Hopkins I'liiversity. <'f Baltimore, the se<-ieUiy 
being Dr. L. Kmmetf Holt, of New York. The 
other members of the board tre men of like 
promineiire in N«'W York. I'liiladelphia, and Bos- 
ton. Mr. Rockefeller has advance.l <l_Miu,(»00 for 
immediate or early expenditure, with more to 
come. I'resident Scliunnaii announce<l at Cornell 
on June 1!» that Mr. Huckefeller had offered that 
university a gift of a quarter of a million tlollars 
on condition that an erpial amount should )n> sub- 
scribed by otlnMs. Brown Univer»itv has re- 
ceived the equivalent of more than a million in 
the form of the famous John Caru«r Brown Li- 
brary, with money for buiMing and endowment. 
Many smaller gifts to various universities and 
institutions have In-en announced from the com- 
mencement platforms. Tiie Uev. Dr. Kichani 
D. Harlan, of Hochester. N. Y.. has accepted 
the presidency of Lake Foivst Univer^ity, near 
Chicago. He is one of the sons of Justice Har- 
lan of the .•Supreme Court. The i d col- 
leges for women are showing excep' owth, 
and the graduating class at Smith ' num- 
U'retl •2."»4, which is the largest class ever f^radu- 
• I fr«)m any woman's cttllege. \'n ' .mt 
--«, numU'ring 1 rj, als<) graduat.-., h. 
American colleges and universitii^ were never 
Itefore in smdi cIinm* relation to • fe 

of tilt* country, and the great aru.. , ^,. ..lu- 

ates will fiiiil plenty of go<Mi work to do, and will 
l>e the iH'tter lUled for that work, as well as for 

all lh.« op|. ' - ' ' ' ■ fe, 

bv ri'a-Moii . ,.H 



that they have enjoyed. 



« 



UU: .iML^i^..-i.\ .^OXTHl.Y RF.llFAr OF RFJ'IEU^S. 






pfit ■. 



rv record occur tlip 

AiniM-ifan jml>lic 

of tlu'si>, the 

. „., ^v' ' ..iv. William .1. 

ua. Formor (Joveinors Tin- 

oi Mat.iiL;*!!, ami Tannor. of Illinois, hail 




rnr. i.atk ex-goveuxou iMX(iRKE. op Michigan. 

only recently retired from official station. Mr. 
Pingree was \*ovn and grew up in Maine, and 
seiv»-d through the Civil War. after which he re- 
moved to the West and made his home in Detroit. 
For a lime he worked at his trade in a shoe fac- 
tory, and soon became a shoe manufacturer on 
his own account, huilding up a very large busi- 
ness. -Vs a man of rugged energy and great in- 
dependence of character, his entry into politics 
as a candidate for the mayoralty of Detroit markc^l 
an era in the history of the ."^tate. He served 
four successive terms as mayor and two as gov- 
ernor, and. quite apart from specific achievements, 
he lifted public life out of mere parly ruts and 
gave a forcible example of the influence that a 
successful business man may wield in public office. 
E.xK<'present:itive lioutelle, of Maine, had been 
for s»'vt'ral yrars incapacitated by illness for ser- 
vice in Congress, and, in fact, had never taken 
his seat in the Fifty-seventli Congress, to which 
he had Ijeen elected. Mr. Houtelle's record at 
Washington had Ijeen a long and honorable one. 
Mr. Edward Moran, the artist, and .Mr. James 
A. Heme, the actor and playwright, had won 
distinction in their resijective professions, and 
were still in active life. Two well-known Ene:- 



lish literary men. Sir Walter Besant and Robert 
^V. Ibichanan, passed away early in .lune. ?jach 
of these writei's had visitctl the rniled States, 
but th*> AnuM-ican public is proljably more fa- 
miliar with the work of Sir Walter Besant, espe- 
cially his famous story, '* All Sortsand Conditions 
of Men," than with the poems and criticisms of 
Mr. Ibiclianan. In recent yeai's. Sir \Valt(M- had 
been more actively occupieil with ids great work 
of studving and recoi'ding the histoiy of London, 
section by section, than in the writing of fiction. 
On the day when tlie Bismarck statue was being 
unveiled occurred the funei-al of Count William 
von Bisiuai-ck. the second son of the Iron Chan- 
cellor, in the liltietli year of his age. The Rev. 
Di-. Joseph V. Tuttle, who died at (Jrawfordsville, 
Ind., in his eighty-third year, liad in his day been 
one of the most influential and useful educators of 
the Mississippi \'alley, and was for thirty years 




THE LATE SIR WALTER BESANT. 

president of Wabash College. The Hon. Hiram 
Price, of Iowa, who lived to l)e eighty-seven years 
old, and who had served many years in Congress 
and as a commissioner of Indian affairs, was an 
excellent type of the useful citizen and honor- 
able man of affairs. 



^^ -.^ •<£?' •,C?''s5i' ^^- '^^ ^- ^^ 



RECORD ()!• CURRTXT 1{\T:XTS. 



(*'i'»ii» May 2t to Juit€ i>. J9oi.» 



POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT-AMERICAN. 

May ii. — The Alahaina Constitutioiuil Convention 
meets and effects a pernianeiit oricaiii/.ation. . . .Five 
cadets i>f the uradiiatiu^j cla.-.s at the I'nited Slates 
Military Academy are dismissed, and six sus|)ended, 
for insu))t>rdination. 

May "Jii. — The election of niemlnrr^ of the Virginia 
Const it uti<jnal Convention results in the return of a 
large Democratic majority. 

May *25. — Senators Tillman and McLaurin, of Snith 
Carolina, resign their seats as the result of a joint de- 
bate, and demand reelection. 

May '27. — The United States Supreme Court renders 
its decision in the insular test cases, declaring tli;it 
duties collected prior to the passage of the Porto Kican 
tariff law were illegal an«l must be refunded, but that 
the law itself is constitutional. 

May 28.— E.\-<ioveriior Uates, in the Con.stitutional 
Convention of Alabama, offers an ordinance on the suf- 
frage quest ion. . . .The city of New Orleans recovers pos- 
session of the wharves and |>ublic landings, controlled 
for the past twenty-five years by private corporations 

The United States Supreme Cotirt adjourns until 

October. 

May .W. — President McKiidey and his p.irty return to 
Washington after their trip to the Pacific coiust. 

May 31. — Governor McSweeney of South Carolina ile 
clines to accept the resignations of .•st-iiators Tillman 
and McLaurin The New York City Kepublican or- 
ganization declares in favor of anti-Tammany union 
and for direct primary nominations. 

June 1. — The Nationalist party elects Seflor Miguel 
Gener Mayor of Havana, and a large majority of the 
Municipal Council. 

June 3.— Senator .McLaurin, of South Carolina, agrees 
to witiidraw his resignation of his seat. 

June 4. — The Havana Munici|)al Council uniininjously 
rejects the Dady bid (ai)pro.\iiiiately *14.iHNi,(i»Ht) for the 
8ewering an<l paving contract — .The United States 
Treasury Department issues an r>nler forbidding the 
entrance to the port of New York of immigrants af- 
flicted with pulmonary tuberculosis, on the grouinl that 
it is a dangerous contagious disease. 

June .5.— .Senator Tillman, of S<juth Carolina, with- 
flraws his resigi;atioii, on the ground that the puriM»se 
for which it was temlered has b«*cn thwarted. 

June ".—Governor Stone of Pennsylvania sigUH the 
rapid-transit bills pas.Hed l»y the Ijegislature. 

June 11.— President .McKinley is.mies a statenn-nf de- 
claring that he will not be a candidiiti- for a third term 
under any circumstances. .. .The Alabama Cunstitu- 
tional Convention a<h)pts the first part nf tli<- n.w cm- 
Btitution. 

June IJ — The United States baltl.ship lllhioh. on 
her trial trip, makes a re<'ord of \' M knots im Imur for 

four hours Fourteen ordinancen grnnting valuable 

Htreet-railway franchis«>M are pasm-d by the Philadel- 
phia Council. 



June IS.— The new United S(A(e«i mint ni Philndfl- 
pliia is accepte^l for tin* (iovi-rnment iiy .- ^-e 

....Although Jt)hn Wanamnker offers t«> _. 'M 

for the franchiiteH eonferretl by the Philadelphia ».tr«»t- 
raihvay onlinances for no < ' ition to th** city, 

.Mayor .\shbridge signs tli ^ a* imum*^! iiy the 

Couiuil. . . . Williiim D. Jelks siiccee<ls William J. .Sim- 
ford, deceiLsetl. as Governor of AialMina. 

•Tune 15.— President McKinley renpj>ointj« Gov. .Miguel 
A. Otero of New Mi-xico . . .Tiie Unilt-il .<tates Pliili[>- 
pine Commis.sion apitoints seven ."supreme Court judges, 
with .Sefior Arellano lut Chief Justice. 




\ i>i .UN r K V r~rn A. 
(Japan's new premier.) 



HOI.ITICS AND GOV- 
hKNMtNT- FOREIGN. 

.May £i -The Kuh- 

sian liutn is hea v i ly 

■ iventubscrilieilat Paris 

i>ankH — It is an- 

iiouiice<I that Arabl 

I'aslui, the F.gyptian 

: il>fl who was Iwiiiished 

■■> Ce\lon in ivri, hiis 

'len p«nlon»H|. . . .The 

^wedisli ParliameDt 

xlopts tlie com pron line 

>n tlie army-reorgHni- 

• ition bill of the gov- 

' rnmeni. 

.May ii— The Cana- 
dian Parliament is pro- 
rogued. 

M.iy -24 —Sir Alfred 
.Milner arrives in l<on- 
don from .South Africa, 
is n-ceiviil by tlie King, 

and is create«l a jieer The recent n.sing in Algi-ria U 

del>ate<l in the French Cham In-r of Deputies. 

May i').— The Norwegian Parliament confem the fran- 
chise on women taxpayers. 

.May "irt.- The S|mnish elections result in the return 
of I'JII Minisirrialists and .TO memU'rs tif the op|M>H|tioii. 
.May JT. — The Uussiiin minisier of the interior forbids 
the puldicHtion of the SotHK' Vninu" for one w»«rk. 

.June 1— .\ daughter is Ixirn to the King and gueen 
of Italy... In a HriliMh parliamentary liy-eli'«ti">n in 
Ussex tlie LilM'ral candidate is relurne<l by a greatly In- 
creaM'il maj<irity. 

.Iiine 4 Mr. KoU-rt Keiil coniM«nf» to nurrender hU 
Newfoundland telegraph lint", to the government and 

to revijM- his land-grantM The .Maniui* de Sur .S«- 

luccH, a well-known French loynllM. Uarm«le«l at Parla. 

.Fiine IV -.\fter consi.lfrabledelmte ' I'M 

of CoinmonH grnnti> the sum of i'l . 'X- 

iM'iided by the War Office for traii«|K>rU> ami remounta 

The civil coMitiiitiei- i.f iiH|Ulry int«i the bu*ine«a 

metho«l»of the llrilish War nillce make* it» re|>ort to 
Parliament. 

June II.— Theyueen Uegent op.-n«>the SpanNh Cortaa 
for the lant time, a* the rrgenry terminate* In 1VW8. 



24 

.Tnr 



JHl, AMERICAN MONTHLY RFllEir OF RFl^/BVS. 



' j.ivor Willinm 

■ 1 ; i.Mii I'lilaiid. 

rnmenl'H fliuinciiil expert, 

- tlint tlw Tniii^viial 

1(1 liflp defray the cost 



Hiissia lias derided to 
in and Tulery Inlands 

(>«> North Pnclrtc. 

' irtli danism, t i> lKirn to the Czar and 

I. 
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. 

\f„v '> — By A vote of 15 to 14. the Cuban Con- 
•n adopts the Piatt amendment, 
itory additions, as an appendix to 
the Cuban constitution. 

^I„y 30— Queen Williehnina of Holland and her con- 
•ort arrive in (Jerniany on a visit to Kmperor William. 

May 31 — The Unit«<i States Government rejects the 
CuImh Constitutional Conventioirs aeceptame of the 
PUtt amendment and insists on an unqualified accepts 
ance of the terms of the amendment. 

June 8.— Austro Hunuarian hostility to Italian inter- 
est-s in the Balkans is discussed iu the Italian Parlia- 
ment. 

June 10. — A special eniliassy from the Sultan of Mo- 
rocco is received liy King Edward and Queen Alexandra 
at I»ndon. 

June 11.— Ambas.sador White, at Berlin, authorizes 
the statement that the United States and Germany 
have a full antl amicable understanding concerning 
Margarita Island. 

June l"i.— The Cuban Constitutional Convention, by 
A vole of 16 to 11. 4 members being absent, accepts the 
Piatt amendment without qualification. 

June 14.— Signor Prinetti. Italian Minister of Foreign 
Affairs, explains in the Chamljer of Deputies that Italy 
is seeking cordial relations with the Jjatin-Amprican 
states and announces Italy's intention to open commer- 
cial negotiations 
with the United 
States and Russia. 

June 17. — The 
Chilean Claims 
Commission an- 
nounces its deci- 
sion of the Itdta 
case in favor of 
the United States 

United States 

Minister Loomis 
is transferred 
from Venezuela to 
Portugal ; H e r - 
bert W. Bowen, 
recently appoint- 
ed Minister to Per- 
sia, goes to Vene- 
zuela, being suc- 
ceeded in Persia 
THE L.\TE JAMES .\. HEKNE. by Lloyd C. Gris- 

(Actor and playwright.) com. 





TIIK LATE KOBEHT W. BUCHANAN. 

(A well-known English writer.) 

June 18. — Russia gives notice to the United States of 
an increase in the duties on bicycles and naval stores ; 
Secretary Gage protests. 

THE CRISIS IN CHINA. 

May 23.— Fighting takes place between German troops 

and the Chinese Two ca.ses of smallpox occur among 

the Indian troops in China. 

May 27. — The British indemnity proposals are viewed 
with increasing favor by the other powers. 

.May 28.— The German Emperor issues an order for 
the return of Count von Waldersee and the reduction of 
German troops iu China Plague is serious at Hong- 
kong, there being 187 deaths in one week. 

June 3. — There is a great military display at Peking 
on the occasion of the departure of Count von Walder- 

.see Nine companies of the Ninth United States 

Regiment return to Manila from China. 

June 5. — General Chaffee arrives at Manila from 
China. 

June 18. — The foreign ministers decline to permit Chi- 
nese soldiers in Peking. 

MILITARY OPERATIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA. 

May 22.— Plague breaks out at Port Elizabeth Five 

hundred Boer prisoners arrive at Bombay to be sent to 
Ahmednagar. 

May 2.").— The Boers attack the convoy of Genei-al 
Plumer's column and destroy half of it. 

May 27. — The Boers near Cradock advance south to- 
ward Maraisburg ; they capture a post of 41 British of 
the Midland Mounted Rifles. 



RECORD OF CURREWT EVENTS. 



2A 




dHAMKUCK 11., " THE CUP-CIIAI.LENUKK. AS SHE API>EAKEI> IM.M KOI ATKI. V AtTCK TIIK A('< I HEN r. *•> MAY 

(King Edward VII. was on Ixmnl tlio yarlit, but e»cHp«I iiijary.) 



May is. — The Hoers are active in the Tarka.stail <lis- 

trict Two farmers are tried by coiut-inartJHl at 

Cradock. 

May '29. — Delarey attacks General Dixons l>riKade of 
the Seventli lijittalion of Yeomanry near Vlakfinitein ; 
the Hritish h)setM)tTiiersand 51 men killetl and tJotHcers 
and 115 men wounded. 

June 3. — Seven hundred Boers under Commandant 
Scheeper attack tlie town of Willowmore, Cti\>e Cohiny, 
but are repulsed after a nine hours' light. 

June 6.— Colonel Wilson, with 240 of General Kitch- 
ener's scouts, suri)rises and routs 4fH) Hoer^ bclonginK 
to Beyers command, M miles wot of Warm H.iths; 
the Boers leave 37 dead, 100 prisoners, and h,(MKI cattle, 
with wagons and supplies, in the hands of the liriti>h, 

who lose 3 men killed and 15 wounded (Jeneral Kl- 

liot's c«)lumn euKages l)e Wt-t near Reitz, captiiriiui 
wagons, rifles, ammuuition, and cattle: British and 
Boers lose heavily. ^ 

June li. — Boers surprise and capture 'JUO men of the 
Victorian Mounted Hifle-« in camp at ."^tet-nkiMjl.-^pruit, 
killing 2 officers and 1»» men. 

OTHER OCCURRENCES OF THE MONTH. 

May 21.— Th»' Belgian glass\\.)rk.Ts' ^t riki- tcrminiit«-s 

The Anurlca'H CuiMlelend.r Cnnstitulhtii has her 

first trial. 

.Mav 22.— Sir Thomas Tiipton's yacht Shiiininrk II.. 
challi-nger for tin- Ainiiinin i'f\\>, has all Inr H|Mir«.<ar- 
rie«l away in a s<|uall on the Solent, while King Kdwanl 

is on board The prisoner Br<'s<i, (LHsa.ssiii of King 

Hu(nl>ert of Italy, commits suicide in San Stefano 
prison. 

May 23.— The volcano of Kid<K-t, in Java, is in erup- 
tion : gn-at loss of life is reported. 

May 34.— As the residt of an explosion in the Cnivepwd 
Colliery. In the .\»M-r Valley, S.uth Wales l»elween 70 
aud H<j men lose their lives. 



-May 25. — Firv in a I'russian mine causes the death of 
21 miners. 

May 27. — The Presbyterian (i«'neral .\ssenibly at Phil- 
adelphia adopts a resolution providing for a committee 
to draft a statement <»f faith t4> l»e present«-<l to next 
year's assemlily at New York ...Tiie CoJSj>erRtive Con- 
gress oimmis at .Middle.slxirough. Kngtand. 

.May 28. —The British exiH^lition in Somaliland, Kaj»t 
Africa, against the Mh<1 .Mullah lights a sliarp notion, 
capturing .'>.(MI0 head of cattle and cutting olT tlie 
Mullah's Imse of supplies. 

May 2',». — h. V. I/ore«' is chosen president of tlie liidti- 
more*: Ohio KailroH<l to succ«-«m1 .lohn K. Cowen, re- 
siu'ued The SR'inlisl Congress at Lyons clos***, 

.May .TO.- The Hall of Fame of New York Uni%-ei>lty 
is opeliwl. 

.lune 1.— -Vnnouncement Is made of Mr. John I). 
H<Kkefeller's intention to entablish in New York Ciiv 
the Hockefeller Institute for Medical Kem-iirch. 

June :». — I'rof. Ira IleniM-n is elecie<l president of the 
Johns Hopkins Iniversity, to suco-tsl Dr. Daniel C. 

(iilman. resigni**! W. 11. Newntnu (selected prealdent 

of the New York Central Kallroad. 

June 5.— The hopM- Volmlyovski. lea-nil by Willlnni 
C. Whitney, of New York. win» the KngliKh Derby 
Deleifates of the New York Ch«ml«er tif Commerce are 
entertained by I he I^tndoti ( liandM-r. 

.luno 7. — An<ln»w ('arnegle tmni«fen» to tniMtevM for 
the U-tieflt of the Scotch uni • ' nnm.nnii Jn ,V|ht- 

cenl Cnit«><l Stat«-s St«'el ' ("in.!- half of 

the Income to U- us«>d to iiu n-aM- tiie • of the 

universities In npwlfle*! brnnches, and U. half to 

pay fees and n>u«lHt sludenlt In other wnyn. 

.lune N— A tornado dentroy* lIvMand pn»|»erty In Ok- 
lahoma Territory. 

June in In an rngngenient with Fili|ilno luMirgenlM 
near l.lpa. In I.u««i», C«p« Anum Springer, Jr.. I'. 8. A., 



a« 



THE AMEKICAM MONTHLY KEIIEW OF REl^/EH^S. 



ait.I S. ;..! I.!, ut \V*H.T II. Iah'. KiiKtiifvns nrv kiU«?<l ; 
l' Williflni difw l«t«'r of wounds. 

' IUhI hy nil explosion 
f^' 1 Industrial I'ouveii- 

tl \>wi n( I'liilmitMpliiii. 

■ ' ' ' !n-d find liftii-tli fiiiiiivi'r.sjiiy 
o? loliMitfd. 

<• l.ondon Iwink-rate is nnhu-ed from :V's 

-A strtlueof Hisninrt-k is unveiled at IJerlin. 
OBITUAKY. 

Mny *21.— (ten. Fita-.I<>hn IVuter, 7K Hon. Wilbur 

F. ForttT. IViiKKTatir i-andid.'itt' for ^overllor of Xew 

York In l*<*iV, IW K.\-('ongressinaii Cliarlcs A. Hou- 

tellt>, of Maine, di. 

M.ly jrV — K.\-(;ov. .John Hih-y Taiiiur. of Illinois, 57 

.\i. rharl»*s n<iyv^tt. iikmiiIkt of tlie Frentli t'liam- 

ber of Deputies, 84 

\' -(nt»rKi- H. riu'iit'y. a well-known piano 

ni irer. T:^. 

May *2T.— J. M. Brj'don, a leading English architect. 61. 

May an.— K.\-t"ongressnian Hiram Price, of Iowa. S7 

Geu. Thomas Wilson, a veteran of the Civil War, 

75 Count William Bismarck, second sou of the late 

Prince Bi.-^mank. 49. 

May 31.— Daniel U. Robinson, a well-known railroad 
official. 54. 

June 2.— Kx-Congressman Richard C. McCormick, of 



Xew York, (V.t lames A. Heme, the actor anil iday- 

w right, (JO. 

.lune 4.— (ieorg Vierling, the Berlin conipo.ser. .si. 

. I line .').- Representative Robert Emmet Burke, of 
Te.xas, .">4. . . . Edward Kimball, famous for his success in 
niising fumls tor churches, 78. 

. I line ().— Ex-Chief Justice Thomas Diirfee, of Rhode 
Island, 7.5. 

.lune 7. — Bishop William Hiifus Nicliolson, of the 

Reformed Episcopal Church, 79 Mrs. Mary Ashley 

Tiiwiisfiid ('• XarifTa"), writer of poetry, 69. 

.June s. — Dr. . Joseph Farraiul Tuttle, president emer- 
itus of Wabash College, 83. 

June 9.— Edward Moraii, marine and landscape paint- 
er, 7'i Sir Walter Besaiit, the English novelist, 63. 

June 10.— Robert Williams Buchanan, English poet, 

critic, and novelist, 60 Robert James Loyd-Lindsay, 

lirst Haron Wantage, one of the wealthiest landowners 
in the United Kingdom, ()9. 

June 11. — Gov. William J. Samford, of Alabama, .56. 

June 13.— Prof. Truman Henry SafTord, of Williams 
College, the distinguished mathematician and astrono- 
mer, 65. 

June 15.— Neil Warner, tragedian, 70 Gen. Max 

Weber, a veteran of the Civil War, 77. 

June 17. — Louis Aldrich, the well-known actor, 58 

Prof. Hermann Friedrich Grimm, the German art 

critic, 73. 

June 18.— Ex-Gov. Hazen S. Pingree, of Michigan, 61. 



FORTHCOMING EVENTS. 



''yHE following conventions have been announced 

1 for this month : 

El>l"(.ATH)N".\L.— Tlie Xatioiial Educational .Vssocia- 
t ion. at Detroit, July K-l'i ; the American Institute of 
Instruction, at Saratoga, X. Y., July 5-8; the New- 
York University Convocation, at Albanj-, N. Y., July 
\-ii: the International Kindergarten Convocation, at 
BuflFalo. July 1-3; the .\meiican Lil)rary Association, 
at Wauke-ha, \Vi>., July :i-lt; ; the American Philo- 
logical A-ssociation, at Cambridge, Ma.ss., on July 9 ; 
the Indian Educators' Congress, at Buffalo, July 1.5-20 ; 
the Xational German-American Teachers' Association, 
at IndianajHjlis. Ind., July 10-13; the Xational Music 
Teachers' Association, at Put-in-Bay, Ohio, July 3-5. 

Scientific— The An»erican Fi-sheries Society, at Mil- 
waukee. Wis.. July l'.»-20 ; the Xational Forestry A.sso- 
ciation. at Colorado Springs. Colo.. July 13-15. 

ReligIOIS.— The Young People's Society of Christian 
Endeavor, at Cincinnati. Ohio. July 6-10; the Interna- 
tional Epworth League Convention, at San Francisco, 
July U»-31 : the Brotherhood of St. Andrew, at Detroit, 
July •24-i> ; the Baptist Young People's Unioii Interna- 
tional Convention, at Chicago. July 2.5-28 ; the Xational 
Young People's Union of the Unitecl Presbyterian and 
Heforme<l Presbyterian Churches;, at Winona, liid., 
.luly 24-2S : the Yoimg People" .h Christian Union of the 
Universalisr Church, at Rochester, X. Y., July 10-17 ; 
the Young People's Alliance of the Evangelical Associ- 
ation, at Buffalo. July 2.5-28: the Young Men's Chris- 
tian A.s.s<xiation .Secretaries' and Physical Director.s' 
School, at Lake Geneva, Wis.. July 23-.\u<;nst 22; the 
World's .Student Conference, at East Xorthfield. Mass., 
Jnne 28-July 7 : the Young Woman's Conference, at the 



.saihe place, July 12-22; the Pan-American Bible Study 
Congres.s, at Buffalo, July 17-31 ; Christian and Mis- 
sionary .Mliance meetings at Beulah Park, near Cleve- 
land. ()., July 19-28 ; and at Lancaster, Pa., July 12-21. 

Rkkou.m.\tohy. — A National Social and Political Con- 
ference, at Detroit, June 28-July 4; the National Re- 
form Press Association, at Det roit, June 28-July 4 ; the 
Southern Xegi-o Congress, at .Jackson, Miss., July 1-6; 
the Xational Xegro Industrial Convention, at the same 
place, July 12-13 ; the National Anti-Saloon League, at 
Buffalo, .July 11-14; the International Anti-Cigarette 
League, at Buffalo, July 11-14. 

Co.MMEUClAL. — The Trans- Mississippi Commercial 
Congre.s.s, at Cripple Creek, Colo., July 16-20 ; the Busi- 
ness Union of America, the West Indies, and Canada 
(colored), at Concoi-d, N. C, July 4-7 ; the American 
Bookseller.s' As.sociation, at Buffalo, July 10. 

Miscellaneous. — The Associated Fraternities of 
America, at Cambridge Springs, Pa., on July 16 ; the 
Ladies' Catholic Benevolent Association, at Detroit, on 
.July .30; the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Osteopathy, at Kirksville, Mo., July 2-5 ; the 
National Deaf Mutes' Association, at Buffalo, on July 3 ; 
the National Association of Colored Women, at Buf- 
falo, July 8-13 ; the Armenian X^ational Congres.s, at 
Worcester, Mass., on July 4 ; the International Con- 
vention of Swiss Turners of North America, at Pitt.s- 
burg. Pa., June 30-.July 4 ; the National Turnfest, at 
the same place, .July 16-18; Native Celebration of the 
Fall of the French Bastile, at Tahiti Island, Society 
Islands, on July 14 ; and the Alfred Millennial Cele- 
bration, at Winchester, England, the last week of the 
month. 



TOPICS oi- Tin; month ai" iiomi: axd 

ABROAD IX ARICATURI-:. 





UK. CAKNEUIE'S IDl, . ; .;ii. . i.; MAX Of A TIIKM.I.INU 
WOHLI) UKAMA. 

"The time is coming; when tin- iM)\vL'rs will coiiibiiK' t<i 
smash Great Britain. The L'iiit»-(l Stales will step in ami 
say. ' Don't '. ' "— Axduew ('AK.NKciiK. 

From the Jiiur mil (New York). 

IX one way or another, the p«Jsition of Great Britain 
lias had more Httentiitn from tlie cartoonists diir- 
iuii the jwist month than any otlier gr<inp of topics. 
Those iu American papers have expressed unlM)nn(h'<l 
amusement over John MulTs state of miml res|H'cting 



LIKKI.Y TO IIAPPO' ANY TIMK. 

" Why arc you carrylntf away the throne?" 
"Morkcan's iHiiitcht It, U>s«. He sjiy.s It'll make a nice porcit 
chair fur his summer cottatte." 

From the J'MiriKii i.New Vorkj. 

theso-calleil American invitsjon of KnKland. The car- 
toons on this pjii^e, particularly fhos*- l»y Mr. Opin-r, of 
tlie New York .hiiiniiil, are typical examples. It \\ii» 
hml enonKli to have Americans liuyini; up lioiiiion mil- 
ways and Hrilish steamship lines, tint the ■' a nn 
reached when an .Vmerican actunllv won the . 



jtmoyiL.TSQ^ I a 





John Hl'M. : "Oli, 1 •.ay. K«l anl. Kd'anl!' 
From the \\ ntlil (New Vorki. 



yell 



■J"> 



THE AStEKlCAN MOSTHLY RElll'M' Ol- RF.IIEU'S. 





'^^i 



tiKonoe WAsniNr.Tox: ' iJood lioy, 
Williiiin !"— From tlie Aorf/i -l;iiiria(/i 
PliiliuU'lpliin). 




McKixi.KV : " I guess that will do. judge ! " 
From the HcraM (Boston). 




THE Tvyyr boy of the pi^atte. / 
From the Pioneer Pretv (St. Paul ) . 











'1-?h>, 




■'■'% 



WILLIE AND HIS PAPA. 

" Xo, Teddy, you haven't got a living sliow for that piece 
of iiie ; nursie has her eye on it." 

From the Journal (New York). 




SHOO ! ! 

The Bee: "I may come back. 

From the World (New York). 




THE WORST PUZZLE YET. 

Does the Constitution follow the flag, or does the flag fol- 
low the Constitution, or does the flagstituti follow the const, 
or does the constitution follow the gag, or— where are we 
anyv,'ay?— From the Trihune (Minneapolis). 



THE MOMTH IN CARICATURE. 



29 




"And the l>in Ogre hiiviiig heard it sjiid 
That ihiMreii's hearts are set on Kin^erhread, 
Constructs a trap, and, witli tlie hread for halt. 
For greedy girls and boys tlieii lies in wait." 
From the Dailii Krijrcxti (London). 




AS IT Wll.l. IIK. 

HoL-SEHOi.DER BuLL : *" Wliat's this, another rise In coal ?" 
Thk Co.vi- Max : •'tJoneup.sir.onaffountof the Hudget." 
HoiSEHoLDEK BfLi, (angrily) : "This is 

too had. I heliive if tliere was no coal tax 

you'd still put up tlie iirici — and blame it 

on tosugarl"" From Mixmnhine (Loodoiu. 



Tiie cartoons on tliis page, nil "f 
them from I^mdoii sources, show the 
other side of the cJise. They reHect 
with much tidelity the real consterna- 
tion of the British public ou the sul>- 
ject of the alUlevourinK charact«T 
<jf the American trusts. In times 
past. P-iiKlish public upjiiioii has at- 
tributed everythin« that hapin-ned 
in America eitiier to the iiiHnerue nf 
the Irjxh votfe or else to the iiiiqui 
tons advocates of a protective tarilT. 
IJut now the trusts are supiK)seil to 
be the moving cause of everything 
that Kniilaiid regards as detrimental 
in any manner to her own interests. 
Meanwhile, tlie combination movi»- 
ment ha.s taken pretty firm root in 
Hritish soil, and the Hritlsh public 
will -.iKin dJM'over that it will have to 
give its attention to the trustx it han 
at home. 



Come under de old I'nibrrll*, 
Come along, pickatdnnies do; 
Hark til I'lii-li- Sam n-snigln|{, 
"There's room for all of you." 
From the K.rj>rr<w <t^>nd<>n). 




ItrtIV MTARIIiro TtlKM 



roAi. Ow;«EH : " Thi»l you, "nm ' >'•« - well, wr're »>rln» rulnisl. I><i you think 
a truol wiiiild nave \i^ from f '" 

r.M-i.r. Sam : " ••uefm )nii ■ •hllllrnr. Hut If yna llki* I'll bar op 

your old eoal-mlnen ■« well na your •Ul(M." lOwnrr rtiiifa uff, mill ihlDka beltvr 
of It.) — From 3f<Miii«iiln< (Lon'l..iii. 



:u> 



THE AMERICAN MOXTHI.Y RmrW Of KI-l^lEU'S. 



immi 




KITCHENBK IX THL <AVK. 

"Good heavens: I've forgotten the magic word 
and cannot e&<-ai>f witli my Kold." 

From tlie LuMine BUitter (Berlin). 

The four «irtoons on this page are from 
typical Continental papers.— one French, two 
German, and one Austrian,— all of them ex- 
pressing a bitter disapproval of British char- 
acter and policy, and accurately illustrating 
the truth of England's unpopularity. 



THE DANCE 



OF THE ENGLISH MILLIONS WASTED IN SOUTH AFRICA. 

From the Fiaaro (Vienna). 



THE MONTH IN CARICATURE. 



81 









John liri.t. : " 'Olysiuok.-, Hi tli«U(?lit that lid was nailed 
down."— From the J'»ur»iai \Uetroit). 




6 

W^^"^^ 




TIIK AUMY-OKGAMZATION SCHEME TO BCPI'OKT THE 
CiENEKALS. 

KitoDRiCK: "Yoli see we have six gowl generals, and wo 
Ml'ST K've them somt-thiiit; to do." 

Wl.NST<JN CHfHCIlII-l.: "I SUpiMise it Is all rinht. liut I 
have always thoiiKlit tliat the Kfiierals w»re made for the 
army, not thearmy for the generals." 

From Jhi1\i ( London ) . 




KINO EIIWAKO MAKINT. II(X>M FOK MIt.NEII IV THE 
HKITISM STATE HOSIMTAI.. 

From /v7.i«M<r.i.Jiir«. /i (Merlin). 



< ^ ^, 







\^' 



A^-> 



v:::^^:^ 



nil : LET IT HE HOON. 

From i\\e South African Urrleu- (C«p««Town). 



A > 
I)« \\>t oprM« U| 



. ICA. 

. Mnd Jolui Hull CPU 



rold f(H-t.-Fniin Ihr JoMmiil iMlntmt|HiUa>. 



:i'i 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REl^lEir OF REyiElVS. 




ij^t» fw*w«* -^j>>^#?r> 



\N Alt: "When this is all eaten up. the beasts must turn 
upon one another, or else tliey will eventually destroy me!" 
From the A'e6etepa»er (Zurich). 



THE MODERN PHCENIX, AS DISCLOSED IN 
THE RECtJPERATIVE ABILITY SHOWN BY 
THE CHINESE EMPIRE. 

From the Jugend (Berlin), 



COUNT TOLSTOY 1\ TlIorclIT AXD AC'l iOX 



BY R. K. C. LONC. 



IT is a very natural thing tliat the fortieth an- 
niversary of the emancipation of t!ie Kiissinn 
serfs sliould V»e accoinpanieil l>y (.listurl)aiK-i'. 'I'h*' 
"unfinished novel of ISGl." as it has been calleii, 
has not only wen left without its final cliai)ters, 
but since tlie later years of the reign of Alexainh-r 
II. it has l>een abridged and edited out of recogni- 
tion. The discontent of the students is, of course, 
no new svniptoni. It is older even than th«' 
emancipation itself, and if its existence is explained 
by the general state of Russian society, the causes 
which force it into actual revolt are generally ac- 
cidental. Hut the popular disturbances which 
acconipanietl the students' revolt are new [dienoiii- 
ena. Hitherto Russia has produced maityrcd in- 
dividuals in plenty. But, outside religious sec- 
tarianism, tliere have been few martyred causes. 
It is onlv now that we see the individual begin- 
ning to react upon the community. Thus we see 
the students supported by a working class whose 
fists and sticks were not long ago tlie chief instru- 
ments of repression, and a great number of edu- 
cated Russians of all classes openly expressing 
their sympathy with both ; and. finally, we see 
Count Tolstoy entering upon the scene as an ad- 
vocate of practical reforms, an«l as the mouth- 
piece of a class with whom he has often expressed 
an entire lack of sympathy. For he has always 
made it quite clear that he regards all govern- 
ment based on force, whether by a minority as in 
Russia, or by the majority as in western Kurope, 
with equal aversKjn. And he has certainly no 
more svmpathy with forcible protest than with 
forcible repression. Yet under the stress of cir- 
cumstances Tolstoy has suddenly appearetl on the 
scene as a champion of liussian Liberalism, which 
is, no less than the Russian Government, an em- 
bodiment of every idea which lit; abhors. 

There are other circumstances which bring 
Tolstov's name more promim-ntly before us than 
it has been for some time past. The first is his 
excommunication by the Holy Synod, and the 
second the news that he is engage<l upon a new 
novel which is to embody all his moral and social 
doctrines. Tolstoy's i-xcommunication was not 
unexpected. While maintaining Christianity, he 
had cut liim.self off fn.m the Church and the 
Church, claiming after its kin<l that it alone was 
Christian, cut him (.IT fn.m ifsell. The form of 
excf.mmunicatinti of the Russian Church is a very 
mild one, and Tolstoy at first held hiH jM'ace. 



But it evokeil very strong protests from hi« wife, 
who holtls to the ('hurch. and from t' • -.^ 

who have as little faith iir the Chun y 

himself, and mucli le.«»8 faith in Christianity. Tlie 
counte.ss wrote a very vehement letter of prot««t 
to M. I'obyedonostseflf, in which she showed 
plainly her concern at the step he had taken. 
The students behave»l characteristically. Tiiey 
marched, to the numl»er of five hund'-ed. to the 
Kazan I'athedral. and demande<l that tln'V also 
might be excommunicated. 

The excommunication was foUowtil l»y a cir- 
cular to the faithful, insisting that the count 
might still be savni if he rejx'Uted. But T«»l.'*toy 
wa.s no longer thinking of liis own salvation, liut 
of the salvation of liu.*isian st)ciety. lli> real 
reply to the l*rocuiator was expresw-d in a lettt«r 
to the Czar. It is one of the most notable of 
Tolstoy's productions, for it exhibits him publicly 
for the first time as an advocate of lil»eral reform. 
The nn'asures which Tolstoy advocati's have 
nothing whatever to do with the realization of 
Christian doctrine, whi«'li is the only .»»<M-ial move- 
ment which h»' has hitherto expressed himself ia 
sympathy with. They are measures which have 
l>een adopted long ago by other equally unchris- 
tian governments, and they do not mitigate in 
anv way the underlying evil of reliance ujion 
force which Tolstoy finds in all governments. 
The count's letter is a long one. But to sliow 
both its spirit and its pra<-lical natiif ■' '- worth 
while to (juote its most important pa 

.\uaiii rniir<l«'rs. iijfnin •.tn-rt sliiuylit«T«>. nu.iin tlirir 
will Ih' »'.Xfriiti<>n». ntfain t«'rri>r. fnlM- iiccii«^itii)ii<«, 
threats. Hiicl spit*' on tlie one liatuJ. atul ayain lin'rinl, 
the flesire for vengeance, ami rert<liiieH«* fur ••elf-sm rifle* 
KM the Dtlier. .Vuiiiii all HiiHsian men have divldefllnto 
twi) ronnictinu niinps an«l are ronuiiittinK an't prrjwir- 
iiiK l<» cofninit the ureat^-^t crime*. . . Why -h-mM 
this be MO* Why. when it \n no t*t>y to avoid it ' 

Wi- a»lilr«'Hs all of you men in power, fmm tin <■ mt 
meinlM-rt of the -.tafe eotinril. mini«.teni. to tlie reU- 
tjvfH — ntirleo, brotlii'r« of the t >j»r. ami tho»e near to 
him. who are able to inllnenre hin> l»y iM-rxiinHion We 
ailelreoH yon, not «h onr enentlr*. but rn bmtlirm who 
are. whether yon will or not. neot'HHnrlly eonmi-tiHl «ith 
w* in •.nch a way that all Hn(Trrin»r« whlrh we nni|erK<> 
affeef you al-^t, ami yet more oppre—.l\«'ly : If yon ferl 
that you ctMiU\ have removal thii«r ontTeriniri an«l ilid 
not do Mt net in ••iich a way that thi« romlition of 
thinifx Khoiihl eeaiM*. . . . The iilanu- ll«-* not on evil, 
tnrlinlent men. Imt in yon niler*, wlio <lo not wl«h t« 
«te«* anvthinK at the pre<wnt nwrntent rxrrpf your own 



I 



t IlL. .1 



MERICAN MOSTHLY Rl-i'lFM 01 KRI'IFM'S. 



' .11 li»« Hill ill your (IpfciiiliiiK yoiir> 

■11 Iinrin. — no mu- 

-; t)n' OlUJHf of S(»- 

Mrii, lis .1 whoU'. oaii- 

'■ ii always preforto live 

lU»\Vf4, Aim! if Ht pri's- 

-.'t'lii to wish you liariii. it 

:.' tlu'iu an olistarh- wliii-li 

:. Iiiit hImi III ill ions of tlit'ir lirotli- 

. , .4 iinian K^^otl- rr I.un and euliglit- 

■ MllCtit 

|i. ilil roaw til ii-\olt and to at- 

mrk .. and tliat litth- is so m-res- 

iwry for you yoiirM-lvfrs ii wchiIjI so evidi-iitly ^\\v you 
j» •' •' ■• -v-.tild inde«<l be strange if you ilid not 

\\liii"li is iiecessjiry may l>e expressed in 
t ! _ wonJs : 

First, to itraiit the |>ea.sant workiiiy classes e(|ual 
riKlils with all other classes of the population, and 
Iherefon* to 

(«il AUili^li the senseless, arliitraiy institution of 
Z«Miiskie naehalniki (who control the acts of 
the iH'asants' representative institutions). 
\b) Aludish the special rule-, which restrain the re- 
lations between workinginen and their em- 
ployers. 
(CI Liberate the peasitiits from the necessity of pur- 
cbiUiing |)Ms.sj)orts in order to move from place 
to plaee, and als«i from those comjiulsory ob- 
ligations which are laid exclusively on tiiem, 
such as furnishing accomniodat ion and horses 
for goverument ollicials, men for police service, 
etc. 
id) LiU-rate them from the unjust ol)lii,'ation of pay- 
ing the arrears of taxes incurred liy other jicas- 
ants, and also from the annual tribute for the 
land allotted to them at their emancipation, 
lh»- value of which has long ago been paisl in. 
(C» .\ljove all. aliolish the senseless, utterly uniieces- 
s;iry. shameful corporal punislimeut which 
ha.s been retained only for the most indu.s- 
trioiis, moral, and numerous class of the popu- 
lation. . . . 
Seoon<lly. it is necessarj- to cea.se putting in force the 
srwalle*! rules of siiecial defense (martial law) which 
annihilate all existing laws, and give tlie populatioTi 
Into the [K)wer of rulers very often immoral, stupid, 
and cruel. The abolition of this "martial law" is im- 
portant. Ijecause the ce.s.sation of the action of the gen- 
eral laws develrjps secret reports, espionage, encourages 
and culls forth coarse violence often directed against 
the 1 'la.s.ses in their difTerences with employers 

and , ;- (nowhere are sucli cruel tortures had 

recourse to a.s where these regulations are in force). 
.\nd. above all. Iiecause. thanks only to this terrible 
measure is capital i>iinishini'nt more and more cjfteii 
rfsort«-d to — that act which depraves men more tliaii 
anything else, is contrary to the spirit of the Russian 
people, ha» not heretofore Ijeen recognized in our ccxle 
of laws, and represents the greatest possible crime, 
forbidden by God anil the conscience of man. 

Thirdly, we should alxdish all obstacles to education, 
the bringing up and teaching of children and men. 
We should : 

(«l Cea.se from making distinctions in the accessibil- 
ity to education Ijetween persons of various 
social positions, and. therefore, abolish all ex- 



ceptional i)nihibitions of popular readings, 
teachings, and books, which for some rciison 
are regarded as harmful to the people. 
(/») Allow participation in all sciiools, of people t)f all 
iiiitionalities and creeds. .lews included, who 
have for some reason been deprived of I his right, 
(c) Cease to hinder teachers from speaking languages 
which the children who frecjuent the schools 
speak. 
(<?) Above all. allow the organization and manage- 
ment of every kind of private schools, both 
higher and elementary, by all persons who de- 
sire to engage in keeping sciiools. 
This emancipation of education from tlie restrictions 
under which it is now placed is important, because these 
limitations alone hinder the working people from liber- 
ating themselves from that very ignorance which now 
serves t he government as the chief argument for fasten- 
ing these limitations on the people. 

Fourthly and lastly — and this the most important : 
It is necessary to abolish all restraint ou religious 
freedom. It is necessary : 

(a) To abolish all tho.se laws according to which any 
digression from the Established Church is pun- 
i.shed as a crime ; 
(h) To allow the opening and organization of the old 
sectarian chapels and churches : also of the 
prayer-houses of Baptists, Molokaus, Stuudists, 
and all others; 
(c) To allow religious meetings and sermons of all 

denominations ; 
((7) Not to hinder people of various faiths from edu- 
cating their children in that faith which they 
regard as the true one. 
It is necessary to do this because, not to s))eak of tlie 
truth revealed by history and science and recognized by 
the whole world — that religious persecutions not only 
fail to attain their object, but produce opposite results, 
strengthening that which thej' are intended to destroy ; 
not to speak of the fact that the interference of govern- 
ment in the sphere of faith producesithe most harmful 
and therefore the worst of vices — hypocrisy, so power- 
fully condemned by Christ ; not to speak of this, the in- 
trusion of government into c}uestions of faith hinder.^ 
the attainment of the highest welfare both of the indi- 
vidual and of all men — i.e., a mutual union. Union 
is in nowise attained by the compulsory and unrealiza- 
ble retention of all men in the external profession of one 
bond of religious teaching to which infallibility is attrib- 
uted, but only by the free advance of the community 
toward truth. 

Such ai-e the modest and easily realized desires, as 
we believe, of the majority of the Russian people. Their 
adoption would undoubtedly pacify the people and de- 
liver them from those dreadful sufferings (and that 
which is woi'se than sufferings), from those crimes 
which will inevitai)ly be committed on both sides if the 
government continues to be concerned only in subduing 
disturbances while leaving their causes untouched. 

So far as Tolstoy's publications go, this is 
almost the first admission that lie recognizes 
existing governments, and even sees in them pos- 
sibilities foi- good. To any one wholly ignorant 
of Tolstoy's life it might seem, indeed, that he 
had abandoned his patli of detached denunciation 
and entered upon the ways of practical reformers. 



COUNT TOLSTOY t\' THOUGHT ASD ACTIOS. 



:{:> 



diflfering from them only in that ho is more fear- 
less. Hut tins view is really not in accoril with 
Tolstov's life. He lias always l>i'en a very prac- 
tical man, in whom the stru;;gle between his own 
ideas and the immediate needs of the world around 
him has been very keen. In his letter to the 
Czar he is merely a practical liberal Kiissian who 
wishes. tii*st of all. for an improvement in the 
present method of government. But it is certain 
that when the stress of present circumstances is 
past lie will return to his rule of academic de- 
nunciation. That he is able to personate both 
rdles without impairing his efficiency in either 
indicates a verv strange dualism in his character. 



In view of the interest awakene«l. however, by 
the recent event* which have centenni chiefly 

ariMind Tolstovs n.i me in>j ■• I 

during a numlM'r • ;s to li.. ■> 

Moscow home mav not be without value. 



I. 



I\ MO.^COW. 




( ur.NT Tol.-f'V 

(From a plintournpli tiik.n n-t-.-iitl) iit V'.-""V'' 



COUNT TOLSTOY 

We have heard a great deal of ToUl<»y aa a 
practical sympathizer with the rev ' ' 's 

of Russian society within the lai?t i it 

what is the moat general conception of Tolstoy 
and of his dady life? It is a« a worker in the 
fiehl. as he is depicted in Hepin's sketches, i' • 
ing on his own estate, or _ 
ering in his crops, or helping 
his ju'love*! ts to gather 

in theiiTj. i . _. a« a fai nier 
is familiar to every one. Tol- 
stoy as a townsman is quite an 
unfamiliar figure. The innu- 
merabh* accounts which have 
l)een written of Tolstoy on his 
•<• near Tula, the iM-rjH'tnal 
,: , . lilion of the words Va^nava 
I'olyana until they seeme«l to 
Ih; an essential part of Tolstoy 
' <At. and Tolstoy's own in- 
iice upon tin- merits of the 
peasant, have given ris*' in most 
men's minds to an unchanging 
vision of Tolstoy the count ry- 
iiuin. who avoids all towns a-s he 
voulil the pest, and n'gards the 
verv piirpos<»s for which great 
c ities e.\ist as alM)minations. 
That Tolstoy fi>r half the year 
s a nion'.*«'ttled townsman than 
ilie liord Mavor of Louiioii few 
IM'ople imagine. .\nd so far as 
iiisown Udiefsand inclinations 
.ire concerned, the picture is 
rue. Yet it is e<|ually true 
iliat the practical working Tol- 
-lov is, a great jwirt of his tinje, 
: 1 V. '!cr in cities. 

,1 n'luarkable thing, con- 

! ing the comparative acces- 

ty of M ' ' ^" 'va 

. ,.ana. ti...: •'» 

\vriit«>n alnuii Tolstoy in Moh 

.OW. Yet the cnuwe '■ «• 

Mc In Mi"»cow,Tolsi.-; .^■■idy 

.ill jib^tiM' ""II tti««l • »l>«dow 

of hin In the city he 

ui It is in '' u- 

, tlint he i ■•*. 

,...,, ,.„„.) A n.l Tolstoy the man who live* 



m 



THE AMEKICA>J MOSTHLY R HI /HIV OF REI^/EIVS. 



bin nwn iilMl life Itus ftlways \^eon a ffroater ob- 
II tlinn tlu» mere pn-acluT 

I iii- man «m » x<i.ui>li> is inucli runT 
t •• man of j»nMvpl. So while wo nil are 
fainiliar with Tolstoy as a worker in the lieUi. a 
j . ■ ' ' ml ft schooliiiHster, Tol- 

.. , rs. or laKoriii^ only at 

iig of his own ideas, is a ligiuv un- 
Kii- wii 111 iiii's; 

y.' •■ Moscow is Count Tolstoys home 

thro whole of the long Russian win- 

ter, Tolstoy is in it, but not of it. He forms no 
part of - ' ial or common intellectual 

life. T: _ — <'ven of educated Kussiaus 

know little about the greatest man who has ever 
lived among them ; and during the first months 
of my residence in the Russian capital I gleaned 
very little truth as to his way of life. The 
strangest and most contra«lictory reports were 
current, some attributing to him the wildest ex- 
travagances, and circulating perpetual rumors as 
to the intention of the government to expel him ; 
and otliers declaring that the authorities regarded 
Lim with favor, as a useful corrective to the 
materialist ideas so popular among the Russian 
youth. Few knew more than that he lived on 
the outskirts of the town, that his address was 
Hamovnitcheski Lane, ami was situated near the 
famous Devitche Polye, the Hampstead Heath 
of Russia's old capital, the scene on holidays of 
what is probably the bravest merrymaking in the 
world. It was with the object of learning the 
real facts, and of gaining the privilege of speak- 
ing to the greatest Russian of his time, that in 
the midwinter of 185)8-1)9 I sought an introduc- 
tion. To Russians, Tolstov is not always acces- 
sible. His family know that if he were to receive 
the thousands who seek his acquaintance his 
time would be taken up with notliing else. But 
it IS everywhere one of the privileges of foreign- 
ers that they are few in numbers, and therefore 
enjoy exceptional opportunities, quite apart from 
an)' personal claim. To Englishmen, I liad been 
told, Tolstoy was especially indulgent; but whether 
this was due to their comparative scarcity or to 
any personal predilection, I have never heard. 
But, whatever be the cause, my reqtiest for per- 
mission to call upon him was favoraltly answered. 
A drive of half an hour will take you from 
the center of Moscow to the street where Tolstoy 
lives. It is a wonderful half liour — especially 
when made, as it must be, in winter — and a fit- 
ting road for such a pilgrimage. Moscow is 
always a city of marvel ; but Moscow in winter, 
and by moonlight, is a miracle. And from the 
center of Moscow to the house of the Tolstoys, 
almost on the margin of the surrounding forests, 
is the most miraculous part of all. If you were 



to sit in iin exhibition and watch unrolling be- 
fore you an liistorical and piclorinl panoiama of 
ancient and modern Russia, yt)U would not find 
more compression of opj)osing elements than you 
acluallv pass on the road to the Devitche Polye. 
From the endless l)Oulevards and Ijrilliaiit streets 
you glide rapidly tli rough frozen snow into the 
Farisian domain of the great Moscow arcade, 
across the Red S(]uare, with its frightful associa- 
tions and monstrous Oriental temple of Basil the 
lilessed, and then slowly up the hill through the 
sacred gate of the Kremlin. And once in the 
Kremlin, you traverse a .spot wliere are concen- 
trated all the a.ssociation& of Russia — historical, 
official, and religious. It is tlie whole history of 
Russia written in stone and stucco, a microcosm 
of the countiy as it appears to a careless ob- 
server, — all royalty, religion, and police. The 
hideous orange-painted palace of the Czars, the 
barrack offices of the administration, and the 
temples and monasteries crowded upon the hill- 
top seem to hold dominion over the town as 
assured as that of their occupiers over the whole 
of the Russian land. It is a magnificent picture. 
But it is a strange mental preparation for a visit 
to the man who has all his life waged unceasing 
war against the conditions which it symbolizes. 

But the home of the Tolstoys is a long cry 
even from the westei'nmost walls of the Krem- 
lin. There is much more religion and police be- 
fore you reach Hamovnitcheski Lane. Outside 
its walls you flash past the great Rumantiseff 
Museum, in the moonlight gleaming whiter even 
than the snow, and down the ill-named Prechis- 
tenka, — it signifies very clean, and indeed now in 
its winter whiteness it justifies the name. Then 
a few minutes more among the invading trees, 
and you reach the " House of the Countess Tol- 
stoy," as it is ostentatiously labeled. Hamov- 
nitchesky Lsina differs very little from any of 
the other old-fashioned streets in the suburbs of 
Moscow, and the "House of the Countess Tol- 
stoy " differs from the other houses not at all. 
In its external view it resembles closely the houses 
of the old-fashioned Russian traders on the south 
of the Moskva River. It is a two-storied house, 
shut in from view by a high fence inclosing a 
large door, with stables or outhouses facing the 
front. Xor is there anything very characteristic 
of its owner in the greater part of the interior of 
the house. On my first visit I was surprised to 
see a number of military and official uniform 
coats hanging in the hall. The door was opened 
by a man-servant, and generally the interior was 
that of a rather homely town -house of a Russian 
country gentleman. Count Tolstoy's room, where 
he does his work, receives his visitoi's, and pi-ac- 
tically lives, is on the upper story. As in most 



COUNT TOLSTOY IN THOUGHT AND ACTION. 



87 



Ru«sian houses. arniiig»'<l fur tho purpose ■ 
luuiittaining equal)li' lu-at, all the rooms com 
luunicate witli one aiiuilu'r, ami to reacli Tol- 
stoy's room you must first pass througli a num- 
ber of others. It is here you catch the first 
glimpse of the Tolstoy family as they are, their 
relations to one another, ami their relations to 
life. It is ill uo way remarkable, ami in inanv 
ways a real practical help to Tolstoy, thai his 
familv is not unanimous in support of his views. 
The division is a<lmirably e.\j)ressed in the econ- 
omy of their Moscow home. The two rooms 
which vou must pass through in order to reach 
the hermit's cell are in every way arranged as is 
usual among the class to which Tolstoy belongs. 
During my first and most of my later visits, 
thev were thronged with people engaged chiefly 
in amusing themselves, an<l there was an air of 
tasteful luxury and worhlly, if harmless, gayety 
over all. It was a fraction of the great world of 
which Tolstoy forms no part, but with which. 



f^UKe 



ui 



•y, lie . _ ^ «»?. 

The me<-hani(«in of the trantiforniation vhirb 
biiiigs b«-foii' you the scene of Toistoy'B real 
lift? is very simple. You descend a couple o( 
steps. o|R'n a little door to the right, and the 
second scene api>ear8. It is a httle room, Hghltnl 
by i '.. camlle by n ' • ' ■' • 

win y day, simpi} 

any affectation of simplicity. Two tables cov- 
ered with Ixioks and pajxTs, a ' fa, 
and a few chairs were all the ... .. ...ch 

it contained, but in the dim can<i there 

was a general air of overcrowding and disonler. 
It was pla': ' room of a man wli.. I ' in- 
fort in CI'! ^ . but who looked «>n ipt 

for comfort as too natural a thing for ostenta- 
tious expression. But in all there was an air of 
contrast to the rest of the iiou8i>, iiighly sym- 
bolical to tlu>se who have studied both Tol- 
stoy's life and teachings. To such an observer 




lul.»lwk A.M> tllA tAUll.t. 



38 



THE AMERIC/tS MOSTHl.Y RHl /Hli' OJ- KE^IFM^S. 



■1 •> it,,>' fli.. 1. ,..>... .v. Ml in its )iuMl««r- 

J, . cal prinriples. 

w -.vorlu in wiiicii \w lived, llo couM 

' . ' ' • t oven rench liis own 

, ijjii it. lint ho liad 

nn exc«»llonl working compromise in his 
,,A ■ is own life, and batinp not 

. ... .... , . ...ciplos. but recognizing, fust 

the fact that ho could not force others to 
ri. It was the actual comproiuiso 
■A iiifi made in the wider worlil Itetwccn 

J,;, action.'^, which, in spite of all his aca- 

denijc dogniatisni, has made him an exception 
among extreme thinkers by his caivicity to ad- 
just himself in action to things as tliey are. 

The first sight of Tolstoy confirms this view. 
His app«'arance has been so often described that 
it is hardly necessary to say anything about it. 
It is the apjx^arance of an intellectual fanatic, but 
not of a dreamer. He is of middle height, and 
the peasant's blouse pufTed out behind his shoul- 
ders protiuces the impression of a distinct stoop. 
His expression, like that of TurgenieiT, has been 
likened to the expression of a transfigured mu- 
zhik. But there is really nothing about him re- 
sembling the C'hristlike peasant at his best. His 
face is rude ; his nose broad, with dilated nostrils ; 
Ids mouth coarse and determined, anvi his fore- 
head high, but sloping toward the top. His eyes, 
small, light gray, and deeply sunken, glitter out 
from underneatli shaggy, projecting brows. The 
whole expression of his face is ascetic and irrita- 
ble, with a dash of Tartar ferocity coming from 
the eyes. Trimmed and mustached, it might 
be the face of a Cossack officer, but it is never 
that of the dreamy and benevolent peasant. The 
general impres.sion one would draw from a first 
glance is quite in accord with the glimpses which 
Tolstoy has given us of his past life. It is the 
face of a man with the moral instincts and moral 
inclinations of the ordinary man, but who differs 
from the ordinary man in that his whole being 
is dominated by a fanatical intellectual earnest- 
ness, — who, therefore, in the first struggle between 
instinct and conviction, would surrender imme- 
diately to conviction. l?ut it is the face of a man 
who, while absolutely unshakable in his convic- 
tions, sees things as they are, and is under no 
delusion as to his ability to change them. 

But Tolstoy was not in his cell when first I 
entered it. In a few minutes he came in, with 
a copy of the Revue Blanche and a great roll of 
papers under his arm, and after a few words of 
greeting threw liimself into his armchair, and, 
with his general assumption that every one had 
read everything, began to condemn severely a 
story which he had been reading. He spoke in 
English, very correctly, but with a strong Rus- 



sian accrnt, declaring that he had forgotten much 
from want (»f practice, but read as well as ever. 
Then he began to (lueslion uk- as to the ]»ur])Ose 
of mv visit to Russia, and finding that I had 
some knowledge of his own language, lie lapsed 
su<ldenlv into Russian, asking innumeraltle ques- 
tions. Indeetl, my first impression of Tolstoy 
was that of a questioner, who asked somewhat 
naive questions, such as might be expected from 
an Oriental whose interest in things outside his 
own sphere was only just awakening. Ilis own 
language he seemed to speak with remarkable 
simplicity and pui-ity, avoiding foreign words, 
and invariably employing the popular suidi and 
(itdi (hither and thither) instead of the correct 
siudd and tiidd. But the intonation of his voice 
showed very ])lainly his peasant associations. 
The ordinary educated Russian speaks rapidly. 
Tolstoy spoke slowly, mouthing every word with 
a droning intonation only a shade removed from 
the peasant's whine. He seemed in excellent 
health, and moved nervously and energetically, 
waving a ruler witli his right hand. But in reply 
to my inquiry as to liis health he said : '• Up till 
now I have been very well, but I am beginning 
to feel old age." Then for the first time he spoke 
of himself, saying that he wished to get out of 
Moscow, and tliat only consideration for his 
wife's health kept him in town. But I afterward 
learned that he was in the habit of spending all 
his winters in Moscow, and that he regarded, 
therefore, the winter-time as wasted. But as, in- 
stead of tilling the land, he was engaged in revis- 
ing the manuscript of "Resurrection,'" few will 
share his regret. 

From Moscow he turned suddenly to the sub- 
ject of the Dukhobortsi, the first and last subject 
of which I ever heard liim speak. He told me 
that a number of them w-ere emigrating from the 
Caucasus to Eastern Siberia, and that he was 
writing a letter to the captain of one of the Amur 
steamers, asking liim to do what he could to in- 
sure their safety. He then began to speak of the 
condition of the Dukhobortsi in Canada, com- 
plaining that they were terribly hampered by 
want of ready money, and that in order to obtain 
capital to clear the land granted to them by the 
Canadian government they had been obliged to 
take service on the railways, thus biinging about 
a dispute with the regular railway employees. 
They had been disappointed also by the climate, 
finding it difficult to grow fruit, as they were 
accustomed to do in their former homes. His 
eldest son was then on his way hom^ from Can- 
ada, whither he had accompanied the emigrants, 
and Tolstoy evidently spoke fi-om his son's re- 
ports. During the whole of the spring of 1899. 
the Dukhobor movement w^as the one practical 



COCWT TOLSTOY /N THOUGHT AND .n, i iU.M, 



30 



sul>ject in which he seemetl keenly intere»te«i 
aiul he invariably glowed into anger or ailinim 
tion when he sj>oke of iheni. •• It is a wonderful 
work — a wonderful work.' he said. •It is a 
great loss that more is not known about it in 
Eurojx;.'' "But Euroj^ could never give them 
any practical help. Their jMjsition in any ¥.".•' 
{>ean country would be no l>etter than in Hu- .> 
If tliey had not to serve in tlie army, they must 
pay war taxes." I said. -'That is .so," he said ; 
••but it is a great loss that so little is knuwn 
al>out them." 

Uf the Dukhobor movement m gt-neral In- 
spoke very often, and nearly always witii admi- 
ration of the peasant Sutayetif, who he seemed to 
think was quite unknown outside his own circle. 
••It is the only attempt to realize Christiaiiitx 
tliat I can see." he saiii, and then nu'Utioned tiic 
•.Quakers, of whom he had evidently read much. 
Hut in general his conversation was desuhorv, 
and when his eye fell upon some book or papii 
lying near, he would take it up, drop the first 
subject, and )>egin to talk of V)Ooks. lie seemed 
to receive large numbers of works in English, 
especially American wi^rks on social and theolog 
ical questions, and spoke about some of them 
very warmly. But in regard to novels his atti- 
tude was almost invariably the .same. He would 
begin by praising them for their literary skill. 
characterization, and knowledge of life, and eml 
by saying that they lacked the only justification 
of art — its serious interest and moral import. 
< )f his own writings, with the exception of letters 
and articles upon social questions upon which h»' 
was actually engaged, he never talked ; and the 
general belief tliat he regarded his former novels 
as worthle.ss prevented the question being raised. 
Only once he mentioned his writings, and then 
in conn«'ction with the translations done by Mrs. 
Maude, which he praised highly. 

Tolstoy's si)eech in general was witty, placid, 
full of aphorisms and illustrations taken from 
popular lift*, many of wliich are very difficult for 
a foreigner to uiidei-sland. Only when he sjxjke 
of oppression and wrongdoing <lid his maiinrr 
change, and the change then was into anger, not 
compassion; even when dealing with misfortunes 
for which no one could l)e held responsible, ile 
seemed a man in whoin sensibility was r<'pla<'ed 
by an intense and hardly defined sense of right 
and wrong. Though indulgent toward difTeien<-es 
of opinion and habits in individuals, he seemed 
in general impatient, irritalde. and almost in- 
tolerant of opposition. OpjMisition on •/••M.-t!)! 
principles seemed to annoy him. His la 
was the language of a num of warm, masterful tern 
p»'rament, to whom any attempt to s!.' 
self to abstract rules of humil tv inul : 




t,-«IUNT T<>IJtTt>T AKU HIM WIFK. 

must hv an intolerable strain. In repose his face 
was rigid, severe, and prophetic. He 8|K>k« with 
a sarcastic contempt of things wl ' ' ' ' ' .1, 
and his laugh, even wiien cHusid |. 

ment. soiimled ironical. 

Of Tolstoy's manner <if life in Mk.-mow I saw- 
little, my visits l»eing always in the evening. It 
S4>emed much less varied than at Vasnaya I'olyanA. 
He worke<l all the morning in a chacw of unin- 
telligible II ' ' late. .1 ' le Of 
receivt'd vi- g. < >f \ - thern 
were a great many, and all. whether 8lrantf«>ni nr 
relatives, were tn-attnl on ' le 
familiarity, inf • . ■. i- m- >» ..^. in- 
tentions, and o, oliMTved with all. 
My lirai visit was cut short by the rounl mtX' 
iiotincing that he ' ' .,\ 

another vi.««it<»r t«) t;.' , . .. id 

ii«* to accom|Miny the party m if it were i\w must 

ral thing in the world. Tlit* "f 

..,. .1 .1 . ...... ,....! i; ^„ 

If 



40 



THF l\1FR/(:.4\' MONTHLY RFl'/F.ir O/' RFI^/FIVS. 



t. 



hot ii i" ••"' »'xli"l»- 

' , ,u' »>fT»T was a 

1 imrusioii h'«l iiu' 



I 



timi tluMi' 1^ iJolli- 
is imiustrv ami tlu' 
;narv niiv wl>icl» he lavishes n\nn\ the 
11 ami revision of liis niamisciiitts. A 
• ■;: often as diflioult for the printer 
manuscript, ami the manufiript, 
even after copying and recopying innumerable 
tiinrs— :» \v..rk which is perforined by members 
of ins lamily — is quite uniutelligil'le at first 
glance. Itut in spite of all this elaboralion. '\\>\- 
slov's style has none of the finish and limpidity 
of i' - • • fT's. Letters and articles for the for- 
eign - . loliibited by the censor in Russia are 
reproduced by the cyclostyle process in violet ink. 
The Countess' Tulstoy is his chief — not always an 
appreciative — critic. Though Tolstoy is rather 
impatient of objections against his teachings on 
general grounds, he is indulgent to criticisnj in 
detail, and he regards indiscriminate admiration 
witii distrust. It is said that on one occasion when 
tohl of the raptures of critics over " Master and 
Man."' he asked. " Have I written anything very 
stupid ?" The remark is too epigranunatic to be 
.'ennine. But that the story should be told is 
>ignificant of Tolstoy's deep distrust of the general 
tendencies of criticism in art and in life. 



II. —TOLSTOY OX WAli AND PEACE. 

It was inevitable that any one who visited 
Count Tolstoy in the winter of 1899 should hear 
his opinions of war and peace in general, and on 
the coming conference at The Hague in [jarticular. 
The South .'.frican trouljle liad not then assumed 
an acute form, and the one great subject of in- 
terest in western Europe was tlie jjroposal of the 
Cziir. In Ku.«sia, the interest was hardly as keen. 
for the students' riots overshadowed everything, 
an<l the Finnish trouble was growing bigger and 
bi-u'fr every day. But Tolstoy's interest, always 
;i' !'<• in such matters, was greatly stimulated ijy 
appeals for his opinion from England and the 
' -itinent. At the time of my second visit, he 
iiad just completed a long letter in reply to a re- 
quest for advice from some members of the 
Swedish Parliament. It was the first of a series 
of letters to societies and individuals, in all of 
whicli he condemned the Czars proposals em- 
pliatically, and prophesied their failure, llis 
Swedish correspondents had made, among others, 
wliat seemed an excellent practical suggestion, — 
that all persons wlio refused on conscientious 
grounds to undergo mihtaiy training should pay 
their debt to the state by performing an equiva- 



l.-Mt amount ol useful work. But the idea, which 
»pp.'ided to Tolstoy at first on its merits, he re- 
jcctt'd unhesitatingly. No conference called to- 
g«'tln'r by govi'inmeiits as they existed could do 
anvthing to aliolish war or less(!n its (^'ils, lie de- 
clared ; and he reail his lctt(u- aloud in Russian 
ill his peculiar peasant's voice, punctuating every 
sentence with the words, "You understand?" 
When he hail concluded, he said, emphatically: 
"'J'liat is what 1 think of tlie F^mperor's confer- 
ence! " Adding, ajigriiy : "It is all baseness 
and hypocrisy — nothing more." These were his 
arguments : 

The first reason why governments cannot and will 
not abolish war is that armies and war are not acci- 
dental evils, but are symptoms and essential parts of 
government as it exists itself. When I say, therefore, 
that the conference is liypocritical, I do not mean that 
it is essentially so. But when you declare your inten- 
tion to do something which cannot be done without 
changing your whole life, and when you do not intend 
to change your whole life, you must be a hypocrite. 
Thus the Czar's proposal is a hypocritical proposal, and 
its acceptance hy other nations is a hypocritical accept- 
ance, without any faith in its success. 

You see that the governments are proposing merely 
to conceal the symptoms of their own disease by dimin- 
ishing the opportunities for war. By such means they 
think to turn the mindsof people from the true remedy, 
which is only to be found in their own consciences. Yet 
t hey cannot succeed even in tliis attempt. A conference 
summoned by govei-nments cannot in any way lessen 
the dangers of war or even diminish its evils. Becau.se 
there can be no trust between two armed men who 
imagine t iiat their interests are in conflict. They cannot 
agree to limit their armaments, because they have no 
faith in one another's promises. If they had faith in one 
another's promises, they would need no armies at all. 
And if it is not necessary to have a million men to decide 
a quarrel, why is it necessary to have half a million ? 
Why not a quarter of a million? And it they really 
can decide to equalize their forces at a quarter of a 
million, why not at ten or one ? The reason is that 
they do not trust one another. At the .siege of Sebas- 
topol, Prince Urusov. seeing that one of the bastions 
had been taken and retaken several times, and that 
its ultimate retention rested merely on chance, pro- 
posed to the general in command that the opposing 
forces should select an o/Ticer to play chess for the 
possession of the bastion. Of course, his iiroposal was 
laughed at. Because the commander knew that while 
each might consent to i)lay chess on the chance of get- 
ting the l)astjon witliout any trouble, there was noth- 
ing to jn-event the loser making a fresh attempt to 
capture it by force of arms. Tlie reason why killing 
men instead of playing che.ss was adopted as a means 
of solving disputes was that it was the ultima r((tio ; 
and when you have killed sufficient men, your enemy 
must keep terms with you. But making war with lim- 
ited armies is not the ultimd ratio, and there is nothing 
to prevent the beaten side raising anotlier army to con- 
tinue the killing. It is quite true tliat a peace confer- 
ence may lay down rules against this. But since every 
nation that goes to war justifies itself on the ground 
that its enemy has not kept faith, no nation in time of 



COUNT TOLSTOY IN THOUGHT AND ACTION. 



41 



war can reganl the keeping of faith witlj its eueiii}- ah 
an obligation. 

You tell nie that the nations have h1 ready entered 
into agreements as to the way in which they will carry 
on war. This is quite true, though tlie so-ijiII.m! rules 
for the huuiaiii/.ing of war are nevi-r kept. Hut no 
nation has ever entered intoan agreement with another 
to limit its ability to carry on war. Ami governments 
cannot in any case limit their armaments for anothiT 
reason. Itecaus*- each rules l)y force over count ries whose 
inhabitants desire their independence. I'lie govern- 
ments distrust not only one another, but also their 
own subjects. But jisthisisa nece-sj»ry function nf a 
government, no government can bring alxmt peace. If 
all men were giiide<l by their con.seieiices, anil trusted 
one another, there would be nogovernmeiitsand no wars. 

But you tell me that if governments cannot stop wars 
they may make them less terrible. rhi-.i>a delii>iun 
in most people's minds, and a liyiMicritical pretense on 
the part of those who are interestwl in maintaining 
war. It is hy|>ocritical pretense, l)ecau-.e it is used with 
the intention of making men believe that war is less 
cruel than it is. Thus govermnetits prohibit the use of 
explosive bullets because of the injuries they iiiHict, and 
do not prohibit ordinary buUet.s which in many ca.ses 
inflict just as painful injuries. They pmhiliit e.vplosive 
bullet-* for the same reasons as th')se which prevent them 
killing women ami children— that is to say, because it 
does not serve their ends, and nor l)ecause it is cruel. 

Therefore, I do not wish that the t'zars conference 
maj" succeed any more than I believe in its success. Kveii 
if it did what it proposed to tlo, it would only divert 
men's minds from the true solution which is p<>-sil)le 
for every one. That is, for each man to Ik* guidt-d bv 




his conwiencv, which t«dlH him that nil wnr U murder. 
When every mnn in convinc«<<l of thin, there will iie no 
mi>re warn, nnii no niore K"vernnieuu to make tbeni. 

'• Hut ,si ... ^^ 

or gnmp <•[ . :...., ;ai« 

Ix'lief, and were to live together in iiioal peace, 
it is still not to l)e exjH'ctol tliat lli.» world will 
Ix* siniultaiH'ously convfrted. .\ ■ ' • • -'lat 
an uncuMvert»Hl nation wiiich ni.> .id 

system were to threaten the lives add liappineaa 
of the converted nation. Would not the con- 
v(>rteil nation be furceil into war again ?"' 

•'No; because if they were ronverte«l. they 
Would he led by their consciences and by Chris- 
tianity, and they would know that wnr is mur- 
der. Tiiey would know that Christianity liid not 
prohibit them laying down their own livee, but 
tliat it prohibited them from taking the lives of 
others." 

From the question of war and |)eace Tolstoy 
turned siidilenly to an American book on theol- 
ogy which he was reading, and which he ex- 
pressed great a«lniiration for. liiit ten minutes 
later the question an^so again under quite a dif- 
ferent form. I liad been reading a Inxik just 
published by a weil-known Hu.ssiun writer, the 
object of which was to prove thai war was an un- 
profitable speculation, and would no l<»nger com- 
p«'ii.sate any country for the sacrifices it 'I. 

It was reported tliat this book had cui . ile 

effect upon the Czar in in<Uicing him l<» call to- 
gether the conference which Tolstoy condemned. 
< hi every pag»^ there was an insistence ti ••' moral 
and sentimental considerations lia<l ! _ to do 

vith the alxilition of war. War was a specula- 
tion, .said tin* writt-r, and ow • ' in its 
nature and in the social coin; iro|»e, 
it could no longer pay. Therefore, no sensible 
power was likely to enter u|>on it. To siipjMjrt 
this view there v>a» a •.-•■•■• 'jass of material ad- 
duced as to military, ; .1, and scx-ial condi- 
tions of Kuro|>e. I iM»n tins l>ook I a.sked (\>unt 

.il 

of 

and 

it 

It 



CUC.NT TOIJdToV AT ItKnT. 

(Front II |iulnth)K by Kephi.) 



Tolstoy's opinion, although I wi 
that he would answer that the a , 

view was immoral, that war was murder 
that those who did not munlcr merely ' 

\va^ unprofitable wer<- - ■' ' '" 

wii.i did. Hut to niy 

is a very interesting book. It h of great value. 

It will serve a great pur|M>se if everv one n'ads 

it." 

It wiw my firxi n«velalion of Count Tolstoy's 

lualism as a i and a ■ My 

• • '\-< Willi Coil n I !■ ■■.,••> I'd 

• he judged all geiieml 'i^ 

from the jioint of view of literal Ch 

! with i' " " w 



J... 



If. 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REr/EW CV' RE^/EIVS. 



a' 



vtution or project 

r<-c«'«lf(l from the 
irht and wrong. Tliat all 
My iiiuiioral wln-n 
. cr prcvrntt'ij liiiii 
I imliviiluully on tlicir niorits. 
to accept iiistalliiuMits of 
' ..... .veil tliough the iiii]»rove- 

lo Ix'riH'luate the general system 
V • eontiemneil. Hut. brought hack to 

vas al\vav.«i unfahering. (5ov«'rn- 
- institutions, anii art were all un- 
lan, and no Christian could recognize them. 
Vfi he rej>ealedly e.xpressed admiration of 
workers ami writers who. while supporting the 
existing system, used their powers to make its 
working easier for the people. lie seemed a man 
who. liad he had a wider sphere of action, would 
have Iteen quite ready to postpone his personal 
faith to immediate necessities. In the narrow 
sphere of work which is open to him in Russia he 
actually does so to a considerable extent. Had 
he lived in a freer country, where intellectual re- 
volt is not fed by repression, he might very well 
have In^en a | practical statesman, or at least a 
practical revolutionary. That he would reject 
this view himself, there is no doubt. Yet Tolstoy 
essentially is not a dreamer, but a man who sees 
the world as it is, and knows very well that there 
is little chance of any immediate fundamental 
change. 



III. —WHAT WOULD TOL.STOY DO? 

But what would Tolstoy do were he to become 
as dominant in action in Russia to-morrow as he 
lias become in Russia's thought ? It is an inter- 
esting speculation, and one upon which neither 
his works nor his life throws any real light. As 
a practical man he knows very well that his eth- 
ical abstractions could no more be realized in Rus- 
sia to-morrow than in any other country. Yet he 
knows Russia, its needs and its failings, mucli 
Ijetter than any other man in his position, for he 
is practically the only educated man who lias lived 
as an equal among the class which is in reality all 
Russia — that is to say, the peasants and the work- 
men. And as a practical man he is quite as ready 
to accept installments of reform and amelioration 
as any Liberal in the land, though it is quite cer- 
tain that no reforms which imply the maintenance 
of existing governments, whether in Russia or in 
the West, will mitigate his abstract condemna- 
tion for one moment. But while he makes ins 
primary distinction between the present svstein 
of government by force and the ideal rule of con- 
science, he is quite willing to riraw a secondary 
distinction between good governments and bad 



ones. W'iiat would, then, lie do to save Russia, if 
given supreme power, while conscious of the im- 
fjossibility of carrying his own extreme Christian- 
ity into elTect ? 

The question was of especial interest to me as 
giving an ojiportunity for learning his outlook on 
the vjii'ious rumors current a few years ago as to 
the establishment in Russia of constitutional gov- 
ernment. Tolstoy was categorical on this point, 
and was plainly of the Slavophile opinion thai 
Western institutions could never be more than an 
excrescence upon the body politic in Russia. I 
had asked him how the more intelligent of the 
pea.santry and workmen regarded those constitu- 
tional reforms which the educated non- official 
-classes demanded with almost one voice. 

" What do you mean by reforms?" he inter- 
rupted. 

"Western institutions generally — a jiarlia- 
ment, liberty of the press, legal guarantees '" 

••AVliat on earth have we to do with leiral 
guarantees and Western institutions?" he inter- 
rupted, seemingly astonished that any one should 
ask such a question. •' Your mistake is always 
in assuming that Western institutions are a ste- 
reotyped model upon which all reforms should 
be based. It is this delusion that is at the bot- 
tom of half the wars and predatory aggressions 
carried on by Europeans against men of other 
races. If reforms are wanted in Russia, it is not 
either Western or Eastern reforms, but measures 
suited for the people, and not for other peoples. 
The assumption that reforms so called must be 
constructed upon Western models is a pure prod- 
uct of Western exclusiveness, and is opposed 
both to Christianity and to common sense." 

" But surelv tlie Russians do not differ more 
from other European races than the European 
races differ from one another, and a policy which 
suits all the other races is therefore, jjrirna facie, 
applicable to Russia." 

" I do not admit for one moment that anv 
European policy is more suited to European races 
tlian Russian policy is suited to Russia. Both 
are bad and opposed to Christianity. (Like 
many other Russians. Tolstoy always spoke of 
' Europe ' as a distinct geograplucal unity, of 
which Russia forms no part.) But every nation 
has Its own social spirit, which is as clearly de- 
fined as its religious spirit, and all this perpetual 
talk of modeling and remodeling has no more 
practical value than a proposal to reconstruct the 
religion of Confucius upon the religion of Christ. 
And what have we to do with legal guarantees ? 
I answer that question by telling you that for tlie 
mass of the Russian people the law does not exist 
at all. They either regard the law, as I do. as a 
matter wholly external to them, with which tiiey 



COLWT TOLSTOY /\ THOUGHT AI^D ACT/ON. 



v.i 



wpt 




i 
1 


.'*k- 


1 




-••• 


^ 



TuLsTuV iiUUI.NG TllK WOllKl.NU .--LASu.N l.N TUL (.ulNTKV. 

(Sketch by L. I'asternak.) 

have nolliing to do. or ilepi)ise it actively as a 
fetter which retards tlie (hn-elopineiit of their in- 
ternal life. Western life ditTers from Russian 
in being rich in outward manifestations, civic, 
political. an<l artistic. The law is necessary to 
It. and it regartls the law as the crown and safe- 
guard of its being. The life of the Russian peo- 
ple is less expansive, and they do not regard the 
law as an active factor."' 

'•Hut surely Russians submit to their own 
laws as much as we ? " 

'Tliey submit to them, l)Ut they are not 
guided hy them. It is not their submission, Imt 
iheir neglect of the law, which makes our people 
so peaceful and long-suffering. And that neg- 
lect of the law is also what makes our «)nicials tiie 
greatest knaves in the worM. You ask why ? 
Because the mass of the {M'ople, while they »ie- 
spise external restrictions, are guided by their 
consciences. Hut our educated oflicials continue 
to neglect the law. and tlx-y have cmancii.ated 
theinselves from their consciences. They have 
neither principle nor restraint, and in conso- 
"juencc become what they aic. 

•When I say that the Russians are led by 
conscience, I do not mean to say that there is less 
crime and preventable misery among them than 
in F'iiirope. I m«'rely say ilijit c.iisci.'iice plays 



here tlje jwirt playtil by law in llie \Vo«i, .. 

as your law fails to sfH'ure freotJoni fn»n> crime, 

so cons<M. ' ■ 

is not in: . . ... 

that the Russian i>easiint is quito ii 
•^ <'ontempt t)r angvr against a cr: 
.. .t~"ii.s that the criminal is a man wi 
astray either from failure of judgment 
passion. This is the truth aliout all so-calleil un- 
educate'l Russians. Tli- ' - . 

in direct deliance of t:.. , 

convicts to pass the night in the pi 
Whatever government regulations may iav u 

in regard to the tn --t of criminals. ii.f;t 

general treatn>ent i> _ .iieticand kindly." 

• Hut surely Russian history shows cas*^ of 
gro.ss cruelty toward criminals?" 

"(Jross cruelly d«^H'S lake place, and when it 
does take place it is even worse than the cru- •\ 
of Kurojx'an officials, for the same negl.-ct o; 
law manifests itself here. Hut the ■ 
treatment of criminals as inf«'rior K 
known here ami inconceivalde. Your pr.» ij 
officials may break iIh* law by ill-tn- 
charges. Hut they never break it b\ .. 
them. Ours break it ImuIi ways, accor . 
th»' state of their consciences." 

1 asked the count if he could di'fine v" 
he regnrdetl as the es-^ieiiiial dilTeren 
the Russians and western Europeans. 

'• The difference lies in this." heanswertti. ei:; 
jihatically. •and it is tjuite evideii' ' •' — • 
know them. It is that they are i 
— more (.'hrislian. And that distinction aris««« 
not from the fact that they are of lower • 
but from the spirit of the people, and : — . : 
centuries and centuries they have found in the 
teachings of Christ their only guiile and protec- 
tion. Your jM'ople, from the tim«' «'" • '! • 
ormalion, have read llu'ir Hibh's i; 
and reatl them critically. «)urs have never mmuI 
them, ami are only iH-gmning • 
Hut the Ru.ssian jK'iiple have p:. . . 
tion and the teaching of I'liriet, and in the ah- 
sence of protective laws and institutions, sue' 
have always existed in the We-* ' ' • - 

should they seek for giiidaiu'e of 1 1 1 

is this element, this reliance upon conwienct* and 
( 'hristiaiiitv as opposed to law, which f< 
great gulf lH'tw«H'n Russia and western K . 
Helwe«!n Western countries iheiv has al a 
seemed to mo ven' liule difleriMioo. The ' 
ception of the French i «>f the '■ ' , 

excitable, of your own ynien ;; 

calculating, may be very true. Hut to a 
they are but H4»clions <»f n 

essentials •'• ^ "• •■' -"«■* 

bv iheir : 1» 



44 



THE ^MERIC -iS' MO\'TIU.Y Rl'.lIEU' Of REI/IEIVS. 



Russia, rhristianity ami conscience piny tlie i)art 

' MS ami h'gal lornmli- 

en do you think lliat the Russians are 
: a n-aliy highiT civilizatiiui 

11. (lit i^i'^t^iii 1*111 '-1-1 liUot 

'•That 1 cannot say. If you moan by civili/a- 
ts.'U Western civilization, there can be no ques- 
■ ' •„-' ness antl lowness. I unly 
■ HlTerence exists." 
•• But admitting, as you do. that Russian con- 
very imperfect, on wliat do you rely 
..them?" 
rtainly not upon what you call "Western 
reiorms. Because, having decided that tliere is 
* • ■ _' in common between Russia and Kurope, 
- ni>t even a ground for e.xperiiiieiitiiig with 
Western reforms in Russia. The Western system 
fails to insure real morality in the West, and why 
shouKl it do l)etter in a country for which it was 
not devised tlian in countries for wliicli it was ? 
The most we can do is to a<lmit that Russian sys- 
tems have failed equally. Rut I can simply repeat 
that it is only by developing the consciences and 
moral sense of mankind, whether in Russia or 
.•'-(•where, that ytm can look for any improve- 
111. lit in their condition." 

Tolstoy spoke very mucli more in the same 
strain, always showing himself completely out of 

~ '^jv with ordinarv Russian LilxM-alisin, and 

iirly with Marxism, its most pcjpular form 
among the younger men. Socialism in every 
form he seemed to regard as little better tliaii au- 
tocratic despotism, saying, "Our government 
keeps one class in idleness by means of violence ; 
the Socialists would keep eveiy one at work by 
violence." But he spoke of cooperation with 
respect, though, in the abstract, condemning in- 
dustrialism in all its forms. 



IV. —TOLSTOY JX PRECEPT AND 
EXAMPLE. 

The question how far Count Tolstoy applies 
literady his principles has been much discussed, 
and particularly in Russia, among those who do 
not know him personally. Owing to the lack of 
puljlicity, and the impossibility of free discus- 
sion, there is an intense vagueness even in the 
minds of educated Russians as to the personal- 
ities of their famous countrymen. I remember 
once, a short time before my first meeting with 
the count, discussing the subject with two stu- 
dents. As is usual, both these students were 
mature political thinkers, one a Slavophile and 
reactionary, the other the son of a small trades- 
man and a fanatical propagandist of all the new 
doctrines from Marxism to Tolstovisin. Neither 



icallv know anything about the count's life, but 
both were full of the astonishing fables so com- 
mon in i{ussia. 

" It is mostly hypocrisy," said my Slavophile. 
" When a man preaches ])overty, lives in luxury, 
and keeps up two palaces with the millions of ru- 
liles he earns with his novels he had better " 

"lie had better say nothing; and so ought 

your uncle, the Bishop of , who preaclies 

poverty also. But Lyeff Nikolaievitch does not 
live in luxury, and makes no millions. I have 
seen him myself near Tula walking barefoot to 
market witli his daughter, ami carrying baskets 
on his arm." 

My fri(Mul had never been near Tula, but knew 
verv well the value of a positive statement. He 
went on to give a very highly colored account of 
Tolstoy's work among the peasantry, declaring, 
among other things, that one day outside Moscow 
the count liad walked home barefoot in the snow, 
having given his boots to a peasant woman who 
complained of cliilblains. The argument contin- 
ued, and gradually drifted, as most Russian argu- 
ments on literature do, into a discussion whether 
or not the author in question was or was not truly 
penetrated by the " Russian spirit." For all Rus- 
sians, like tlieir Western critics, agree that a very 
distinct Russian spirit exists, and may be dis- 
cerned both in their art and their social organi- 
zation. Hut what the Russian spirit is, is a 
matter of eternal dispute. 

"If there were anything really Russian in 
T(;lsLoy's nov^els they would not be so popular 
among foreigners," said my Slavophile. " Tur- 
genieff is the only other Russian novelist read in 
the West. And Turgenieff was a Westerner. 
The only difference is that Tolstoy knows Russia 
better than Turgenieff, but he is no more a Rus- 
sian. Real Russian literature is incomprehensible 
to western Europeans. Nobody in France or in 
England reads real Russian literature, but every 
one reads Pushkin and Tolstoy, and thinks he 
knows everything about Russia. But atheism 
and German uniforms and anarchism are not 
Russian. Tolstoy is an atheist with a Western 
eaucation; his sons are disguised in German uni- 
forms. ..." And my friend went on to give a 
higlily imaginative account of the Tolstoy mhiage, 
ending by giving his ideas of what a real Russian 
and a real reformer ought to be. 

" Father John, of Cronstadt, for instance — he 
is a real Russian, and a really honest man. He 
is tlie really popular man in Russia. The mass 
of the Russian peasantry — even those who are his 
own neighbors, as lie admits himself — distrust 
Tolstoy. But Father Jolin ? Who is it that 
gives every penny he earns to the poor ? Who is it 
that receives liundreds of letters every day from 



COUNT TOLSTOY /N THOUGHT y1\n /iCTIOS'. 



i:» 



all parts o{ Russia asking for help ami atlvir.- / 
"W'liu IS visite<l evt-ry year by thousamls of pil- 
grims ? That is a very difforent thing from two 
palaces ami • iiave all things in couunon.' '" 

Views as distorted as these are verv wnle- 
spreail among a certain class of Russians, wiio 
think that because Count Tolstoy does not go 
naked and starve to death, which would be tlie 
logical application of extreme Christianity, he is, 
therefore, a mere propagandist of rules of con- 
duct which he knows it is impossible to observe. 
But to the question how far Tolstoy applies to his 
daily life the principles which he propagates the 
answer is really very simple. The ilualism of 
Count Tolstoy's mental equipment, which is the 
first thing noticed by a stranger, serves him in 
good turn here, and relieves him of the necessity 
of compounding with his conscience. For if. as 
an ethical teaclier, he professes doctrines which, 
in the present state of tilings, it is impossible to 
apply consistently with efficiency as a worker and 
reformer, as a practical man he sees at once the 
limitations which must 1^ placed ui)on these doc- 
trines. He is content to observe his abstract rule 
of life as far as is consistent with the highest 
efficiency as a worker ami an example. lie sees 
that if he were to observe his doctrines literally 
he might attain M. Pobyedonost-seff's itieal of 
"the salvation of his own soul," but his value as 
a reactive force would be destroyed. Ami he 
prefers to risk the loss of his own soul by com- 
pounding with practical life rather than to destroy 
the special opportunities afforded by the position 
which he holds in the world. Thus we see him 
daily denying all government, yet approving or 
condemning on their individual merits the actions 
of governments ; refusing to pay taxes, yet let- 
ting them be paid for him ; despising industry, 
yet helping and sympathizing with industrial 
workmen ; and rejecting the rights of property, 
yet sometimes taking for his own writings money 
which he kiiow-s he can employ to better purpose 
than those who would otherwise gain the profits, 
as he did with his novel "Resurrection," which 
wa.s written for the purpo-se of raising funds to 
assist the emigrant Dukliobortsi. Kverywhere 
the so-calletl teachings of Tolstoy are qualiHed by 
the necessities of his daily life. His rule of life 
is o))served closely, l»ut only when it does not 
diminish his power for practical good. 

Thus Tolstoy as a practical man is quite ready 
to act as intermediary between the i»easaiil8 on 
his property and tlie lo<-al officials, though lie flat- 
ly denies the right of the first to resistance or of 
the second to exist«;nce. Indeed, it is plain that 
the root of his do(!trine, " Resist not him that is 
evil," is with him little better than an ethical ab- 
straction. The vituperative conilemnation of 



wro! can hardly \w a i>arl of •• R i 

him ;>.... ■-. evil." Hut T- • 
ilemnation ; and while In v 

that resistance can never Iw justified. <» 

first to expre.'v's sy with i " 

It is quite true thai - article.^ , 1 

letters he s«>ldom coinmils himself to »i. 
pathy. Hut these letters and articli>s are •levuietl 
to the abstract f- ■ ■ • '•'.eiimU ' ~i» 

of political an.; -s. Iii 

conversation, regarding all questions from the 
practical |^)int of view. lie judges them in the 
light of their immediate rights and wrong. Thu(«, 
if you ask Count Tolstoy's opinion on the subj<«ct 
of a particular war. he will unhesitatingly jrive a 
judgment as to which si<le is in • 1 

even express .>yitisfaction at any m. iv 

gain. Rut ten minutes afterward ask him 
whether there is any exception to his <\ 
•• Resist not him that is evil," and he wib ..,.->, .r 
unhesitatingly. "No." 

This capat'ity for compromise in the app. ■ .i 
tion of extreme opinions, the rarest of n' 

ties among really convinced S'x-ial n; .-. 

shows itself atlmirably in his family life. It i» 
quite true that Count Tolstoy lives, if not in |»al- 
aces, at least in housi's which are infinite'-- ' •••.•r 
than those of ninety-nine out of a liundi. .<; 

countrymen. It is no less certain that primitive 
as is his dress, it is sufficient, and that c;i 

said of the clothing of most Rus.sian ]• ;-. 

while his food, if simple, is certainly belter and 
more regular. Rlack coffee is not a prime ne- 
cessity of life, neither are bicycles, but I have 
seen the count drinking coffi-e after diniu'r, and 
he bicycles and rides on horseback in the Mos- 
cow sul>urbs without any (piahiis of coi 
The fact is that Tolstoy, while retaining ... 
victions, has long passed the first ardor «»f the re- 
former. " Leave all and follow me," he h«~ i 
is m>t a practical doctrine, or, if it is pr:i 
it is incompatilile with the greatest U!»< 
Kven Shelley, who was the greatest emlMMlimenl of 
whit«»-liot propagan»la which the last ' ■ priv 

duced, sometimes ate meat, and li . two 

wives. And Tolstoy is <|uile ready to sncrific*' 
an ounce of |>erfection for a jxumd of ; il 

good. lie has none of the vc - ' 1 

lead him to ^trive after the n u 

of his own doctrines. I'o.Hterity iian jusiitie*! the 
judgment of Henri (Juatre that a km. h 

Worth a mass. Ami T-'-t-v knows \> . . ....1 

that an occasional «h'f. n» convention and 

the occu|)ation of an eight • foot ciibiclu in a 
family mansion ' * ' . -> 

dev..r;..ii and vl- ' 

p II of funds for carrying on his work, 

lint iKJHiiion may not W logical, but in the »(nig- 



40 



THE AMERICAS' MONTHLY KEr/EW OF REVIEWS. 



pf,. ;...A.<..i. l...r;,. ami usofulnt'ss \ofi\c lias lost. 
S 18 time ill the suiiimor at his 

lie, plowing ami roapiiiK in tiu' 
I,, - •' »> witii'" * 'MfluT ill hor crops, 

b.. I«.\o< on behalf of the 

jHH>r. ami ji^ivin^ his i)easants sound praoticul ad- 
V \v l>ost to earry on their work aii<l 

-. .i>n. The fact that he lives in a 

ace" does not trouble his conscience in the 
ieji-<i. And in his winter home at Moscow he 
d. • • — >;ider it necessary to sweep the snow 
fr. :.t of his house. He knows that it is 

better both for his gospel and for its propagation 
tl ' otild spend his time to the best advan- 

ta^ .;.. his pen; and that, if his healtli de- 
mands exercise and recreation, it is no sin to 
jKtssess a bicycle and a horse, even tliougli those 
are luxuries undreamed of by the majority of tiie 
human race. 

All this is very characteristic, not only of Count 
Toistoy. but of Russians in general. "While tlie 
Russian is the very first to rush and put all his 
thoughts into immediate action, — a circumstance 
which makes the abstract revolutionary much 
more dangerous in Russia than elsewhere, — he is 
by no means a worshiper of absolute ideals either 
in thought or in action. As it is in Russian 
literature, it is very much in Russian life. The 
Itest Russian novels are distinguislied from those 
of western Europe by the complete absence in 
the delineation of human cliaracter of absolute 
types of goodness or badness, beauty or ugliness. 
In all the writings of Tolstoy and Turgeniefl 
there is not a single character personifying any 
absolute quality, whetlier good or bad. In the 
actions which they de})ict. there is the same dep- 
recation of extravagance. Tlie fanatic and the 
man of fixed ideas invariaoly come to a Vjad end. 
A rational compromise between ideas and facts 
is the essential in useful work. This character- 
istic of Russian ideas is admirably illustrated in 
TurgenieflE's best-known novel, "Virgin Soil." 
The hero, Nezdanoff, the man of fixed ideas, 
breaks down when he attempts to apply them to 
life. But the same ideas, held in a less intense 
degree, and therefore more easily applicable to 
exi>iiiig conditions, triumph in the hands of the 
practical factory manager, Solomin. It is said 
that one of Count Tolstoy's favorite books is Mr. 
Mcrley's work "On Compromise." It is prob- 
ably true. His life is an admirable example of 
the application of extreme ideas to action. He 
lives as nearly according to the literal precepts 
of Christianity as it is possible for any man who 
values practical usefulness to do. But in the 
conflict between his ideas and the immediate 
needs of the world about him it is the practical 
side of his character which gains the victory. 



\ .—COUNT TOLSTOY AND THE 
RUSSIANS. 

What is Tolstoy's i-cal iclationship to the j)oo- 
pie whom he serves and idealizes? What is the 
popular view of Tolstoy as an active social force ? 
We know that the oflicial classes distrust and fear 
him ; and that as Marxism is the only gospel of 
educated non-official Russia, educated non-official 
Russia is content with adiniring him as an artist 
and deritling him as a moralist and political phi- 
losopher. But Tolstoy himself puts his ethical 
teachings on the summit ; liis novels at best have 
been only instruments, and, as he has many times 
declared of late, unlit instruments. He is the 
last man to set any store upon his reputation as 
an artist, and he has condemned unhesitatingly 
the whole theory of art upon which his earlier 
' works were constructed. So, if we eliminate dis- 
trustful officials, and an educated class which re- 
spects moral courage and intercession for the 
weak but regards the Tolstoy an gospel with con- 
tempt, we are brought at once to the bed rock of 
Russian society — the people. What do the peo- 
ple, what do the peasants think ? The peasants 
are inarticulate, and that is the first difficulty. 
To solve it satisfactorily would therefore require 
a knowledge of Russia which few Westerners 
possess. Tolstoy has himself declared that many 
even of his own peasantry regard him merely as 
a horn of plenty and an intercessor in time of 
trouble. How the Russian peasant regards un- 
expected benefactors, he has shown in "Resur- 
rection," where Prince Nekliudoff fails utterly 
to convince his peasants of his good intentions ; 
and it is a fact that when at the emancipation of 
the serfs many enlightened proprietors wished to 
make a liberal diittribiition of their land the 
peasants drew back, fearing attempts at trickerv. 
The legacy of distrust left by serfdom is strong 
among Russians to-day. I remember myself see- 
ing a German traveler in Nijni Novgorod offer- 
ing cigars all round to a group of bargees from 
the Oka, and being repulsed with the incredulous 
grin to which one treats a thimblerigger. ' There 
is, of course, no doubt whatever that the Russian 
peasant is highly responsive to kindly treatment 
when once he can be convinced that it is disin- 
terested. But he requires convincing, and Tolstoy 
has not entirely escaped the fate which overtook 
his pi-edecessor. 

But how do the peasants regard Tolstoy as a 
reformer and propagandist ? I made many ef- 
forts to solve this question. In Moscow he was 
well known, at least by appearance, and there 
were few whose attention had not been attracted 
by the sight of an aged peasant riding round the 
suburbs in the twilight, mounted on an excellent 



COUNT TOLSTOY /.V THOUGHT AND ACTION. 



47 



horse, ami sittinffit witli theair of a noJ.lenmn an.l 
sol»li.-r. But amoiii; ilif muzhiks — aiul Mi.scow, 
the Russians say. is '-a cily of luuzliiks "— ^ 
tliere was very little appreciation of the fact that 
a great man dwellcil in Israel. The most appre- 
ciative answer whicli 1 ever received from a mu- 
zliik was that " lie is a good burin." Tliis |»t>as- 
sant had read -War and Peace," and also a little 
pampidet by the count on sobriety, which lie 
condemned on the excellent ground, •' Ves, but 
Gosudar Imperator drinks champagne." Am»>ng 
most of the muzhiks there was a singular una 
niiuity of suspicious fear. Some condemiieti 
him as a beshuzhnik. or atheist, and others told 
the most absurd stories as to his relations with 
the government, one informing me coollv that he 
was paid by the authorities to encourage mili- 
tary service. In short, the great mass seemed 
utterly ignorant of everything »'.\cept Tolsto\''s 
name and his practice of wearing peasant's 
clothes. 

There is no doubt that this lack of influence, 
combined with his celebrity abroad, accounts 
largely for the indulgence with which Tolstoy is 
treated by the Russian Government. As a phi- 
losopher, Tolstoy has certainly more disciples in 
the smallest of European states than in his own 
great country. From practical Tolstovism the 
Russian (government has hitherto had little to 
fear, .\nti-militarism is really the only appli- 
cai>le part of his teaching, and the anti-military 
sects of Russia are much older than Tolstoy, and 
in no way traceable to him. though he has cer- 
tainly gained them much moral support bv his 
writings in the foreign press. It is a very strange 
thing, and quite characteristic of FJurope's outlook 
on Russia, that these sects are encouraged in 
countries where military service, or war ta.xes, 
which Tolstoy himself reganls as pieciselv the 
same thing, are ol)ligatory. The Russian Gov- 
ernment, says T(jIstoy, is entitled to the severest 
condemnation for upliolding conscription : but 
this condemnation is equally ileserved by every 
other country, whether it maintains a con.script 
or a volunteer army. Hut having once estab- 
lished conscription, Tolstoy recognizes that it is 
an absurdity for Westerners to condemn the 
Russian (iovernment for n-fusing to recognize 
conscientious (d)jectif)ns, no such oljjections lieing 
listened to for a moment in any other country. 
Tolstoy sees this more keenlv than most tH^rsons. 
anti pays scant at tent ion to e.vpressions of sym- 
pathy c'-riiitig from abroad. 

Tolstoy's influence certainly has tended to in- 
crease al)road ; why has it not increa.sed com- 
niensuralelv in his own country? 'I'he novelty 
and uncompromising character of his doctrines, 
when stated in the abstra<-t, have attracted for- 



eigners. But in KuMia the noyelty is not no 

'" - not a Ml Riivsia. The 

-: . . ;n the p, , ,. .vhicli. r ••'•-•' • 
(.'hristianity, is the practical bjwis of i 
is many years older than ToUloy. The gn»at 
Russian social movement of the middle 

century, of which Tidsloy is but the l-. 

produced a host of enlightened men and women 
such as he. who succet'deil in doing for a time 
what he has done for a lifetime — in xv ' — ■ - 
the process of oprostrhenie, becoming i 
simple. These people wore aa well aware as Tol- 
stoy that only through sii: ' thevc ike 

themselves one with the j , . and tin; bv 

siiaring the burdens of their lives could they lift 
up out of the dust a j)eople to whom all ap'|>eal8 
from above wouUl have lioen addressed in yam. 
TurgeniefT. the historian of the movement, shows 
us how this movement ended in disillusion and 
disenchantment. It was Uu> ardent to hist, and 
too little in accord with actuality to succei'd even 
for a time. TurgeniefT's divame'r of high <ln«ams. 
who could find community with the muzhiks only 
by drinking himself to intoxication in th.-ir com'- 
pany, was a <haracteristic ty|)e. Kven the prac- 
tical Hazarof. who admitted no dreams and no 
ideals, found that the muzhik could not under- 
stand his language. The emulators of Turge- 
nieff's heroes in real life had no m«»re succeHg. 
Suicide, Sil»eria. and expatriation were tlie ends 
of most. Hut the first a' ' •' t,g 

movement hati be«M> exi ,,v 

came under its influence, and the one Rus.<*ian 
who succeeded in showing how far .n 

with the people was practicable has t,.. ,. i..,.- nnd 
few imitators in his own country. 

It is very remarkaltle that Tolstoy shotdd have 
succeeded so far where his ju. ' have 

faile.j. He came of a family w . :.h. we 

are tc»ld. were so luxurious that liis gran<lfather 
s»'iit liis linen to \h* washi-d in Holland : his tnlu- 
cation was unfavoraMe ; he was h: •••d by 
family attachments, and he l^>gan !■ _'e }.•<; 
views at a time when the oM ard.)r for self - 
fice had Iwen killed by failun* and di- 
luent. Moreover, as a practical man. I il- 

ways a clear itiea of the limitations of Itumian 
I)opular life. The real explanation of his KUi*f>(>(t« 
.seems to Ite that he u . ' ' 

formatory zeal. He i 

yefT as a model and mnater himself, nnd he re- 
garded the ■ H life. ■ -ig to !»«» 

raiscfl ami .ip to 1..^ ..,;; ■(»» 

idi'al alreatiy ntalerinli/ed The earlier T' ••>! 

had regarded the ' |>«>aHantry an so much 

!■ ■ :,„..... :y 

moral and |»oliticaI idoan. Tolstoy oevvr had anV' 



4" 



THE AMERICAN MOSTHLY KI-I'/FM' OF RHI^IHIVS. 



thine t«> <lo with n»volution ; and in mornlB ho 

\\ auiou^ tho jH'asaiits tliaii 

m- »vas ooiivinc«»il that culture 

ilo witli morality, and he became 

Uierffon? a pupil rather tlian a master in the great 

.; . , ... that wliicii differentiates Tolstoy 

from the hundiv<is of other educated Russians 
their lives to the people and earn in 
iriiiiii ii.ihinjf better than the reputation of 
" characters," and the benevolent contempt of 
pt>asant« who do not understand them, and whom 
tliey do not understand. But Tolstoy found not 
oniv his ethical but also his aesthetic doctrines 
realized among tlie people. The common life, 
he savs. is not onl_v the basis of all true morals, 
but of all true art. What cannot be understood 
by the simplest, he argues again and again, is not 
true art. Art requires no commentary ; it is in- 
fective in its nature, and if it is not, it is not 
true art. It is a '• means of communion," "a 
condition of human life." The remark made by 
another celebrated Russian, that Turgenieff's 
•' Recollections of a Sportsman " liad exhausted 
the life of the people, awakened his wrath, and 
he asked, indignantly : 

"The life of the people exhausted ? — the life 
of the people with its manifold labors, its dan- 
gers on sea and land, its relations with employ- 
ers, leaders, companions, with men of other 
faiths and nationalities, its travels, its struggles 
with nature, with wild beasts, its relations to 
domestic animals, its work in the forest, on tlie 
steppes, in fields and gardens, its family rela- 
tions, its dealings with fellow-workers, its bear- 
ing to economical questions, to -intellectual prob- 
lems, all the problems of life for self and family, 
— all these interests, all permeated with religious 
sentiments ... is this to be regarded as ex- 
hausted, and to make way for descriptions of 
how one hero kissed his lady's hand, another 
her arm, a third in some other way, — is this to 
be given up for that other art whose only ob- 
jects are to flatter pride, dissipate ennui, and de- 
velop eroticism ? " 

This is not art, he says. As the life of the 
people is the best of all lives, the art wliich the 
people create, and which is created by students 
and imitators of the people, is the best of all art. 
Tolstoy's ideas of art and morals are thus com- 
plementary and mutually indispensable, and his 
productiveness as an artist, in the sense under- 
stood by himself, is multiplied by his mode of 
life. The work which he does in the fields, his 
long tramps from village to village, his visits to 
night- refuges and prisons, his teaching of peas- 
ants at his country home, his stories and fables 
written specially for the people, his popular works 



on .scienc<* and on morals, not only form a ])art 
of what he regards as the ideal life, but a part 
also of tho necessary equipment of the true aitist. 

Yet it would be untrue to say that Tolstoy as 
a teacher enjoys a wide influ('n(;o among any 
Russian class. What the future will do with his 
doctj-ines, no one can say. At present, the mas.ses 
of the Ru.ssian people are far too susceptible to 
mvstical emotions to find any attraction in a 
rationalistic guide still in the llesli. l>ut if they 
remain in their present state of culture, fifty 
years hence they will be quite capable of reviving 
Tolstoyism as a religious cult, with its founder 
endowed with supei'natural attributes somewhere 
in the background, and around liis name a great 
tangle of traditions wliich Tolstoy would regard 
witli horror. Meantime, Tolstoy as a man, in 
his immediate circle, enjoys much greater honor 
than a prophet in a wider sphere. 

But if 'J'olstoy is not a great influence in Rus- 
sia, what is his value as a representative of Rus- 
sian ideas ? The first thing notable is that his 
philosophy, even although he finds its germs 
more widespread in Russia than anywhei-e else, 
is a general human philosophy in its application, 
and is even more generally comprehensittle than 
his art. Yet Tolstoy is really a very faithful 
representative of Russian life. If Tolstoy liab 
never made a Russian sect, the Russian sects 
have made Tolstoy. He is a pupil, not a teach- 
er, in his own country. It is only abroad that 
Tolstoy stands as a revolutionary apostle of novel 
moral ideas. His relation to his own country, 
rnen is that he expresses, divested of mysticism, 
the practical religion which animates a large pro- 
portion of Russian sectarians, Dukhobortsi, Molo- 
kani, Stundists, and Vagabonds. How far he is 
right in declai'ing that the masses of his countiy- 
men are informed by the same spirit is another 
question. And even if he is right in this, is he 
I'ight in regarding racial conditions as the deter, 
mining factor, and not merely a low state of 
culture ? Either view seems to strike at the gen- 
eral applicability of his doctrines. If the Riis- 
sian peasant is really the spiritual salt of the 
earth by history and race, what of the other 
races ? If he is merely a better man because he 
leads a primitive life, what of his future, and 
what of the future of the advanced races ? For 
Tolstoy is no dreamer, and he knows very well 
that tlie machine even of "false civilization" 
cannot be stopped. The answers to these ques- 
tions put to Tolstoy the practical man are given 
by Tolstoy the academic thinker, who replies 
that consequences matter nothing, as they mat- 
tei'ed nothing to the preacher of asceticism in 
"The Kreuzer Sonata." Let each man settle 
with his own conscience. The rest may perish. 




r'ACE OK PALlSAUklK. FltOM THE KIVKK ItOAU AT ENULKWtHtU. 



PRESERVIXG THE III/DSOX I\\LISAl)i:S. 



THE ]>reservation for public use and enjoy- 
ment of places possessing scenic or his- 
toric interest in an unusual <lt'<;ree is a matter 
about winch the peo{)lo of ditTerent sections of 
the United States niiirht well vie with one an- 
other in showing; intellij;ent and patriotic con- 
cern. Each good example ought to l)e widely 
lieralded, in order to stimulatr activity in otlu'r 
quarters. This magazine has on many occa- 
sions done what it could to further such work in 
general and in particular : and its pages are ojx'n 
from time to time for the reeonl of i)rojects ac- 
complished or the encouragement of movements 
set on foot. It was with esp«'cial gratilication 
several months ago that we were abh" to an- 
nounce as a practical certainty that the famous 
I*alisa<le8 of the Hmlson were to Iw redeemed 
from all risk of further defacement, and that 
ihey were to be treated and ilt'velop«'<l in the fu- 
ture as an extended parkway, under the joint 
control of pertnanent commissions of the States 
of New York and New Jersey. The steps 
which remaine<l to be taken to make the I'ali- 
sades Tark a legal as well as a practical certainty 
have now be(;n com[iIefe<l. 

It is nearlv three centuries since Hudson and 
his men sailed up the river and di»covere«l the 



varied won<lers of its unrivaled shores, and for 
more than two hundnnl and fifty years white men 
hav«' l)een living on tlie s\immil of the great I'iil; 
sades' escarpment, and also on the facing i;i-i 
bank. And yet until recently that notable region, 
like several others in tlie immediate vicinity of 
New York Citv. has been very nmch negU'<"ted. 
One might safely assert without fear of contra- 
diction that of the New Yorkers who are accus 
tonied to vacation travel and e\ 
times a.s niany have visil«*d the ni;__ 
precipices of mountain scenery in Euro|)e as have 
made themselves at all familiar with the won '■ 
ful ridge «if ]»a.«*altic rocks that forms tln' a 
bank of the Hudson for a distance of some t\\. ;. 
ty five miles, — at least a dozen miliMi of which 
lies opposite till' territory now coi ' 'hm 

the actual miinicipal limits of the n 

Yet allhouirh »«> few jwople have known ihc 
rali»a«h'8 in an intimate way, the whole travi 
world has U'en familiar with the g-. v- • 
wall, with its tri"*"- covered hIojm" <»f «• 
talus and lUbria at the \mm\ an<l with llie af- 
forested sky line at the top. T' ' ' •• 
has Iwen •>ne of the charms of a > 
on the Hudson, and one of the ailvertiMHj at- 
tractions of travel <»n the New York Ontral 



f»o 



THE AMERICAS \tO\THl.Y REr/EW OE REVIEWS. 



will s«>f till' Tluiison Hiver ami 
in any juvvioiis season for u 



H«iln««l. which follows the water's edge on the 

east Imiik of tlie river. Tliis year it is likely 

t) 

•'- 

|(. II of the fact that much of 

ti tti liie r«n-.\nierican Exposition will 

tHfv. ill.- lluilson Hiver route, whether by boat 
or by rail. 

While undoubtedly the water's edge at the 
iot»t of the ralisadt's affords a very rare oppor- 
tunity for a beautiful driveway, with attractive 
landscape treatment of the narrow strip of land 
of irregular width and character that has been 
formed at the liase of the cliffs, there was no 
pressing reason for the creation of a Palisades 
Park until a very few years ago. Urgency in 
this matter was due entirely to the fact thai there 
had come to lie a market for the peculiar trap 
rock that constitutes the Palisades ridge ; and 
accordingly tliere had come into existence several 
very extensive quarries, supplied with powerful 
modern machinery for converting the Iiard igne- 
ous rock into paving-blocks and broken stone for 
making macadamized roads. These quarries were 
operating on a large scale, using giant powder or 
dynamite to blast down huge masses of the rock 
with which to feed the crushers below ; and the 
situation enabled them to load from their own 
docks iut<j great scows and thus obtain cheap 




PALISADES, FROM ABOUT ONE MILE SOUTH OF THE STATE 
LINE. LOOKING NORTH. 

water transportation. The trap-rock formation, 
however, is of great enougli extent and sufficient 
recurrence in the general vicinity of New York 
to supply the market for many centuries to come 
without the necessity of destroying one of the 
most majestic and beautiful stretches of natural 
scenery to be found in the whole world. 

Thus there came about, some years ago, a veiy 
active and also very proper agitation against the 
blasting of the Palisades, particularly in the 




^•a^WI 



*'^*yi. 



'■«•& " . . J^-. 



PALISADES TRAP ROCK COMPANY QUARRY AT GUTTENBERO. 



PRFSFRC/XG THE HL'DSOM P/H.ISADFS. 



:a 




FACE UF PALISAUtS) AT CUYTKi^Vl I.Ui:. » HUM TMK HI l.kHEAl*. 



neighborhood of Fort Lee, which is a RevoUi- 
tionary relic on tlie Palisades just opposite Fort 
"Wasliington. and about two luilcs north of 
Grant's Tonil). Hut agitation at;ainst the blast- 
ing, while useful in arousing public opinion to 
the desirability of some action for i>res»'rviii^ the 
Palisades, did not seem to point out any effective 
remedy. The quarrymen owned the land and 
were within their legal rights in niakint; com- 
merce of the Palisaih's and disposing of them by 
the cubic yard. There were only two things 
that could \ie done by those who wished to stop 
the bla.sting and save the scenery. One was to 
i»uy out the fjuarrymen by private agreement, 
an<l the other was to secure legislation which 
would render possible tlie condemnation of the 
land for i)ublic u.ses. 

The situation was rendered more diflicult l)y 
the fact that whereas the more imi)ortant part of 
the stretch of the Pali.sa<les lay within the juris- 
diction of the State of X<'W Jersey, it was visi- 
ble oidy from the State of N«w York ; ami the 
question of preservation was of comparatively 
little concern to the great majority of the jieople 



with t' I 

into a ; il 

Rills to this ef- 

~ and in 

tu a<l- 



I'" 



of the State of New Jersey. One possible solu- 
tion that seemed hojx^fid for a time lay in the 
direction of the national government. Il was 
proposed to ix»rsuad«» Cungn'ss to accept the c<v 
operation of the States of New Jersey and New 
"\ ork in convertiti^r th«» P.i' 
c«'nt shoreline and riparian _ 
military and naval re.servation. 
feet were introduced in the 
Congress ; but it was s«•arc^■l^ 
vancf any conrlusive arguuuMit to show that the 
|)eople of the Fnited Slates had any actual nuli 
tary or mivii' ■■>< f.»r lakinjr ' '. 

antl it was p. . . ;.. evident that t 
to Ikj secured was not in fact the esiab 
of a military or naval reservation, btit ir •« 

find a way f' " ■ fient end to th* •.. ...^• 

tations of a : . ■ ■> ■ 

Gradually it >>e«'anje plain enough that round- 
al>oul nx'thods of thai kind ' •. 

and t' "' ''••"'''■" "iiml lie <ii l 

an<l i n. The lru»» metluMl wu 
found in the pn>|>ot««l U> establinh an : '<» 

])ark re.'»ervation by joint or identical if i of 



59 



THF AMFRICAS MOS I HI Y RliriliU' Oh RHyiEU/S. 




I£«lwin A, Stevens. Willinm A. Lynn. George W. Perkins. J. Dti Pratt White. Ralph Trautnuuin. 

UE.MHEKS OF TIIK NKW VOUK AM> .NKW .lEltSEY I'AMSADES COMMISSION. 



the two States concerned. Fiiemls of tlie project 
first decided what it was really necessary to do, 
and then worked out a plan by which to accom- 
plish the results. In the spring of I'JOO the two 
legislatures passed acts identical in their general 
provisions, •• to provide for the selection, location, 
ajipropiiation, and management of certain lands 
along the Palisades of the Hudson River for an 
interstate park, and thereby to preserve the sce- 
nery of the Palisades.'' The New York act au- 
thorized the governor to appoint ten commission- 
ers, five of whom shouUl be citizens of the State 
of New York. The New Jersey act in like man- 
ner authorized the governor to appoint ten com- 



missioners, five of wliom should be citizens of 
New Jersey. By a prearranged plan each gov- 
ernor appointed tlie five men selected by the oilier 
governor, and thus the two boards, each having 
ten members, were made up of the same individ- 
uals, although differently organized. 

The general initiative lias naturally and proper- 
ly been taken by the New York boai^,!, under the 
presidency of Mr. George W. Perkins, of the 
New York Life Insurance Company and also of 
the firm of J. P. Morgan & Co. The New Jersey 
board is under the presidency of Col. Edwin A . 
Stevens, of Hoboken, a prominent member of a 
family far famed for public spirit and philan- 







PALISADES, LOOKING NORTH, JUST SOUTH OF ALPINE. 



PRFSERI/I\G THE HUDSON PA USA DPS. 



ft.i 




TIIK I'AI.ISA DKS l,l)()KlN(i MH 111 hKO.M ( < H T K>\ I l.l.K. >tlii«l.Si. > AUIK.Siiii liii-i-. i^i Aiiii^ 



thropy, and whose name will always be perpetu- 
ated in the Stevens Institute. One of tlie most 
valued and distinguished members of the boar<i is 
the Hon. Abrani S. Hewitt, who }ielon<;s to both 
States alike, but who serves as a New Jersey 
mem)>er of these two commissions. Tlif New 
York members besides Mr. I'erkiiis arc Messrs. 
Ralph Trautmann. J. Du Pratt White, Nathan 
F. Barrett, and D. McNeely StaufTer ; and tlie 
New Jersev members licsiclcs Mr. Stevens and 
Mr. Hewitt are Messrs. Franklin W . Hopkins. 
Abram De Honde, and W. A. I.inn. At the 
time when these boanls were authorized, more 
than a vear atro, no money was appropriated ex- 



cept for expenses, — ijtl 0.000 by the New York 
Legislature and *.").000 by that of New Jersey. 
At that time tlie principal devastation wa.«» Immuj; 
wrought by a certain quarry lu-ar Fort Lee. and 
the immediate task of the commission was to get 
the work stoj'ped. It was found that instead of 
f)eginning with condemnation proceedings the 
better way was to buy the quarry out ; and it was 
resolved to use the Si.*>.000 contributed by New 
Jersey for the neces.«iary work of making surveys 
and maps, examining titles, etc.. while it was 
decided that the filO.OOO given by New York 
should be used as an initial payment to the<|iiarry- 
men in cousidcration of .1 six months' option on 




Abram S. II. uitt Natliuh F. M .rr.-.i. I> M.N«.|> Snuffrr. Fninkllti W. M..|.kl.i.. ALrurn Ik. ItonU*. 

MKMIIEItK (.r TIIE >r.W VOIIK AM. !«I£W JKIimT PAI,I«*I>M n.MlllMIOW. 



IV^ 



THh .-tMi.Rn.AS StOM'lUY Kl'lirir OF Kl-.riHUS. 




THE NOKDHOKK TOWER. 



their property at an agreed price. This price 
was fixed at sometliing more than §130,000. 

Tims the most ol>jt'ctionable quarrying was 
brought to an end, and tlie commissioners gained 
time in which to mature their plans. Tliey 
consulted the principal property-owners along 
the Palisades line, and found most of them en- 
tirely ready to enter into the plans of the com- 
mission and to deed to the public without com- 
pensation as much as they owned of the face of 
the cliflFs, on condition that they should be paid 
at the rate of ?!'>00 an acre for the land that they 
owned at the base of tlie Palisades, and a uni- 
form price of §10 per lineal foot for such riparian 
rights as some of them possessed, — that is to 
say, the adjacent land under water. This uni- 
form arrangement having been accepted by the 
owners of the greater part of the stretch of the 
Palisades that it was proposed to acquire, it 
would evidently be feasible for the commission- 
ers in the future to make use of their powers of 
condemnation to secure the remaining tracts. 

When the legislatures convened last winter, the 
commissioners were prepared to report that if 
the two States woidd make appropriations suffi- 
cient to insure the purchase of the edgewater 
lands from Fort Lee northward to Huyler's 
Landing, a distance of some three or four miles, 
certain private individuals would contribute the 
:•:::! of approximately §125,000 necessary to com- 
, ■ - the purchase of the particular quarries that 
had been doing most harm. The State of New 



Vnik was asked to give §400,000, and the State 
of New Jersey §100,000. Not to go farther into 
linnnrial details, it sulTices to say that Governor 
Oclell of New York took the satiie liroad and 
generous interest in the subject that liis prede- 
cessor, Governor Roosevelt, had shown, and the 
Governor of New Jersey manifested a like si)irit. 
Both legislatures made satisfactory appropria- 
tions, antl the private funds that had been prom- 
ised for the purchase of the quarry were promptly 
forthcoming. The giver proved to be Mr. J. 
rierpont Morgan, whose benefactions are not 
nuicli heralded and are greater and more numer- 
ous than most people suspect. 

The commissioners have large discretionary 
powers ; and, while they will not try at once to 
accomplish much more than the acquisition of the 
absolutely necessary land and the construction of 
a driveway at the foot of the Palisades, it will be 
possible in the years to come to do many inter- 
esting things, one after another, by way of de- 
tailed development of the natural and artificial 
possibilities of the tract which has come under 
their control. As projected at present, the Pali- 
sades Park will include something more than a 
thousand acres of land. Most of the park, ob-. 
viously, is vertical rather than horizontal, and 
does not therefore add appreciably to the acreage. 
There are now ferries from One Hundred and 
Twenty- fifth Street to Fort Lee, and from Yon- 
kers to a point known as Alpine. It is hoped 
by the commissioners that when the road im- 
provements are made there will be additional 
ferries. 

There are various localities of historic note, and 
some surviving houses and relics also that possess 
interest of a personal or historical character. All 
these things must, of course, add their touches 
of attraction to the development of the park. 
Some information of an especially interesting 



. 


L 


'4. ^ 


Wm 


1^ V 




w^ 




m^mtk 






_^__^s 


.,-: 


.^M 


iBiiiiiHHll 



ROAD AT ALPINE. 



PRESERr/WJ THE HUDSON PALISADES. 



character has been supplied to us by Mr. C'ady, 
the distinguished arcliitect of New York, who 
has long had a beautiful suniin<'r home on the 
Palisades, and who is conversant witli all the 
historv and tradition of the region. The para- 
graphs that follow have been derived wholly from 
Mr. I'adv's fund of information. 

The earliest settlers of tlie Palisades, so far as 
can be ascertained, were n few straggling Dutch- 
men who ha<l deserted the manors of Westches- 
ter and found a rude refuge upon the clitls. At 
certain points there came in time to be very tol- 
erable roads down the mountain, to onalde mar- 
ket gardeners of tlie valley (west of the Palisades) 
to get their ••truck" to the river, from wliioh it 
could be floated to the markets of Manhattan. 

A road of this kind existed at Fort Lee, an- 
other at what is now known as .Mpine, opposite 
Yonkers, which was then known as ••('loster 
Landing." At the foot of this road, by the 
river, were three taverns or road -houses, one of 
which is still standing. Tliese three houses were 
in active service while as yet tiiere was not a 
house in what is now known as Yonkers. 

During the Revolutionary War, .several Eng- 
lish l>attlesliips ancliored otf ••C'loster Landing," 
and on one occasion sent a band of men ashore 
to collect firewood. A party of Dutchmen in 
the valley getting news of it, organized, and 
stealthily descended and took the gang away 
prisoners, the war vessels not daring to fire on 
them lest they kill their own men. Diiriny: the 
war, Cornwallis' army is said to havt; a.scended 
this Alpine road, dragging their cannon after 
them, as they pressed on across Jersey. 

As the war closed, many of the Frenchmen 
who had Ijeen associateil with the foreign oflicers 
who aided Washington settled in these parts, 
and we still find the names Dubois, Tavanier, 
f'iievatier, a.s well as a plenty of Dutch names, — 
Van l^kiver, Van Valeii, Van Huskiik, etc. 




PALISAUES. rXOM THE BltlE DOCK AT WEERAWKKN. 

For years, however, the region of the Palisades 
was as Tinknown to the general public as the 
heart of Africa. 

Dne day in the early si.xtifs, a.s Mrs. Charles 
NordhofT (the wife of the eminent writer and 
journalist) was visiting a friend in Yonkers, she 
was seized with a keen curiosity to know what 
this region was like, ami later, with two or 
three friends, rowed across the river and toiletl 
up the mountain. She found that, instead of a 
Hat i^latform of nn"k, it was a reuion iH-Hutifully 
divei'silicd witli hill an*! dale, well woo<|fd with 
fine trees, and possessing jH>ints with views of 
the most charming and picturesqu*' character. 

One man of culture and leisure had already 
made his home there, Mr. Frank Miles, a most 
enthusiastic botanist, who found a remarkable 
flora on the cliffs. — owing, as he said, to ■' "u- 
ence of the union of the two roek form;r he 

trap rock of the clift and the sandstone of the 
valley). Tlie Nordh(»fTs wen* so fiusrinated with 
this beautiful region that they settled there and 
irathered several infimafo friends arotmd them 







PALISVIM".-' \ I -M \ I' v-nu.. »iMni 111! • 11 



.ill A I. Holik-. 



^6 



THE AMERICAN MONTtlLY R El I Eli' Oh REI^'IEH^S. 



•'.ronjrli tlii'ir of- 

wliicli. Willi its 

pritk' of llie region. 

i part <if tlio Oduntrv has 

■ ?— ..,.i.li> of nrtistic colliiigs. 

iiiwartl I'liristy, tlie fa- 
.1. ri»'velan«i C'aily, the arclii- 
. ;iii<l (Miarlos Lanili. imnal dcc- 
.iitil rocently. J. Massey Kliiiid, 
riio family of tlie late General 
.« a pictures! [He place liere. as wiM 
. :lie Atiirontiacks. Franklin Ilupkiiis, 
: «cer. who has taken an active interest in 

the pri'servation of the Talisaties, has a place a 
1 •• -("St of the cliffs. William J?. 0|Klyke, 
i 'Ml ill the affairs of the New York Uni- 

versity, lias a very complete and charming home:. 
That of Mr. C'ady is in quaintest old Dutch style, 
the furniture and fittings throughout lieiiig an- 
tique, many of them from Holland a couple of 
«'enturies hack. 

The I'alisades, at Alpine, are some four liun- 
«lred and fifty feet altove the river. From the 
edge of the cliff to where the descent to the val- 
ley commences is a distance of three-quarters of 
a mile, more or less. 

The view to tlie west as one gradually passes 



ilown llu' mountain is very chariiiiug. Tin' I'ci'- 
tile valley of ( Jvcrpcck, with tin- .Shawangunk 
Mountains in the distance, and the liver like a 
silver thread winding through it, form a scene, 
especially at sunset, not easily to he f<ji-golleii. 

The proposeil park embraces all the land at the 
foot of the cliff. in sonic cases tliis is a com- 
paratively narrow strip ; in olliei's it spreads out, 
covering many acres of grouiul, as at " (,'ape 
Flyaway," the quaint (isliing settlement under 
Mr. Cady's place, at Alpine. The charm of a 
line road, sheltered all the afternoon from the 
sun by tlie great cliffs, wiili changing views of 
the Ijroad river that flows alongside, will proba- 
bly surpass that of any drive in the country. At 
certain points land is to be secured on the cliff, 
and electricity will make access to such points of 
observation easy. It is proposed that the road- 
way shall have a separate path for equestrians, 
and another for bicycles. It will extend froin 
Fort Lee to Nyack, at the former point connect- 
ing with the fine Hudson County Boulevard, thus 
e.xtending the drive to Bergen Point at the south. 
Fine i-oads ai-e proposed from Tuxedo and other 
l)oints which will connect with the river drive, 
opening up wonderful possibilities within easy 
reach of the great city. 



Tin: WASHINGTON MEMORIA.L INSTITUTION. 



BY NICHOLAS MURR^.Y BUTLER. 



^T^IIE vast educational activity of the Govern- 
A meiit of the United States is but little 
understood. In almost every Government de- 
partment and bureau at Washington, prolonged 
scientific investigations are continually carried 
on, in order that governmental action itself may 
)ie more intelligent and more efficient, and the 
general welfare of the people promoted. The 
United States Geological Survey is a great scien- 
tific undertaking, fitted to rank with the univer- 
sities of the world by reason of the scope and 
character of its researches. The Coast and Geo- 
detic Survey, the Armv Medical Museum and 
laboratories, and the Smithsonian Institution and 
its de{>endencies are constantly engaged in simi- 
lar work. The Department of Agriculture is one 
vast school of pure and applied science. It has 
l>een estimated that the Government appropriates 
not less than three million dollars annually for 
scientific investigation and the application of its 
results. This sum would almost maintain the 
three great urban universities of the country — 
Harvard Colnuibia, and Chicago — for a year. 



As a consequence of this activity, many highly 
trained scientific men have been attracted to enter 
the Government service at Washington, and they 
constitute a very large })roportion of the scientific 
investigators of the United States. Their posi- 
tions are secure, and their work goes on witliout 
interruption from year to year, apart from t)ublic 
notice, and yet witli results of the highest theoret- 
ical value aiui practical importance. While the 
Congress carries on this work for governmental 
purposes only, it indicateil as long ago as 1892, 
in a joint resolution approved April 12 of that 
year, that the Government's large collections 
illustrative of the various arts and sciences, and 
its facilities for scientific and literary researcli, 
were to be held accessible to the investigators 
and students of any institution of higher educa- 
tion then existing or thereafter established in the 
District of Columbia. By an almost unnoticed 
but most important provision incorporated in the 
general deficiency bill passed at the second ses- 
sion of the Fifty sixth Congress, and approved 
March 3, 1901, the privileges given Ijy the joint 



THE lVASHI\GTON MEMORIAL ISSTirUTIOS. 



•t I 




Presideut ArtliurT. Uadley. Pri>ffs«>r Niclmlas Murray Fresiilfiit Willliim H. Hur- I'rt-M'. 
of Yiile. Hutlt-r. (if Ci»liiiiil>iii. Iit-r, nf I'hlrmjii. i. 

SOME OF THE TKl'STEES OF THE WASHISliTOX MIIMOHIAl. IXSTITl'TIOX. 



\V. UkW 



resolution of April \'l, 1S9'2, to iiiVL'sti<j;at«jrs and 
stmlents of institutions in tla* District of Coiuin- 
Itia were exten«.letl to "scientific investigators 
and to duly qualified individuals, students, antl 
graduates of institutions of learning in the sevenil 
t^tates and Territories, as well as in the District 
of Columhia, under such rules and restrictions as 
the heads of the deparlnu-nts and V)ureaus men- 
tioned may i)rescril)e." This wise and generous 
provision of law at once opened the way for a 
new step in the development of higher education 
in the Uniteil States. 

How were qualified students in Maine or New 
York, or Iowa w California, to know just what 
opi)ortunities for study and research were open 
to them at Washington ? To wlioin were they 
to apply for inforniation. guidance, and direc- 
tion ? liy whom was their work at Washington 
to Ije supervised and recordeil in case they might 
wish to offer it to the university of their choice 
in i)artial fulfillment of the reciuirements for a 
higher degree? In what way were tliey to bo 
brought together so as to develop the esjirit de 
ror/w which is to be fouinl in every genuine stu- 
dent-bodv? The Congress had made no provi- 
sion for any of these tilings, and in the nature of 
the case could make none without a violent de- 
parture from all precedent. The new opjiort uni- 
ties created a new need, and tliat nee<l is to Ije 
met by the Wa.shington Mtinorial Institution, 
inef.rporated on May 17. r.u)l. and formally or- 
ganized f»n June .3. 

The Washington Memorial In.stitution is the 
direct outcome of the activities of the Wusli 
ton Academy of Sciences and of the (u-^' 
Washington Memorial Association, the latter 
body being an organizalij.n of womeiw " to aid in 
securing in the city of Washington, D. C., tlie 
increase of opportunities for higher education, as 
recommended by George Washington, the first 
President of the United States, in his variou.s 



messages to Congress," and so foitli. The plan 

has been worketl out in < - "'Mtion wi*' "^^ ■ •.•• 

sentatives of the universii other ic 

bodies, and witli their hearty co6|>eraiion aD«l 
approval. It has the merits " ' -"f 

not (Uiplicating anv existmi: al 

effort. 

The name, Wasliington Memorial Institution, 
is self-e.xplanatory. It recalls to mind the in- 
sistent wish of Washington, e.xpiv.sseil in his 
will, and in lettei-s to Adams. Kdniund Kan- 
dolph. Jefferson. Hamilton. <: " ke of 

Virginia, and to the commi- • fed- 

eral district, that pro|)er provision for higher 
education at the caj^ital itself should be maile by 
the Government. 

The object of the Institution is to utilize the 
scientific and other resources of the (Jovernment 
in Washington for advanced study and h. 

and to cooperate to that end with un.. . ...is, 

colleges, learned societies, and individuals. In 
other words, it is to supply the need which has 

been ]>ointed out alM)ve. It w:" - ' ar 

bv year, just what the op|Mirtuii :>l» 

are at Washington, and will pulilish them to the 
world ; it will receive ami enroll students who 
offer them.selves, an<l direct them to the places 
which await them ; it will record their work and 
its results, and, when requested, will certify these 
to any institution of ' '■ ' in 

tf)uch with tlie univei - . "id 

colleges on the one hanti, and with the de|»arl- 
nients and iiun-aus of the Governuient on the 
other. In this way it will ■' ••■•■« '••• >•■'•.•■' 
promote the int<T«-«fH and th- 

The projKM y. managi'ineni. and con- 

trol of the luhio i> » boarii of 

fifleeii trustees, c ..., - : 

K'lwin A. Ahh-rnum. ; Tidand'ni- 

vorsitv ; .Mexan«ler Gniimni \'» A the 

i*<mith.HoniBn hl^lltutlon . Nich - .■■..,...y Hul- 



5H 



THE AMERICAS Mn\'THIY RF.llEU' OF REklEiVS. 



V nn«i eilucntion in C'l' 
\V. Ihil'iifV, prosi- 
icsst'o : I)i»iii('l (\>it 
I . .if tlio .lolins Hopkins I'niver- 

. llmili'V. pn-siilcnt of Yiile I'ni- 
.. ..i...iii l{. IluriHT. pivsidontoi rliii-ngo 
' tv : Ml-*, riitrhe A. II«'arst, regrnt ol" 

ralifornia ; Mrs. Aicliiltalil 
■ of the (loorgf Wasliiiiirton 
\: '.on ; r. Hart Mcrriaiii. cliict 

of llie United SUtes Biological Survey: Cvnis 
\ ■.. pn>si«l«'nt of the University of Mimie- 

i-nry S. I'ritoliett, president of tlie Mas- 
^.. -s Institute of Technology; George M. 

f^ternU'rg. surgeon general. United States army ; 
('■ 1). Walcott, director of the United Stales 

». _ ;il Survey; and Uarrull D. Wright, 
United States Commissioner of Lal)or. It will be 
seen that on this board the universities, tiie scien- 
tific schools, the land-grant colleges, the State 
universities, and the scientific work of the Govern- 
ment are all represented, and thereby the coopera- 
tion of all tliose important interests is assured. 
More significant still is the fact that Mr. Giluian, 
who has just retired from the presidency of the 
Johns Hopkins University after a quarter-cen- 
tury of eminent service, has been tendered and 
has accepted the directorship of the Institution, 
and will take up the duties of the office in the 
autumn. Under his guidance the new work will 
grow on soun<l lines and b\^ wise measures, and 
will have from the outset, as it will deserve, the 
confidence of the country and of the officers of 
tlie Government. Mr. Gilman's fitness for his 
new post is unique, and it is a Iiappy coincidence 
that just as he lays down the heavy burden of 
the presidency of a great university these ligliter, 
though hardly less responsible, duties fall to his 
lot. 

While the detailed policy of the Washington 
Memorial Institution is yet to be mapped out, 
some things are assured by the facts of the case 




PRESIDENT DANIEL C. OILMAN. 

(Who has been chosen as director of the Washington Me- 
morial Institution.) 



and by tlie character of the board of trustees. It 
is certain that the In.stitution will be independent 
of Government support or control, and that it 
will appeal for support to those men and women 
who are ainltitious to aid the higher learning and 
the development of science. The Institution 
might well be made the agency through which 
to administer a fund for the endowment of gen- 
eral scientific research similar to that which Mr. 
Rockefeller has created for the endowment of 
research in medicine. The trustees would cer- 
tainly be able to arrange that investigations sup- 
ported by such a fund might be carried on in 
part at the universities and in part in the Govern. 




Prcsiiifiii Heiiiv .^. FriK.h- Mr~. Fii(et)e A. Hearst, of 
ett, of Boston. California. 



Pre^iiicnt (Jyrus Xorthrop, President Edwin A. Alder- 
of Minnesota. naan, of New Orleans. 



SOME OF THE TRUSTEES OK THE WASHINGTON MEMORIAL INSTITUTION. 



THE U/ASHINGTON MEMORIAL ISSTITUTION. 



59 




Surgeon-General George M. Hon. Carroll D. Wriglit. Hon. Charles D. Walcott. IIuu. AIuxhikUt Graiiaiu 

Sternberg, U.S.A. Bell. 

SOME OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE WASHINGTON MEMOKIAL INSTITUTIOS. 



ment laboratories, as the necessities of each par- 
ticular investigation might require. In this way 
the highest type of institutional couperatiun 
would be promoted. 

It may be assumed tliat the trustees of the 
Washington Memorial Institution will so shape 
their work as to carry out to the fullest extent 
the declared policy of the Congress, and tliere- 
fore that the sole test for the admission of stu- 
dents will be capacity and fitness. Tlie students 
will naturally be mature nu-n and women, trained 
for the most part in e.xisting colleges and uni- 
versities, and capable of undertaking special in- 
vestigations either under direction or indei»»'nd- 
entlv. Not a few of the .students will certainly 
be candidates for higher tlegrees at American or 
foreign universities who are carrying on tlu'ir 
studies wholly or in part at Washington. Others 
will be those who have taken the highest degrees 
and are desirous of pursuing farther some special 
topic of investigation. There will Im- students of 
history, of diplomacy, and of social science as 
well as of the physical and natural sciences. No 
degrees will be offered or conferred by the Insti- 
tution ; it will be an aid and adjunct to universi- 
ties, but not a new university or a torso of one. 
Through the e.xi.stence of the Institution, the 
educational resources of the Government are 
l»ractically a'ldetl t<) those which are now pos- 
se.ssed by the several universities of the country, 
the smallest and tlie largest alike. To that e.x- 
tent a new governmental endowment of higher 
edueation becomes available for students ihrougli- 
oiit the United States. 

While the Wa.shington Memorial Institution is 
in no sense a univ«'rsity. yet it meets all tliat is 
generally held to be reasonable in the denumd for 
the establishment of a statutory national univer- 
sity at Wa.shington, clothed with full degree-con- 
ferring jtowers. The movement for a national 
university of that type dates from Wu.shington 
himself, and it has received respectable Hupport 



and called out not a little generous sentiment in 
its favor ever since. Meanwhile, however, con- 
ditions have entirely changed, rnivei-sities of a 
wholly new order have come into l»eing, and the 
United States has its sliare of them. These great 
institutions, north, south, east, and west, are na- 
tional in the very Ik-sI sense. — national in their 
Constituencies, national in their siip|H»rt, national 
in their policies, and national in their sympathies. 
They have sprung direct from the wishes and de- 
sires of the |»eople, by that |>ersonal initiative 
which is the Anglo-Saxon's way of Wginning to 
build his most characteristic institutions. They 
suj.plv — and. taken together, far more than sup- 
plv — the neeiled op]Hirtiinities for higher study 
anil research in the United States. To add to 
their number would not 1m« to do the wisest or 
most necessary thing in the field of education, 
and to add to their numlter at public exjMMis«» 
Would be quite unjustifiable. 

On the otluT liaml, it is impossible ik'I i.> real- 
ize the many opportunities for work at Washing- 
ton of a genuine university character which the 
activities of the Government offer, and it is un- 
wise not to make use of those opjM)rtunitii's. T«» 
bring into existence an additional full university 
organization for this purjwse would hv to i.. 
more problems than would ^ ■'!. It was iiio 

part of educational statesi: ;> to devis*- an 

easier and a l»etter way to accomplish the same 
result. This haslK'cn «lono, an<l the Washington 
.Memorial In^- • • ■ - ••'■ outcome. 

«>nlv the li - may l>o ox|Hfte<l to 

follow froni the establisliment of these new rela 
tions ' 1 the ■ - «n<l the < : 

ment - sts. K.i Mii-thing • i 

from the methods ainl pun the other, and 

neither can possibly lo?.- 

outlook. Under Mr. *iiiiujiii-« 

causi' of m'ientific n'warch and of ^ 

of that rewan'h to pnutical problems may mn- 

fiilentlv bo ex|HM't«'«l to take a long stride furwartl. 



riii: Ri ^.siAX rkoDLi'iM ix maxxhuria. 



BY rROFKSSOR G. FREDKRICK WRIGHT. 
(Of OlHM-liii t'olU-jii'.) 



Q*0 f.ir :.s wo onn soe. the United States is more 
- ' . (I in the future of Manclmria than 

ni it>n is, except Kiissia, and possiI)ly 

.1.1 we ah-cady liave i)retty largely a 

Uf ill"' Manohurian tra<le. Aecurdiu'; 

to the last ivpurt of tlie British consul at New- 
<"h\vanir. t\v«t-thirds of the imports into China the 
vear in-fore the war were from America, ihe 
vahie of the cotton cloths alone from America 
aniountinp to nearly $!S.O(i(».0()<». The Russians 
themselves were also anu>ng the best patrons of 
Auiencan trade, a large i)art of the maU'rial for 
the construction of the railroad being jnirchased 
in America. We rodr out of Port Arthur on a 
train drawn by a riiiladelphia locomotive, over 
rails nuule in Baltimore, wliich were laid on tics 
that came from Oregon. In Harbin almost all 
the vast stores of railroad material had l)een im- 
ported from Ameru'a. We counted the names 
of no less than twelve American firms who had 
contril.iuted to this stock. 
This trade is not likely to 
be affected soon by any reg- 
ulations which may ensue 
from Ru.ssian control ; for 
she is not yet prepare<l to 
supply the new demands 
which will 1)6 created. 

THE LINE OF RISSIa's 
IJEVELOI'MEXT. 

Before the close of navi- 
gation in 1900, the Russians 
had upon the Pacific coast an 
army of 1 70.000 men. But 
evidently Manchuria will be 
a very poor investment if 
such a military occupation is 
demanded for any very great 
length of time. The mani- 
fest interest of Russia is to 
settle and develop the terri- 
tory contiguous to her own 
l>orders in the valley of the 
Amur, and to secure a direct 
outlet by the shortest route 
to the open sea. The mouth 
of the Amnr is too far north 
to be of ser\nce to commerce. 
Apparently, Russia will be 



content with rnaintaiiiing the ccjiidition of things 
provided fiu- l)y treaty. Her interests are cer- 
tainly on the siile of peace. ()n(> has but to 
travel through the undeveloped i)art of Siberia to 
feel that the Peace Congress called by the Czar 
was a genuine effort in tlic line of tlic^ interests of 
Russia and of the world. Russia is developing 
along (h^finite parallels of latitude into territory 
contiguous to lier own, all of which, until i-cach- 
ing the Amur River, is upon the north side of 
the great plateau that separates her from English 
colonies. As Gladstone used to say, one has but 
to look at the niaji to see that there is no natural 
antngouism between the interests of Russia ami 
those of England. Even if she should be com- 
pelled to retain Manchuria, it need not seriously 
affect the other interests in China. Manchuria is 
a country by itself, with vast undeveloped re- 
sources, forming a natural connection between 
Siberia and the open waters of the Pacific. 




MAP OF MANCHUHIA. 



THE RUSSMS PRORl.F.M /.V MANCHURIA 



61 




HEAL>kjL'AI(TEU;> oK Tilt llL-t<IA.N 1:.\U1M;i;U!> AT Ttl.lMi. 



Rl'SSIAXS IX MAXCHIKIA St'KI"KlSKI) BY THE 
BUXEK olTBKKAK. 

Never was a great nation taken more liy sur- 
prise than were the Russians last summer hy the 
outljreak of liostilities in Mant-huria. < )f tins I 
have abundant evidence of the most positive 
character. < )n June ') of last year, wliicii was 
ten days after the outbreak in I'eking. from which 
citv we had escaped but the day l)efore, A'ice- 
Admiral Alexieff heartily seconded our j»lan to 
po throuuh Manchuria, and ff)rwarded us on 
construction trains along the ( 'iiinese Kastern 
Railroad to Teling, as far as it was completed. 
This was thirty miles beyond Mukden, the capital, 
and al>out 4.')() from Port Arthur. If the a«l- 
miral had had any .serious api)rehension of danger, 
he certainly would not have encouraged us as 
he di<l to make the trip. Arriving at Teling <in 
June lU, we Ijrought the news from IVking with 
us to the engineers who were constructing the 
railroad. As communication with Peking was 
still p<j.xsil>le by telegraph, they received that 
morning an a.«s>iraiicf tliat the Russians need 
have no apprehension of trouble from the Chi- 
nese, because it was believed that tiie uprising 
was maiidv direete<l against the railroa«ls that 
were built by ?^nglish capital and w«'re under 
English control. In view of this, we w<Me n*- 
cpiested tuemphasi/e the fact that we were Amer- 
ican.»». and not Knglish. 

CHINESK EASTKItX ItAII.UoAP l-KoTKCTKD BY 
COHKACK.S AXD «'IIIXEHK. 

We then set <jut in Chine.se carts for a jouniey 
200 miles along the unfinishe-l line of the rail 



road. During the entire part of this journey, 
which occupied ten days, we were entertained by 
the Russian engineers at their various •••—>: of 
operations. We saw huniireds of tl - of 

Chinese cordially working under Russian suiwr- 
inteiiilents. r)uriiig this jxntion of the trip. al.-Ki, 
we were provideil with a military guard, which 
Consisted a part of the time of two mounted Co«- . 
sacks, and a part of the time t>f two n>ounted 
Chinese s<^ldiers. The total Russian force along 
this whole line consisted of a single Ct>ssa«"k regi- 
ment, whose head(juarters was at Tiding. Mingle<l 
with these was an equal Uxly of Chine.st> soldiers. 
The sp«'cial need of the military force was not to 
jtrotect the railroad against any organized IkmIv 
of Chinese, but to guard against llie roblnTV of 
the large amount t)f trea.>«ure that was Indng 
ship[)ed to the various jxiints to pay the work- 
men, and of the more valuable material that wa« 
rcipiired in the construction of the road. We 
had (M'casion at one time to see the hn/-"-' '■• 
which these were e.xpose<l from the lawi- 
]H«radoes who infested jKirlions of the cotuitry. 
( )n«' morning, when a f«'W ii ' 
tion where we had s|>«'nl li • ' ^ . 
a train of teams that had 8tart«'d a little while 
l)efore us, heavily h>ailed with silver «'oin. We 
were near enougli to them • ■ "'•■-'= •■■- ••••... ..t 
to rob tln> train by 8»>nie <li 
with the drivers, who stamiH'ded tlie ( 
horses by lashing them with their !■ 
On weing this, om- .'n.ird left u« in tli< 
of an eye, and on to the arone to ; 
them H.ii>iM>rt ; and in le»« lit! 
write thi.'». tho uuile«l gtianl o( * .■^-... .v- j.. -i 



>\'i 



THE AMERICAN MOXTHI.Y KEllEir Of REI^'IEM'S. 



1. . . 

lion 



mil thnt commamled the situation, nn.i, 

OllOtS fi.\«'<l. so tiMTol- 

tlu>ir plan was aluii- 



tlio tMijiinoiM's 
coiifnling iiii- 



~ n«ult» wi' lounil 

I , .if tlu'ir riiinose work- 

in. ii. and of the Lliinese soldii»rs where tliey 
u •il. At Quaiioheiitse, one-half way 

t _.. unflni^hctl portion of tlie road, we 

sjHMJt a Sunday at the very flourishing Scotch • 
mission of the place. The missionaries were en- 
gagfil in large huilding operations, and saw no 
indications of unrest among the Chinese about 
them. At Lao-sha-ku, where first we struck tlie 
Snngari Hiver. on June 'JO, we found the whole 
valuable proix^rty of the railroad guanled by a 
company of Chinese soU'.iers. who were spoken of 
in verv high praise by the able and experienced 
engineer in charge. Along the entire route from 
Fort Arthur to this point we had seen literally 
hundreds of thousands of Chinese workmen who 
apimrently felt it a privilege to get work upon 
this gn'at Russian enterprise. 

Bl'SSIAX IXPKKPAKEDXESS FOK A CIIINKSK ATTACK. 

On June 22 we reached Harbin, the principal 
point from wliich the Chinese Eastern Railroad 
was being constructed. This is almost in the 
exact center of Manchuria, being the point wliei-e 
the branch from Port Arthur intercepts the main 
line running from Siberia to Vladivostok. Tak- 
ing advantage of the navigation up the Sungari 
River, the Russians had brought an immense 
amount of material to this point and were pusli- 
ing the railroad out in three directions to meet 
those who were building in toward the center 
from the three ends. So important was this 
place that Mr. Yugovitsch, the chief engineer, 
made it his headquarters. We 
left Harbin on June 27 to go 
down the Sungari River 7U0 
miles to Kabarovsk, on tiie 
Amur River. When we were 
half-way down, our steamer 
was ordered by telegraph to 
return, for the revolution had 
broken out in Manchuria. But 
as we had prominent Russian 
officers on board who were un- 
der urgent orders, our steamer 
was permitted to go on. 

We afterward learned that, 
upon the taking of Fort Taku 
by the allies, and the formal 
declaration of war by the Chi- 
nese central government, the 
entire population of Manchuria 



tunu>d upon the fonMgners with scarcely a mo- 
nu'iit's warning, 'i'wo we.'ks later, upon going up 
ihc .Amur IJivcr, we found the Russian steamers 
thronged will) fugitive women iind cliiMi-cn, a num- 
ber of wlioni had hospitably enlrrtained us in the 
center of Manchuria. A few days after our passage 
through the country, these had barely escaped with 
their lives. It is difficult to realize the su<ldenness 
with which this storm burst upon the Russians. 
To meet it there was no preparation. The en- 
gineers with their families were not adequately 
guarded, and the vast property of the railroad 
was everywhere exposed. To the extent of their 
aliility, the Chinese destroyed this property, and 
it was only by the most hasty flight that any of 
the foreigners escaped. These facts ought defi- 
nitely to dispel the impression that has prevailed 
in many quarters that the war in China was 
fonuMited by the Russians in anticipation of the 
great advantages which tliey were going to reap 
from it. 

Upon reaching Kabarovsk, and visiting Vla- 
divostok, we proceeded up the Amur River, on 
July 11, when we had ample opportunities to 
see the frantic efforts made by the Russians to 
repair their mistake and send a military force 
into Harbin for the protection of their property. 
With great haste the troops already in quarters 
had been forwarded from Vladivostok to Tien- 
tsin ; and though the whole reserve force of the 
Amur district was mobilized as rapidly as possi- 
ble, there was necessarily much delay. The des- 
perateness of the situation was shown in the fact 
that the Russians brought down all their regi- 
ments stationed at Blagovyeschensk, numbering 
about five thousand men, and sent them up the 
Sungari River to protect the property at Harbin. 
Tliis left Blagovyeschensk defenseless until other 
Russian troops could be brought down the river 




A MANCHURIAN TNN. 



THE RUSSIAN PKDRl EM IX MANCHI R//1. 



68 




UL'R COSSACK Gl'AKU IN MANCIIl'ItlA. 



from Transl»aikalia, 700 miles to the west. 
But as llie wattT was low, tliese troops were long 
delayed. Meanwhile, the Chinese, having quietly 
but rapidly brought up to the opposite side of 
the river a large force, with five cannon, and 
thrown up earthworks for a distance of about 
three miles, without a moment's warning began 
firing upon the city : while, a few miles below, 
the Chinese fort at Aigun had opened lire upon 
the Russian steamboats that were passing down. 

RET.\Ll.\TOKY MKASl'RES. 

"What added to the difficulty of the situation 
for the Russians was that there were .3,000 Chinese 
living in the city, and 2."), 000 living in villages 
on the Russian side, from ten to twenty miles V)e- 
low the city. It was at once evident that these 
were a source of weakness to 
the Russians : and so likf a 
thunderclap had this hostility 
of the Chinese burst upon 
them that they naturally felt 
that noChiriainan could under 
the circumstances lie trusted. 
It was therefore a military 
necessity of the most urgent 
kind for the Russians to clear 
the Chinese away from their 
side of the river if they would 
protect thfirown h<Mi.s<'hoId?>. 
In view ot the exigencies ol 
the case, we who were upon 
the ground could not sc*- 
what else was left for tin- 
Russians to do. And what 
wa.s done was not through 



orders from the central government, but from 
a .spijntaiH'ous impulse of wlfpresi-rvation. It 
was a fearful sight to drive a» we did through 
these burning villages, which the ('■ 
were still selling on fire, and s«'e evei v . . 
the signs of utter desolation which prevailed. 
Not a Chinaman was visible. The «1. 
flocks of geese and herds of swine and c i . 
sulivhu'd lings huddling logetlier in ih- 
squares, with smoldering buildings all around, 
have left a jticture on our minds that cann- 
i»e forgotten. The thousands o( men. v 
and children in these villages had disap 
no one would ever know where. Probabiy tew 
of them could escajM* from death. Tlie ' " 
the :{.0()it Chinese in the city of lUagowe- 
is well known. In attempting to cross the river 




ACHOKN MASC'IUMIA IMUKH Ul ARK or t Mlllfc»fc ■•>l.4>lfcHA 



iU 



THE AMERICA\ MOXTHLY REI/IEIV Oh' REl^'IFWS. 



• own oountrvjni'H tli«\v nearly all p«*r- 

'H', Wf roniil 

-'A)S. "lowii the 

' well known tliat the 

jiiteinpt to give these 

. I. TOSS the river. Rafts 

iiii. and they were started 

11 tiiejr way ; but tlie rafts w«'re poorly 

1 were overcrowded. Still, they 

"Vrr, iiad Hut tin' Chine.se theni- 

■1 Hre upon them and jiroiluced a 

; residteil in the drowning of almost 

I.., . ...... ..iinilier. 



RrS8IA S (X"CrPATIOX OF TUK .\MIU KKGIOX 

T. 



1 the situation in Manchuria, it is 

Ti> reci'Uiir tlic lii.<toi'v of Hus- 



tlie terror oi ilicii' nniis fur up the Sungari 
IJiver to tlie very ceiUer of Manchuria, the Rus- 
sians were overpowered liy the L'iiinef^c. who 
were at that, time under the leadership (jf tlie 
then vigoious Mauchu dynasty. In the year 
ICSI), l)y the treaty of Nertchinsk, Ru.ssia re- 
lincjuished all claims to the Amur, and for moie 
tlian a hundred ami fifty yeais made no further 
atteni])!* for the occupation of the region. Dur- 
ing this perioil, however, an active commerce be- 
tween China and Rus.sia was maintained over the 
caravan route crossing the Gobi desert from 
Kiakhta to Kalgan, the Ru.?sian Government 
meanwhile making a special point to keep on 
friendly terms with the Chinese. 

The final anue.xation of the Amur region was 
one of the incidents growinf>' out of the ("riniean 




OUR CHINESE GLAUDS IN .MANCRCRIA. 



sia's occupation of the adjoining territory across 
the Amur. About the middle of the^ seven- 
teenth century (1644), PoyorkofI advanced from 
Yakutsk into the valley of the Amur, and ex- 
plored a considerable portion of that majestic 
river, f^ive years later, a better-equipped expedi- 
tion under Kabaroff was sent out for the per- 
manent occupation of the region. But lie found 
tliat the various races inhabiting the country 
were tributary to the Khan of Manchuria. These 
made such a determined opposition that the Rus- 
sians failed to maintain permanent posse.ssion. 
After a struggle of more than a quarter of a cen- 
tury, in which the Russians had at times carried 



War. In 1854, Muravieff (whose monument 
now stands in the most conspicuous place in 
Kabarovsk, the capital of the province of the 
Amur) undertook to convey a considerable force 
of Russian soldiers down the entire length of the 
Amur River to join the small fleet under Nevel- 
skoy, who was defending the Russian settlements 
on the northeastern coast of Siberia. Owing to 
the fear of depredations upon English and French 
shipping in tlie Pacific, it was of great importance 
for the allies to destroy this Russian fleet. Mura- 
vieff obtained permission of the Chinese to de- 
scend the Amur River by urging the necessity 
of defending the Russian possessions near the 



THE RUSSIAN PROBLEM IN MANCHURIA. 



65 




tlie right to build the Chinpsc Eastern I{ttilrt.ad 
til rough Manchuriaii territory, and to occupy 
I'ort Arthur as a naval station. * -' • -Jiw 
stipulations of this treat v, the I. 



SCE-Ni; I.N KHO.NT OF .V M .V.NCIIT III .V .S F A K.M III i( >!.. 

mouth. Being successful almost beyond his ex- 
pectations in 18.')4. a still larger c.viM'dition sought 
and ol)taineil permission to descend the river 
the following year. Through the preparations 
thus made and carried out by the permission of 
the Chinese Government, Russia maintained her 
bold upon the Pacific coast, and by successes m 
that qua Iter made up, to some extent, for the 
reverses she suffered in the Crimea. 

THE RCSSO-CHINESE TREATIES OF 1 SoS AND 189«;. 

An unexpected result of these expeditions of 
Muravieff was the discovery that there were prac- 
tically no Chinese settlers north of the Amur, 
and few upon the south bank ; so that there was 
hut little opposition to the settlement on the north 
bank of so many Russian coloni.sts as were neces- 
•sary to promote the interests of Russian naviga- 
tion up and down the river. In May, 1H58, the 
treatv of Aigun was signed between the Chines** 
and Russians, giving to Russia all of the terri- 
tory upon the north bank of the Amur and upon 
the east bank of the Usuri, China retaining that 
upon the south bank of the Amur down to its 
junction witli the Usuri. The treaty also pro 
vided that the rivers on the frontier shouM be 
open to navigation only to ves.sels of the two em- 
pires, and that the few Manchus living on the 
north bank of the Amur should U' allowed to re- 
main under the Chinese authorities 

During the next forty years, the provisions oi 
this treaty were carefully observeil by the lius- 
sians. Meanwhile, a population of 350,000 Rus- 
sian settlers liad foiuul their way int<» the newly 
acfpiired territory. !5ut, notwitlislanding their 
right under the treaty to navigate the Sungari 
River, th(f Russians refrained, on account of the 
native opposition, from asserting this privilege 
until it was secured in more defmite form in con- 
nection with the treaty of IXI^G, which grante<l 



stipulations of this treaty, the I. i\. 

meut was permitted to purchase tlie right of way 

acr. \' ' • • -• 

Bu.: 



ler at 
*f the 

province of Usuri, near VI,. . from 

Harbin on the Sungari River to Port Arthur 

on the Chinese Sea. Th lent of t' m|, 

however, was to be a Ch; ; the IL ^ ler 

which it was to lie run was a combination of the 
Russian anil theChine.se; and the •• pro- 

te<-tion of the road was to bt^ by join* '' 'he 

Russian and the Chinese army. At t in 

of a certain {)ericHl, also, the Chinese Government 
was to have the option of purchasing the road. 

RAII.KOAn-Bl'II.niNO A('R«>8.S MANCIIl'KIA. 

upon the signing of this treaty, the Russians 
at once abandon«*d for the present the ,••.'•••;(•■ 
tion of the railroad along the circuit. ,;e 

north of the Amur River, and concentrated all 
their force to complete as ."Joon as ' '•• the 

Manchurian division, for which the • ,, > now 
open. With marvelous exjx'dition, the surveys 
of the road, which is more than eighteen liun- 
died miles in length, were eflfecte<l, and work • 
was begun at tlH> three termini and also at Har- 
bin. The prosecutii)n of the work from Harbin 
necessitated the immediate navigation of tlie 
Sungari River. A fleet of twenty four river 
steamers, made in sections in England, was 
launcheil upon the waters, and an incredible 
amount of material for railroad building was 
speedily transferred to that centi'r yf activity. 

When this road was alKnit two-thirds com- 
pleted, but Iwfore through conncn'tion had any- 
where lx*en establisheil, the revolution of last 
summer suddenly swept over the province and 
caused the destruction of everything perishable 




KMB \H A MAKI'IU'NIAM ril.lAOa. 



on 



77//:' AMHRICAS MOSTlll Y Kl-lll-M' OF Rl-yiFMS. 



in «v»»ineclion with (ho ron<l, imiMMiloil nil tlio in- 
which ha«l j^rowii up uiuler the irfaty, 

•' ' '• .< coultl (1<\ r(MnK»r«>tl 

-. ('K'arly iIhmv was 
I'lil one counse to pui'sue. Tlie Kussiaiis must 
upou th<'ir own arms for tin* 
:... .:■ projx'rty and for carrying out 
;hc provisions of the treaty. The sitiiarion was 
such as it wouhl Iw with the United States in 
Xi' — ■ — '. if. under the treaty, wlien the canal 
aci ;>thmussliouhl be iu>arly completed, the 

government of Nicaragua should suddenly turn 
-• tlie United States and attempt to desti-oy 
.... :. .it she had accomplished, 'i'iiere would l)e 
no question that the United States would imme- 
diately send an army to protect her rights and 
to carry out the provisions of the treaty. If any 
fault was to ])e found with Russia, it should have 
been brought forward at the time the treaty was 
made. Hut at that time Germany had just seized 
from China the most important harbor (("hai-chu) 
in the Shantung peninsula, and England had as- 
sented to Russia's action by speedily taking pos- 
session of Wei-hai-wei, which, as a Chinese naval 
station, was the counterpart of Port Arthur. As 
a natural result, these two countries could say 
nothing, and Japan alone was left to complain. 

maxchlria's ijesources. 

Since, therefore, it is evident tliat when once 
this railroad is completed the Russians will have 
practical control of the province, it is important 
to notice its character and resources. ^Manchuria 
contains about 400,000 square miles, being one- 
third larger than Texas, but its shape is so irreg- 
ular that fully '2,500 miles of its boundary adjoins 
Russian territory. The condition of the country 
is such that the population is distributed in a 
very irregular manner. The northern province 
of Tsi-tsi-kar, having 190,000 square miles, is 
largely mountainous, and is thinly populated. It 
contains unknown ])ut probably vast mineral re- 
sources and extensive forests ; while a fertile ter- 
ritory, now almost entirely unoccupied, extends 
for 1.000 miles along the south bank of the Amur 
and its principal tributary, the Aigun. Mr. 
Yugovitsch was also enthusiastic when speaking 
to me of the undeveloped agricultural resources 
in the valley of the middle Nonni River and 
about the head waters of the eastern branches of 
the Aigun ; while the valley of the Sungari River 
contains thinly inhabited prairies as extensive as 
those of the upper Mississippi and apparently as 
favorable to cultivation. 

The province of Gerin is likewise largely a 
mountainous district, especially throughout the 
full extent of its southeastern border, but con- 
tains also a portion of the fertile plains along the 



Sungari River. Its resources are similar to those; 
of 'i'si-tsikar, and its minerals, though largely 
undeveloped, are j)robably of great value. 

The most populous province is tiiat of Lao 
tung, which is penetrated by the branch lincMun- 
ning from Ilarbin to Port Artliui'. For a dis- 
tance of 400 miles, extiMidiiig from the Sungari 
River to Newchwang, tlie I'ailroad passes througli 
a level, well -watered region, dinisely crowded 
with population, and, as far as the (;ye can sec, 
under the highest state of cultivation. In our 
journey through it we sca,rcely found an acre that 
was not ])laiit('d and carefully freed from weeds. 

The tolal population of Muucliuria is vai'iously 
estimated at from 10,000,000 to 2."), ()()(), 000 ; but 
there seems little doubt that Lao-tung aloiu> has a 
population of as much as 1 2,0()n,()()0, and that 




TEHMINUS Ol-' THE liAlLKOAU (JN THE SUNGARI RIVER. 

the total cannot be much less than 20,000,000. 
These, however, are largely Chinese. The Man- 
chus are a fading race, their success in arms 
having, as is often the case, led to their ultimate 
decay ; for ever since the establishment of the 
Manchu dynasty at Peking, in 1044, they have 
been drawn in large numbers to Peking and to 
the garrisons stationed in all the principal Chinese 
towns. Here, living a comparatively idle life, and 
depending largely upon pensions from the general 
government for their support, they have become 
enervated ; while tlie quality of those left behind 
in Mancliuria has depreciated in character. The 
Chinese, on the otlier hand, have gradually in- 
vaded Manchuria till they carry on nearly all of 
its business, and swarm in all the centers of po[)U- 
lation. Gradually, they are bringing under cul- 
tivation the vast areas of fertile land which \inder 
the Manchus had been devoted to pasture or left 
to run to waste. 

iu'ssia's immediate interests. 

Even a hasty glance at this situation reveals 
the points al)out whicli Russian intei-ests center 
in j\Ianchuria. The first necessity is to keep an 



Mil4- PHASHS Oh POLAR RH.SHARCH, 



67 



ojMMi liiH> of tran'u- iiDiM r»'mral Miiciiu id liio 
raoifio t )coaii. Tln' inilitaiy atlvaiila^^t' of this 
would amply compensate Kussia for all the ex- 
pense of huiltliii^ llu' road, even thouj^li it were 
not directly a financial siiccess. This, howi'vcr, 
it is likely to Vk'. The export of coarse ])ioducts 
trom this center of Manchuria is, even under 
present conditions, immense. ( )f this the rail- 
road will have almost a monopoly. 

Secondly, the recent tragic experiences about 
Bragovyeschensk show the importance of having 
both sides of the Amur Hiver under the control 
of Kussia. There is as much reason for the oc- 
cupation of the vast extent of uninhabited fertile 
country on the soutli side of the Amur Hiver l»v 
the Ru.ssians as there is for tlie I'nited States to 
extend settlements into the region imperfectly 
occupied by the Indians in the West. A read- 
justment of the boundary lietween Hu.ssia and 
Manchuria is a necessity, uidess the Chinese 
Government speedily improves in character. 



ll'i ••♦ an«l iiniM>mlive duty 

of the i.,..^...(. I.....,,. • • • • ■ •: md 

complete the railroad \i\ wi 

much, 111 accordance with the provittions of lh« 
treaty of ISIMJ. ' ' ,jg. 

It is evident, tuer- :. . . <1. 

al»ove all other powers, in a BiHJitly rt'ii nt 

of the Chinese (iovernment, w) that ( inim can 
jHMform her part in carrying out the rondiiionH 
of the treaty. Whether, in any event, the ulti- 
mate result may not be the po68es8ion of Man- 
diuria l>y Kus.sia dejHMid- ' ' !<*h 

China may make. If ti.' ' ..w 

in the 8t<*ps of Japan and Ijecome a niiblar^' 
power of the first order, a^ it is quite |x>88ible 
she may df), it would l>e iiile for Russia to attempt 
to wrench Manchuria from her grasp. On the 
other hand, if China continues long in her present 
imln'cile condition, th«* interests of <•' on 

will deinaml that Manchuria l.tecompleu . . ,...aer 
Russian control*. 



NEW PHASES OF POLAR Kl^SEARCll 



BY CVRl S C. AUA.MS. 



IT will not be surprising if tlie North Polo is 
reached within tlu! next two years. If for- 
tune has smiled on Mr. Teary, he may alreaiiy 
have planted his flag there. Ever since Nansen 
stood as near the pole as New York is from Bos- 
ton, no Arctic authority has doubted that the 
long-sought prize is attainable. It is a (|U<'stion 
merely of a masterful leader, v>lenty of (logs, and 
three square meals a day. As sure as the sun 
rises, we shall know what is really at the north- 
ern apex of the world. It may be only a waste 
of ice-covered sea ; but the truth, however dreary, 
will be golden treasure compared with tin- dross 
of Symmes' Hole, or the yarn evolve'd by llow- 
gate'fmm Eskimo legends i>i north-polar deni/ens 
living under a genial sun and making clocks and 
other New England knickkiiacks. 

There is a revival of interest in polar research. 
Four Arctic expeditions are now in the (ieM. or 
will soon reach it ; one or two more are (piite cer- 
tain to follow next .season. The carefully planneil 
British and <Ieniian expe.litions to Antarctic wa- 
ters, fitted out ;it an expense of about ♦"OH, Odd. 
will soon Ih; on tlieir way. and will reach tlinr 
destinaticm late next fall, when the Antarclie snm- 
mer begins. Two more expeditions are preparing 
to take part in .south polar woik, but it is uncer- 



tain if they will Ih> ready to enter the fieUl this 
sea.son. It is doubtful if there wa.n ever more 
money invested in polar enterprises at one time, 
except during the search for Sir John Franklin, 
than at the present moment. The rea.son for this 
is that there are still pri/«-s to Ih* won worth s«««'k- 
ing ; and explorers think the chances of winning 
them have increased many fold in view of thegn'at 
iiMproveinents in metluHls and e<i t that 

have shown brilliant n'sults in the . Nau- 

sen, I'eary, and the Duke of the Abru7>xi. 

811'ERIOKITY OK I'KESKNT-DA Y EylMI'MENT. 

Present methoils and outfit have Ik><mi evolvwl 
from three centuries of experience, judt u the 
Brooklvn Bridge is the outcome of g«Mierationii 
of progress in engineering science. It would Ik? 
ii'garded as criminal to »lay t«» seiiil a veswl into 
]H)lar ice ho ]io<)rly (H{uip|M'd lu Iwtile with it m 
wa.s the ill-fated .! "•■. The / ''i«- 

ciivirif. ami the <> :<• Udieved ■ ;ip- 

proximate the icleal iy\w of vetuMd for i<"o naviga- 
tion. All the (»lder iHMikH on Arct rntioii 
have ' ' ' ■••• of the cmiii|N«| .j,,,, •■••<»r 
Vrii ing cellingN, Hlld < ctl 
ami underhoaled riMtiint on sliipUtani. 'i'hem 
wax alimwt a |>anic whenever a iildp wiim nip|N*«l 



68 



THE AMERICAN MONTfUY REIIEW Oh REVIEWS. 



betwoon coUitling icofloos. Tho crow of tlio 

Ar.nM, howovor, only two or three times permit ted 

' ' ■ > he interrupted 1)V the hat- 

A 8af«'r, snupj;er. more 

:»hle home for men in the polar pack than 

ti„- i'l never hnilt. unless the Discmhry 

and til. .... recently launcheil, surpass her. 

The pn>l>lem of navigating polar seas in coni- 

t'arntive safety has thus heen solved. Hut the 

'■ ' ' : little joke on Nansen. Her name 

i, hut she made her way through 

the Arctic seas hackward, like a crab. Her stern 

■d to l)e pointed northward when she was 

. ;. ,n, and she backed her way for many hun- 

• in-ls of miles through the unknown Arctic waste 

of ice. 

The Dutch have carefully preserved at The 
Hiijjue the pathetic record of the sufferings of 
Willem Barents, who, with his men, spent on 
shore, in a house built of his ship's timber, the 
first Arctic winter ever experienced by an ex- 
ploring party. This sad story Jias been duplicated 
by scores of expeditions since that time, but not 
in verv recent years. P^or the first time in Arc- 
tic exploration Peary and Ids men at Red Cliff 
lived in a well -ventilated cabin, on whose inner 
wall frost found no lodgment, and in which a 
fairlv equalile temperature was maintained from 
floor to ceiling. The Peary, Jackson, and Nan- 
sen expeditions all enjoyed a fair degree of com- 
fort through the darkness of winter, and tliere 
was not a case of serious illness among them. 
Thus the problem of comfortable and hygienic 
existence for white men in the polar regions has 
lieen solved. 

In the Museum at The Hague is the diary 
found beside the bodies of seven whalers who 
had been left alone, 268 years ago, on the little 
island of Jan Mayen, and perished of scurvy 
during the winter. Scurvy, until quite recently, 
was the bugbear, not only of polar exploration, 
but also of unduly prolonged sea voyages. When 
Dana wrote his "Two Years Before the Mast," 
men were dying of scurvy on the trip around the 
Horn from Boston to San Francisco. To-day, 
nothing but the grossest negligence gives this 
dread disease a foothold. The art of selecting 
and preserving foods of healthful and great nutri- 
tive quality for use on polar expeditions has been 
reduced to a science. These facts have been se- 
lected from many others merely to show how it 
happens that the problem of the North Pole is 
again being attacked with so much confidence 
and enthusiasm. But improv-ements in methods 
of ice travel, and the utilization of Eskimos and 
their methods of living, and of the game, and of 
other resources of the far north are equally im- 
portant factors. 



8KKD01N0 WITH MEN AND DOGS. 

Sir Francis McClintock l)rouglit the system of 
sledging with men at the njpes to perfection in 
l.sf)], and many thousa^ids of miles were covered 
in this way among the islands of the arclii]i('lago 
north of our C(»iitincnt. The art of sle<lgiiig with 
dogs has also made great advance, lai-gely through 
Pearv's faith in these aiiimnls and the improve- 
ments he introduced in sledges. Dogs are now 
the great reliance in sledge work. They may be 
made useful under circumstances where they were 
formerly thought to be useless. Nares said lie 
could use dogs to advantage only for short jour- 
neys on fairly smooth ice. They have hauled 
Peary's sledges for hundreds of miles where deep 
snow made much of the journey very arduous 
work. Nansen found his dogs most useful even 
among the hummocks of the ice-pack. Dr. Hayes 
said he could as easily sledge across New York 
City on the housetops as over the ice between 
Littleton Island and Cape Sabine. Peaiy has 
repeatedly made that journey with his dog teams, 
hauling thousands of pounds of food supplies for 
the caches he planted along the Smith Sound 
channel to Lady Franklin Bay. He uses Green- 
land dogs, and in 1,2.50 miles of sledging on the 
inland ice, assisted to a small extent by sails, 
they supplied the entire motive force fully five- 
sixths of the time. He found that they will pull 
a load of 100 pounds each from ten to twenty 
miles a day, under almost any conditions, except 
where the snow is so soft that they sink deeply 
into it. Siberian and other dogs have been found 
to be most serviceable. One of the best trips 
with dogs was made by Weyprecht in Franz 
Josef Land with Newfoundlands that he took 
with him from Vienna. Dogs are to-day a vital 
factor in the plans of all North Pole expeditions. 
There is no certainty that a ship will be carried 
by the currents nearer than within good striking 
distance of the pole ; when a favorable land base 
for the polar journey has been secured, or when 
a ship has advanced far enough to make the ice 
journey feasible, then is the time to improve the 
first favorable weather by a dash to or toward 
the pole with dog-sledges. 

Mr. Peary selected the Smith Sound route to 
the pole with direct reference to the helpfulness 
he expected to derive from the natives. This is 
another point gained in Arctic exploration. Some 
explorers in the very region where Peary is at 
work reported that the natives dreaded field ser- 
vice, and wei-e tempted to go with the sledges only 
by the promise of large presents. Dr. Hayes said 
that when he started up Smith Sound the natives 
told him they never thought of entering that re- 
gion except to catch bears, and then only when 



NHli- PHASES Ol- rOLAR RHSHARCH. 



«i» 



.^^ HI* j^ \ c.cV. 



rt-^ -» 







in danger of starving. Peary, on the otlier 
hand, has nuule them liis faithful allies. They 
have lielped him to move tuns of supplies 200 
miles up the channel which they were reported 
to shun, and have proved to be a very useful 
adjunct in all his enterprises. 

FORMER SUCCESSES EXrorRAOING TO FIMtTHKR 
EKKOKT. 

In vii;w of such facts as these, it is not strange 
that the quest for the pole, long abandoned as al- 
most hopeless, has been resumed by explorers of 
to-dav with dauntless energy and enthusiasm born 
of confidence that the prize is within rt-ach. It 
needed only the exploits of Nansen and Cagni to 
confirm them in this belief. Nansen, in twi-nty- 
four days from his ship, advanced to within 'JGl 
statute miles of the pole. At that point he ha<l 
only a week's food for his dogs, and the stores 
for himself and his conirad<'S were getting low. 
With larger supjdies of food and many more dogs. 
a part of them to be kille«l and fed to the othern, 
he might have maintained effective dog teams, 
and who knf.ws but he might possibly have reached 
the pole? In April oflast year. Ciiplain Cagni, of 
the Duke of the Abru/zi's party, advanced over 
the ice north of Franz Josijf i.and twenty two 



miles farther north than Nans«'n's record, oi 
within 'I'.Vd miles of the j)ole. The U-st of the 
sliMlging season was still lM>fortt him, but his sup- 
plies were so far exiiausted that he was com{x>lU>«l 
to turn bark. Some lucky man will ■ ' ■• 
fairly favorable conditions of ice travel u d 

and *logs enough to hold out, and he will win the 
race to the pole. Every man who lias enl»'n'»l 
the contest ho{M>s. of course, that his ]>articular 
star is in the ascendant. 

First on the list is Mr. Peary, who left home 
in iH'.tS on his lal«- ' '<• hi.n winter 

((uarters at Klah, ii ... .•md in ilio 

twilight of the winter estii - of Rup- 

plies all the way up Smith Sound a» far n» Fort 

Conger, on Lady I'" — ' ' • ''iv. lb • ' ««) 

far disabled by the .. • fnwtl I- 

Iv crippled him as to lo(w« any ronndeiicu iu his 
ability to ilo full w«»rk -I 

explorer had '■■i.nv r» i . . . ..... ... u 

when he cT' . rinnell I<and l»» il* wp«t rcWMt, 

and also made a new survey of M •!•« of 

Kane i5a.siii tt • • ' ■ ' ' -.!». 

jK-arance ou tie . m 

is very meaner, but wn know that in the spring 
of 1.. ' K«»rt ' ■ !o 

MUpl'iii-.-'. iiM iii-i iiiK ••■-»CS. Ill' ills 



•■-,.• 



ro 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY Rf-l/I-li' Of- RF.yiFWS. 



plivsioinn, hi8 colore«i man, Malf Ilcnsoii. wlio 
iias prtiveil liiins«>lf a lii-stt-Iass man in Aiciic 

• • \ a small parly «>f Kskinios. llr liopt'd 

t «in his jouiiii'V »»ver tln> icw-covort'il 
soa. U 18 r««as«>nal»K' to »'.\|Hrt that tin* vessel of 
r).- I\>arv Art-ti*" Club will rotuni tliis fall with 
n«\vs of tlu» oxjtloror ; and if ail has «j;(>n(' well 
with him, we sliall learn that he has acconii)lishetl 
a large anionnt of exploratory work, whether or 
not he has actually reached the pole. 

C'apt. Otto Sverdrup, who commanded the 
Fram on Nansen's famous jotirney, jjiloted that 
.--fl from Norway to 8mith Sound in I.SOS, 
;i sixteen men on boanl, including six scien- 
tific specialists. His avowed purpose was defi- 
nitely to settle the extension of Greenland toward 
the north and determine the configuration of its 
still unknown coast- line. He disclaimed any in- 
tention of making a dash for the pole, but the 
opinion is general that, if a favorable opportunity 
pre.*ented, lie would send a sledge party north to 
beat Peary, if possible. At last accounts, how- 
ever, he had not ascended Smitli Sound, being 
unalile to push the Fram through the ice-choked 
channel ; but he had completed the admirable 
geographical work of surveying the coasts of 
Ellesmere Land, whose west side had never been 
visited. 

AKCTIC POLAK KXI'EDITIOXS PKOJECTED. 

The project of Mr. E. B. Baldwin, of Illinois, 
who has had Arctic experience in Greenland and 
Franz Josef Land, has attracted much attention, 
Ijecause unlimited resources have been placed at 
his disposal by Mr. William Ziegler, of New 
York, who desires to promote the discovery of 
the pole. His base of operations, which he ex- 
pects to reach this summer in a stanch Dundee 
whaler which he purcha.sed and rechristened the 
America, will be the east side of Franz Josef 
Land, where he may easily be reached every 
year by an auxiliary steamer which will accom- 
pany him this season. He will also have the 
advantage there of a plentiful supply of Arctic 
game in the region where Jackson killed ninety- 
seven bears, where walrus and seal abound, and 
where birds, including geese, are in enormous 
numbers. Explorers have learned to relish 
the polar bear, but the tough, coarse flesh 
of the walrus is not yet a popular article of 
food. But Baldwin will be out of the track of 
the north -moving currents, and apparently does 
not expect to make a high northing on his 
steamer. He will depend upon dog power to take 
him to tlie pole, and no tliree explorers ever took 
north so large a supply of this commodity. He 
invested $8,000 in 400 Siberian dog.s, wliich 
are warranted to keep life from becoming monot 



(irmiis nil tlic good ship Amrrlra. His base will 
probably be I'arlliei' soiilli than that of I'cary, 
and, thus far, iiol so bivorable ; but lie relics 
upon his dogs aii'l his very large food supplies 
to hold out for the journey to and from his ship. 
Baldwin has with him an excell(Mit scientific staff 
and outfit ; and everything that experience could 
suggest or money buy to enhance the prospects 
of success has been supplied by tlu; lib(;ral pro- 
moter of Mr. Baldwin's pi-oject. 

A scheme that is particularly favored by Biit 
ish experts is that of Captain Bernier, of Can- 
ada, who, however, will not be able to go north 
this summer, as he desires to build a special ves- 
sel for his purpose. His plan is to pass into the 
Arctic through Bering Strait and run into the 
great polar current some 300 miles east of the 
place where Nansen's ship was frozen in tlie ice. 
He hopes in this v/ay to be carried more directly 
toward the pole, drifting at least within 100 
miles of it. He will rely upon dog-sledges for 
the remaining part of the \vork. 

The journey of tlie distinguished Russian ex- 
plorer. Baron Toll, to Bennett Island, on which 
he started last summer, is one of the most in- 
teresting among the Ai-ctic enterprises. He be- 
lieves that this island, discovered by De Long, is 
a part of the mysterious Sannikof? Land, whose 
existence was rejjorted many years ago and never 
verified. He expects to spend a year in these 
almost unknown waters, where, he thinks, it is 
not unlikely that he may find an archipelago of 
considerable extent. 

INCREASED INTEREST IN SOUTH- POLAR EXPLORA- 
TION. 

But the Arctic, after all, will not be the center 
of largest interest. The most thoroughly equipped, 
most costly, and most scientific of all polar expedi- 
tions are about to make their way to the threshold 
of the unknown Antarctic. Pioneer explorers 
will gather there the highest honors that are yet 
to reward geographical research. The largest 
unknown area on the globe awaits them. The 
diameter of the unknown region around the 
North Pole is only 1,.500 miles, but around the 
South Pole it is 4,000 miles. The area which, 
so far as we know, lias never been seen by human 
eye is twice as great as that of Europe. 

The most interesting of the discoveries to be 
made around the South Pole will be the deter- 
mination of the question whether there is really a 
large continent at the southern apex of the world. 
Some of tlie leading authorities believe it is there, 
and that we are not likely to be much longer in 
the dark about it. Dr. John Murray, among 
others, has expressed the view, merely conjec- 
tural, of course, that the are.a of the Antarctic 



NEIV PHASES OF POLAR RESEARCH. 



71 




continent is about 4. 000. 000 square milos. or, in 
other words, as large as Europe ; or a third larger 
than the United States, exclusive of Alaska. 

Four expeditions will renew soutli-polar ex- 
ploration, which had stood still for more than a 
half-cetitury, till the Norwegians Lansen and 
Horchgrevink, and the Belgian (ierlache, within 
the past six years, have shown what good work 
niav he done tht-re «?ven with small ecpiipTnenr. 
The German an<l British exjieditions, alK>ut to 
sail, have been planning for six years ; they are 
supported by their respective govenunents with 
grants amoimting to about iiCJ.>0,000 ajtiece. 
I'rivale c<jiitributioiis hav(> swelled these funds 
till they amount to over !i!:{.'>0,0(»0 for each party. 
Each has built a steamship, the first to l>«' launched 
from (ierman and British shipyards for dis- 
tinctively j»olar service. They have agreed upon 
their fields of investigation, so that while each 
|)arty will supplement the other, they will not con- 
flict. With picked leaders, carefully chosen ex- 
|M?rt8 on the scientific stafTs, tlie best equipment 
that can be d<nised, and the rich exp«'rii'ni<- to 
aid them which others have gleaned in all phases 
of polar endcravor, it is not strange that tho 
highest hopes are centered in iheso two great 
expeditions. 



The German vessel, launched at Ki«don .\pni '1, 
was nametl (ittuss, in hon(»r of the brilliant phys- 
icist who, in the early part of the la«t century, 
conjecturally h>cated tlie Bouth magnetic pole. 
No one had th«'n HpproH«d»«'d, within many hun- 
dreds of miles, the place (»n the ma]) to which 
Gauss assigned it ; but, later. Kotts locat^Ml the 
magnetic pole alK)Ut I.')0 miles soutln-just t>f Nbmnt 
Erebus, very nearly in the [K)»itJon that the fa- 
mous German had iu«licated. The linusa '\» a 
splendid vessel, somewhat rounder in outline than 
the Fram, antl l»etter adapti'd, it is 1 ' ' ' -r 
weathering the heavy ^torms of t i ii 
sias. ."Jhe wa.s >)uilt of tho stouteet of onk and 
greenheart, with steel Iwmls to ■ w 
and stern. Dr. Nansm ' -' i- 
ion that she is strong an<l 
any ainount of ice-pressure, 
old polar wayfarer- 
forts provi<le<l on i; , 

MK-n. iiistra«l of being ln'rc|.>d in a wri'tclietl f«>re 
castle, havr four comfortabli' nniins. Kach of 

til.' live oP -id the fiv.- ••.•■•■'■ '-ns 

his own li 'in. The : -«' 

work are anudMlii|H(, and fifty Arctic «logii will lie 



Mow amazed the 



■!.. 



1 



• I niid provisioiii-.! for 



THE AMFKICriN MONTHLY RTl^'/HH' Oh REyiF.WS. 



> liir \.Uv rriiiuh> Kit'iicli 

... ^ ;i will bo Ijrriiiiiii lu-ini 

From this point of vaiitn>;o cxjuMli- 

lu.Ms will Ih« start«'«l lowunl tho poU-. N«'\v lands 

' ■ > ;<■ till* supposcil (•(.mlinont is 

:W will hv tracctl and its 

oxploHMl ju<! far as possil>l<>. 

lin. • Ix'lit'f in tlie Antaiclic conliiicnl 

«l»'i>on«l- iv ni>on tho scanty data collected 

|,v the ' ,fT expedition. Among these data 

were spi'cimens of rock, dredged from tlie floor 
of tlie Antarctic Ocean, which seemed to justify 
the view that they are of continental origin, and 
were carried by icebergs from a great land mass 
farther south. It may be, after all, that there 
is a solid and extensive basis for the purely imag- 
inary delineations of the Terra Australis with 
which the mapmakere of the sixteenth to nearly 
the nineteentli centuries encircled the globe on 
the south. They made Tierra del Fuego a north- 
ern prolongation of their continent ; and the fan- 
tastic outlines and wealth of inland waterways 
with which they gave interest and verisimilitude 
to their delineations will always remain among 
the wonders of cartography. 

The Discovery, as the British ship is named, 
was launched at Dundee on March 21. She 
cost ^'225,000. No wooden ship was ever more 
stronglv built ; and it is difficult to see how any 
vessel for ice- navigation could be planned better 
to meet the needs of exploration and secure the 
comfort of explorers. The Discovery, with five na- 
val officers, five scientific specialists, and twenty- 
five men in the crew, is bound for Victoria 
Land, with three years' supplies, and camp is 
likely to be pitched on Cape Adare. The Eng- 
lish have never used dogs to any large extent, 
and only twenty of them will be taken on the 
vessel. The sledge equipment will include a 
numljer to be hauled by men ; it is hoped that 
long sledge journeys will largely extend our 
knowledge of this most southern land yet 
reached, and of which Ross said that he believed 
he might have crossed it. 

The Scotch are also preparing to fill in a gap 
between the English and German expeditions. 
They will occupy the region known as Weddell 
Sea, where the whaling Captain Weddell, in 
1823, sailed up to 74° 15' S. lat. without seeing 
ice or meeting any impediment to his farther 
progress. There is no telling how far Weddell 
might have advanced if a south wind had not 
finally influenced him to turn about. Mr. Bruce, 



who will command the Scottish enterprise, has 
had both Antarctic and .Arctic expc'riencc Tlicic 
is little ])rosi)ect that his expedition will be icady 
to sail this season, but wlien it finally g(!ts into 
the field it will eiuleavor to find and explon; tin; 
coasts of that side of the hypothetical continent 
which are washed by Weddell Sea. 

Another expedition which hopes to get away 
this year is that of Dr. Otto Nordenskjold, a 
nephew of the distinguished Arctic explorer. He 
has secured the steamer Antarctic, wliicli has al- 
ready rendered brilliant service in East Greenland 
waters. It is said that he will endeavor to estab- 
lish a station on the east side of Graham Land, 
and try to ascertain wdiether that large region is 
an island or merely a promontory of the conti- 
nental mass. 

It is fitting tliat such eminent men of science 
as Drygalski, of the German expedition, Gregory, 
of the English, and Nordenskjold, of the Swedish 
parties should direct the investigations in this 
great unknown area. The results are likely to be 
almost wholly of scientific interest. Even if large 
lands are found, they have probably no commercial 
value. No coal or other minerals have been dis- 
covered ; if they exist, they are perhaps buried 
too deep under snow and ice to be ever available. 
Antarctic seals and whales have had economic 
importance, but the useful varieties seem to have 
become practically extinct. Whaling, resumed 
within a few years past, had no results that en- 
couraged further effort. There is little doubt 
that better knowledge of Antarctic meteorology 
will be of distinct advantage to navigation along 
the most southern routes around the world, and 
this may be the only "practical" issue to be 
served. 

The scientific basis for Antarctic exploration is, 
however, too substantial to need any bolstering. 
Physicists tell us that south of 40*^ S. lat. there 
is a gap "in our knowledge of the elements re- 
quired, for the complete expression of the facts of 
terrestrial magnetism." Scientific men like Dr. 
Neumayer, Sir John Murray, and many others say 
that ' ' until we have a complete and continued 
series of observations in the Antarctic area, the 
meteorology of the world cannot be understood." 
It is to find new lands and study the problems of 
biology, geology, and many other phenomena to 
be observed in this vast area that four expeditions 
are to visit it. The money they cost will be well 
spent if they may add something to our knowl- 
edge of the world we live in. 



•<i?' -^^ •<£?' •^5=' ^=5:i' -^^ri- ''^' ^v 



Till-. TWENTIKTII CKNTUKN CLUli ()!• liOSTON. 



liV lloUAkl) A. l;Klln..\l.\N. 



Al'LUB ilesigiied, not for dining or goo«l- 
followsliip, but for service ; a club in whicli 
not till* selfish ujit the altruistic spirit is regnant ; 
a club which, in the seven years of its existence, 
has done things so notewortliy and important that 
the impact of its vigorous life has l>een felt far 
beyond the bounils of-its own city ; a club whose 
meml)ership of 450 embraces as earnest a group 
of men and women as can be found federated in 
friendly bonds in any city of the world, — such is 
the Twentieth Century (Mub of Boston, organized 
January 24, 1894, "to promote a finer public 
spirit and a better s(jcial order." This a<lmirable 
phrase, placeil at the forefront of its constitution, 
sets forth its purpose, and differentiates it from 
the vast majority of gregarious modern affairs 
that j)ass under the comprciiensive title of "club." 

Now that it has achieved such conspicuous suc- 
cess and usefulness, the wonder arises why. in a 
city that has always fermented with new ideas, it 
did not sooner come to birtii. Clubs many there 
were seven years ago, but organized almost ex- 
clusively on horizontal rather tlian perpendicular 
lines. The merchants and bankers had their 
Algonquin Club ; the substantial professional 
men of the city assembled at the Union or the 
Somerset ; the college graduates rendezvoused at 
the University; the literary men and artists gath- 
eretl at the St. Botolph ; the artists also had 
tlieir own Art Club ; the Congregationalists and 
the Episco])alians and the Unitarians came to- 
gether once a month at their respective denomina- 
tional clubs. It is true that in such organizations 
as the Taverners Club a few men from different 
walks of life had illustrated a genial, cosmopolitan 
comraileship ; but such small congeries of clmice 
spirits w<;re very 'exclusive ami altogether social 
in their intent. 

The time was rip(! for a comprehensive dt'mo 
cratic, purposeful fellowship. So half a dozen 
men, in whose minds the idea was working at tlie 
same time, saiil within themselves : ♦•Come, now. 
let us cleave througli the strata of conventional 
organizations and bring together persons on a 
broad, human platform. Let us look one another 
in the faces, not as rich nu'ti or as poor men. as 
scholars or as brokers, as Baptists or as Metho<lists, 
as Protestants or as Catholics. Let us have a 
center where we can meet the man who is not do- 
ing al»out the same tldng that we are doing, or 
thinking our tlioiiL:l,is ; vis. let us coriu! inl«» 



touch with the man who dwells on the other side 
of the sectarian fence, wlioso work is utterly un- 

like ours, u ' wis A' Ix'l 

us. without .- -^ ^ ......getlier *! affil- 
iations, incarnate Kdward Kvereit Hale s • (iet- 
Together' idea on a large and worthy scale. Aliuve 
all, let us have a place in B • ' " -fie 

burning .social questions can i . ly 

discussed, without fear or favor. 

This early conception of the scope of the cluli 
has colored all its subsequent life. It has kept 
its annual dues at ten dollars, and its initiation 
fee at the same modest figure. It lias crowded 
ostentation to the wall aud . > •' ' ' ;iv 

in all that is outwanl and .i»'» 

appurtenances. No cabman taking a jwirly of 
visit</hi to see the sights would ever think of 
turning his vehicle into quiet, oldfashionetl Asli- 
burton riaco in order to j)oint out the moilest 
house into which the club moved last October, 
and which will probably Ix; its home for a long 
while Its quarters are comfortable and suffi- 
ciently spacious ; its few adornments art> chiefly 
portraits of thinkei-s ; its pleasant rea«ling-room 
invites one to drop into an ea.sychair ; but the 
atmosphere is not that of the conventional club- 
house, but of a workshop. Memlx-rs of commit- 
tees come and go to nu'«*t appointments f 'ul 
discussion of serious matters. The s-. . ,..;y's 
office might be that of a social engineer in some 
great concern, touched with the desire to provide 
something more than wages for its ei! • ' ■ cs. 
For Secretary Kdward H. Chandler i.n a: -k 
the Ijest part of each tlay, keeping his hands on 
the different wheels of activity. ' r- 

mation U) inquirers, and <levising |...^. ^.- ..:er 

efficiency. 

If democracy and simplicity bo two of the 
char. • ■ ' - ■' "• ■ •'' '• ■ '"' b, 

its I . '!• 

its nmst distinctive mark. The founders dosinnl 
something mor«' than a g- '. and 

prolitjible fellowship. \\ , < ... ••' it 

tlM> Twentieth Century Club, it was no .ho 

such a title wiu< catchy and at that timo unworn. 
The lUiine • .ruled to gl ' * xn 

a «lefinite .. -T and to _^ • ' ')' 

definite mission. First of all, it lot a certain 
standard of quali' ^ for mendKTiihi|>. It 

called at tnice for ' • -• "'pathy 

with the udvanciii. . ii the 



THE -IMPRICAN MONTHLY RF.IIEU' Oh RF.yiElVS. 



worlil ; iiuMito a th'jrnMMiissalislimI with tlio exist 

' • ■ ■ il i>iii«'r ; iin'ii rt'iicliiiij^ out 

p, )iuiiilil<' »*nuii;L;li to c«)ii- 

.r jHTplfxity ill llii' farr of jrravo probloins, 

'lo riiou^li to ivot'ive iiistruclion Iroiii 

..... , — Ml short, iiu'ii who. like Simeon of 

olil, were lookinjr for tht« kingdom of God. 

The natural rorullary of such niciital i)rogrcss- 
was a disposition to do something to real- 
. s of lirotlierhood ; and it cannot be too 
stronplv emphasized that from the beginning the 
T\venti«'ih Century Chib lias stood for practical 
service to the community. It has not been con- 
tent to stand on the shore and do all it could 
througi» a speakingtrumjiet to save the men on 
the wreck out yonder ; but it has launched many 
a little U)at wiiich luis bravely lireasted the break- 
ers of indifTerence and opposition and made its 
wav to some point of human need, there to render 
the aid demanded. There is a good deal of talk 
in connection with the Twentieth Century Club ; 
but it is, in the main, talk that stirs to action. 

With such ideas an<l such a name, it w{^ in- 
evitable that women should have a parity of 
standing in the club from the start. IT any one 
of the founders had any doubts on tiiis ])oint, they 
were speedily resolved by the logic of events. A 
Twentieth Century Club minus the participation 
of women would indeed have been a rediictio ad 
absurdnm. At all events, they came in so quickly 
that they might as well have been repre.sented in 
the list of twelve names appended to the first call 
issued for a meeting to consider the formation of 
the club ; and women have proved an indispensa- 
ble and invaluable element in its life, constituting 
to-day about one-third of the membership. 

To consider a little more in detail the personnel 
of the club, one who studies it is struck by the 
fact that the present membership of about 450 
illustrates in an uncommon degree the basal idea 
of the founders. The twelve men who signed the 
first call constituted in themselves a representative 
group. At the head of the list was Edward 
Everett Hale, — a name that has always been at the 
front in connection with almost every forward 
movement in the city of Boston during the last 
fifty years. Prof. John Fiske came second. 
Never mind about the exact order of the rest. 
Suffice it to say that the artist, Ross Turner, and 
the sculptor, William Ordway Partridge, and the 
architect, J. Pickering Putnam, and the editor 
and patriot, Edwin D. Mead, and the literary critic 
and author, Nathan Haskell Dole, and the social- 
settlement worker, Robert A. Woods, and the 
professor of economics, Davis R. Dewey, and the 
authority on Swiss institutions, W. D. McCrackan, 
and one or two business men, appeared as the other 
sponsoi-s for the new undertaking. Most of them 



coiitimie in llic club's counsc^ls ami service until 
tills (lav. Mr. McCrackan, until his removal to 
New ^'ork City, was tlu; capabU' secretary, being 
succeeded by Prof. T. H. Lindsay, of Boston Uni- 
versilv. Dr. Hale comes oftcMi to the house, and 
the zeal of none of the otliei- men who first 
launched the enterprise has grown cold. Willi 
such an organizing nucleus, it was not hard, as the 
clul) became known, to increase the membership, 
adding only desirable material. This necessitated 
sharp discrimination, and now and then a cleaving 
asunder of husband and wife ; but, inasmuch as a 
member is always fi'ee to invite a guest to the 
meetings, it was no real hardship for the wife to 
be apprised that in the judgment of the meml^er- 
ship committee her husliaiid was not sufliciently 
])rogressive or socially activf! to receive an elec- 
tion. The standards have been advanced as the 
club has acquired age and prestige ; and some 
who came in during the early days are now felici- 
tating themselves that they do not have again to 
run the gauntlet of a committee which is more 
critical than (fver before, and which applies ruth- 
lessly to every applicant Napoleon's crucial ques- 
tion when a man was commended to him for pro- 
motion : " What has he done?" Not that the 
candidate must necessarily have written a book, 
or established a college settlement, oi- an institu 
tional church, or investigated tenement- housi 
conditions, or induced the city government tc 
provide a municipal playground ; but he must be 
doing something with the social question, at least 
thinking about it in a large and consecutive way ; 
or, what is better, be doing something himself 
that is worth while toward bringing in the better 
day. 

To many members of the club the Saturday 
luncheon furnishes more stimulus and inspiration 
than any other single feature. From fifty to 
seventy-five men draw up about tables spread 
with as toothsome viands as half a dollar a head 
will purchase. But if the living is plain, the 
thinking is measurably high, while the spirit of 
the hour mounts still higher. The best thing 
about this weekly gathering is the touch with the 
other man which it provides. Harvard and 
Boston university professors stretch hands across 
the tables to State Street copper brokers. Minis- 
ters, alert for some fresh illustration that will 
point a moral in to-morrow's homily, talk both 
politics and religion with daily newspaper nicn. 
Public-school teachers fraternize with lawyers and 
doctors. Substantial business men, either in ac- 
tive life or retired, touch elbows with leaders and 
organizers of labor, like Harry Lloyd or Geoige 
E. McNeill. Over there in earnest conversatjion 
with an expert on modern social problems, like 
John Graham Brooks, is a vouiig merchant who 



THE m'F.NTIETH CENTURY CLUB OF BOSTON. 



Tft 



has already Im'h;uii to apply in his larj^o shop priii 
ciples of brotli«*rluMu|. aiut who is si-fkin^ Iik'" "" 
some ve.xini; inuttiT. Hi- is l>ut one of h iuiiiilM>r 
in the njeinlH'i*sliip nf the clul» wlu) arc t()iicln-i| 
with the new sense of responsiliilitv for tlu-ir «'ni- 
ployees. and wlio are not merely re;ulin«^ Ixioks 
on socioloj^y and drawiiiif tlu-ir cheeks in Ix-half 
of philai»thropies. but are going i^Tsonallv into 
the field of social service. 

So tlie pleasant table-talk goes on. orthotlo.x 
divine and Jewish ralibi. artist and legislatoi, 
poet and charity worker, idealist and hard -heaiici 
man of affaire, all pooling their issues, speaking 
their minds, Vjroudening their knowledge and 
their sympathies, and gaining through the attri- 
tion of mind with mind that which sends them 
back, later in the day, to their own tasks with a 
k»'ener joy that they arc in the world of workers, 
and with greater courage and wisdom for rln' 
next duty. 

After two or three simple courses, the presi- 
dent or some other member of the council raps 
for order, and there is an hour or so of speaking. — 
informal, familiar, interesting, and almost always 
to the point. The clul) has l)ecome a magnet 
drawing to itself a great variety of after-dinner 
speakers. Sometimes one of tlie membere tells 
about his daily work, or brings to view the new 
and suggestive things in connection with his busi- 
ness or his profession. Another speaks of some 
form of public service in w'hich he is engaged, or 
calls attention to some work which the club as a 
body can do. Oftener, how(;ver, a visitor, or 
specially summoned guest, takes most of the hour, 
first advancing his views and then submitting to 
a rather sharp (\\\'va regarding them. As a caustic 
observer of lioston life remarks, "there is usually 
some interesting crank, or hobbv-ri('er, or f(<r- 
eigner in town over Sunday, and he or she is 
sure to round up at the Twentieth Century ('lul> 
on Saturday." At any rate, the attendants go 
with a keen appetite, and they are seldom disap- 
pointed in finding something novel and reward- 
ing. Perhaps the attraction will be a N<'W Zea- 
land ofTicial visiting the States. He will Iw made 
to pay tribute for his dinner ijy telling about the 
remarkable socialistic experiments and s 
on the other side of llie globe. Or a 
settlement work(;r, fresh from one of the i)eren- 
nial fights with Tammany, will descriln* the out- 
look for reform in New York City. Or tluM-rack 
Ilarvanl deltateis, fluslu.'il with a victory over 
Yale, will 1k! asked in to speak on the opiK)rtuni- 
ties and satisfactions of university lif«.' ; or I'ooker 
Washington, or Lyman .Abbott, or Z. \i. 15rock 
way, or sr»me ollu^r notable person, caught on the 
wing, will be impresseil into service. 

So theTwentieth Centurv (Mubmaii. as a nii'-, 



I'livi,,.^ l.jtrk !;•- -» •■- •■'■• = •■• >■•■■ -1 - .i-i:--i..'..t|y 

:l;|i' iun: ;i.- t.. ,, . , _ ^ , _ ^ ,[| 

Ik' Arctic exploraliuii ur tlie public -fiehoul syatvin 
in Chili, municipal ou ' > of hu' or liio 

dei-ay of the New h..^ i count:. :i, lije 

political situation in (ireat Britain ur tiie ucm-hIm 
ofsomestr iny. ihc problem 

of trusts oi in 

Missouri. \V;. .-.in 

of the presitling officer gilds it willi an iin|Mirtanco 
not to 1m< und»-' ■ i'»l, wl; \ I- 

edge usually J . \ by t:.: .j ;^ ...or 

with liis ai'ilent advocacy of his own |>o«ition, 
prevents any signs of drowsiness, even llioufrh 
not every enthusiast who hapiMMis to drop in of a 
Saturday is sure of ready asst'iit to all thai ho 
says. Often, too, esiMJCially if the tiicino be some 
important Itjcal reform, the h' are an- 

nuuncetl in a«lvance, and Ine men,... ., , ..mc reatly 
tor warm discussion. 

( >nce a month, tlie women m«iinbers join in the 
Saturday lunche(»ns. and come in large numlNTS 
— a noble ct>mpany of the liest and must useful 
matrons and young women of the city. A good 
proportion of them give no small {xirtion of their 
time and energies tu public .service in one form 
or another. On tlu'se occasions cigare are not in 
evidence and the numl>er of male attendanta 
ilwiiidles perceptibly. Iiiiumnuch, however, as 
iiiai:y noii-smokeis also stay away, it may be only 
charitable lo infer that the chief reason for the 
smaller masculine attendance is the gallant desire 
to afford ample room for all the wonu'n wlu> will 
come ; and it must Ih; admitted that the .M-ating 
accommodations of the ilining-room are severely 
taxed. 

The club meeting on alternate Wednesilay 
evenings through the season is a much more 
formal affair. Here the more sx^rious and weighty 
aildresses are delivered, an ' ' ' • ' ■ ' care- 
fullv formulat«>d programme i out. 

I'erhaps the need which the founders of the club 
chiefly felt at the lK>ginning •• • of a |ila<'e in 

Boston, at this unw of stsrio,. ' nid indus- 

trial changes, where the great cp. now r<in- 

fronting us could )>e Ixtldly and tiioroughly dis- 
ed by the ablest thiiikei- '' 'ry, or 

lie world. The array of -_ .• liii«l 

seven years includes many of the mo«t hrillianl 
minds in America and in Kngland. It 't- 



fill whether another club in ihei'ouiitrv . 



■ nt 



to such a series of notable nddreivteM. Many of 
the noted f«»reigner» who viwil America have Iwwn 
heard by liie ci ' ' ; ' New Haven. 

ami other intei. N'ork, Wanh- 

irigton, Chicago, and other gn^al riiieit. an^ con 
Htaiitlv <li!iwn u|Mifi for plnlform ?«ii«'aken«. 

Tlii< ediciency of iIh* club i« fell by the out- 



?0 



77//- AMERICAN MONTHLY Kl-.IIHIV Oh KlikltWS. 



worM olii»'Hy iliiou^h the tliivo tloliiiite 

•■; of nrpiin/.e«l activity. Tho idea is 

\vr\ iiu'IiiIht ill at loast «)in> ti»'|)ait- 

iiu-iu, lo whioli lit* sliall j?ive as iinu-li of his 

ami |M'i-s<tiial iiiiliativr jus ])ossililt'. 

..... uul of four i>f tho iiieinlxTs of tlic I'lul) 

i»rt> thus enrolled. Some of them, it is triic, 

■le little time and enoriry to such special 

A. ii< : l>ut. on the other hand, a good proportion 

give ihtiiisflves lil)erally to the routine labor 

iuvoIvihI. The civic department, which lias the 

largest enrollment, strives to secure bettor lious- 

ing for the poor, cleaner streets, ampler parks, 

projH'rlv regulated municipal baths. It exercises 

also a vigilant watch upon the city and State 

governments, as they legislate from year to year 

for the supposed interests of Boston. 

The motto of the art department seems to be, 
" A mon' W'autiful Boston." Early in the liis- 
torv of the club a series of conferences was in- 
stituted with thi§ end in view, and everything 
comes within the department's province that 
relates to the aesthetic l)etterment of the city. 
Every attempt to disfigure Boston outwai-dly, 
either by erecting sky-scraping structures on its 
most beautiful square or b,y defacing its lovely 
parkways and boulevards with ugly advertise- 
ments, finds in the art department a determined 
foe. This department also includes withm its 
scope the service of the city through musical 
opportunities ; and its noteworthy achievements 
in the direction of public organ recitals were 
portrayed at length in an article in the Review 
OF Reviews several years ago. 

No less important or influential is the educa- 
tion department, which seeks to put at the dis- 
posal of all the people the rich and unusual edu- 
cational resources to be found in the city and its 
vicinage. A good beginning was made three 
years ago, following the pattern set by Dr. Leip- 
ziger, of New York, in utilizing the public- 
school buildings for evening lectures to which 
the parents of the pupils are particularly invited. 
But the most signal achievement of the educa- 
tional department has been the institution of 
Saturday-morning lectures, designed particularly 
for the teachers in the public schools, who 
gladly pay three or four dollars a season for the 
privilege of hearing men of the type of Pro- 
fessors Royce and Palmer, of Harvard ; Professor 
Tyler, of Amherst ; Professor Geddes, of Edin- 
burgh, and Professor Gnggs, of Brooklyn. 

All these three departments are well organized, 



hold tiieir regular conferences, and are working 
out an ever enlarging plan of operations. 

Such is the Twentieth Century Cliilt iii the 
city of Boston, organized to proiiioU^ "a liner 
juiblic sjjirit and a bitter social order." To sum 
up in brief compass what it has actually done, let 
It be said : 

It has provided an arena for the discussion of 
burning questions with the utmost tolerance and 
plainness. 

It has assembled in frequent friendly conference 
men of all types of activity and of all shades of 
opinion, theological, sociological, practical. 

It has brought such pressure to bear upon the 
Board of Health and other public ofiicers, thi'ough 
the labors of special agents in the tenement-house 
districts and through its publications, that in 
eighteen months no less than 128 buildings unfit 
for human habitation were condemned, and it has 
stirred up a new sentiment in Boston upon the 
subject of better homes for the people. 

It provided in one year no less than twenty 
free organ recitals, conducted by the best organ- 
ists in the city and attended by thousands of ap- 
preciative listeners, the larger proportion of whom 
were working people. 

It has instituted as a regular feature of winter 
life in Boston Saturday -morning lectures of the 
university extension order, to which teachers 
flock from a radius of thirty miles. One of last 
winter's course was so successful that Tremont 
Temple, one of the largest auditoriums in the 
city, was none too large. 

It conceived and brought about the most re- 
markable end-of-the-century celebration on the 
night of December 31, 1900, witnessed anywhere 
m Christendom. Twenty thousand people as- 
sembled before the State House. Edward Everett 
Hale read the Ninetieth Psalm and led in the 
Lord's Prayer, these exercises being followed by 
hymns sung by the multitude and the blast of 
trumpeters announcing the birth of the new cen- 
tury. 

It has been the inaugurator and efficient pro- 
moter of many movements in behalf of municipal 
and educational reform and of public beauty. 

In such definite ways, and through other in- 
tangible channels of infiuenoe, the Twentieth 
Century Club of Boston is touching the life of a 
great modern city for good. It is still in the 
vigor and. promise of Its youth. It has outlived 
suspicions that it was a company of cranks. Its 
work for the coming era is only just begun. 



LEADI\r, ARTICLl'S nv Tlir: MOXTII 



MR. FREDERIC HARRISON'S IMPRESSIONS 
OF AMERICA. 

AMERICANS will be interestp.l in loading 
Mr. FreiK'ric Harrison's sunmiin^up of tli 
impressions ret'eived on his rwent visit to the 
United States (see Review of Reviews lor May, 
page 55JS). as given in an article contributed by 
Mr. Harrison to the Xhteteenth Centurij for June. 

The national consciousness of Americans was 
keenly appreciated by Mr. Harrison, as appears 
from the following paragraph : 

" My own impression is tJiat in spite of the 
vast proportion of immigrant poi)ulation, the lan- 
guage, character, habits, of native Americans 
rapidly absorb an<l incorporatf* all f(H-eign ele- 
ments. In the second or third generation all 
exQtic differences are merged. In one sense tlie 
United States seemed to me more homogeneous 
than the United Kingdom. There is no State, 
citv, or large area which lias a distinct nice of its 
own, as Ireland, Wales, and Scotland have, and 
of course there is nothing analogous to the di- 
verse nationalities of the British emjtire. Fnjiii 
Long Island to San Francisco, from Florida Hay 
to Vancouver Island, there is one dominant 
race and civilization, one language, one type f>f 
law, one sense of nationality. That race, that 
nationality, is American to the core. And the 
consciousness of its vast expansion and collective 
force fills tlie mind of American citizens as noth- 
ing can do to this degree in the nations of western 
Europe.'' 

ELEMENTS OF NATIONAL STRENGTH. 

In short, Mr. Harrison found here something 
more than "mere liigness. " 

'« Vast expansion, collective force, inexhausti- 
ble energy, — tln-se are tlie impn'ssions forced on 
the visitor, beyond all that he could have con- 
ceived or had expected to find . 

" No competent observer can doubt that in 
wealth, manuffictures, material progress of all 
kinds, the United States, in a very few yean?, 
must hold the first place in the world without 
dispute The natural restjurces of their country 
exceed those of all Europe put together. Tln'ir 
energy exceeds that of the British ; tlieir intelli- 
gence is hardly si-cond to that of Germany and 
France. .And their social ati<l politicu! .'<ystem is 
more favoral)le to material developmeiil lli.in ativ 
other society ev<M" deviseil by man. 

"Of course, for the .American citizen and llie 
thoughtful visitor, the real problem i.s whether 



this vai*t pro8jH»rity, lliis ttouiidloss future of 
theire, resLs u|>on an (H^pial oxpansion in the so- 
cial, intellectual, ami v ' ■ ■•. Th- 'd 

Ik» l)old critics who si -''i it ..w 

thinking men in the United > ■» »o without 

qualifications and nii.'^givii 

As to educational aj'tivit;- - . 

"Chicago struck me as In-ing somewhat un- 
fairly condemned aa devoteti to nothini; hut 
.Mammon and ;)ork. Certaii;' f, 

I lieanl of nothing but tin- •■' n, 

university endowments, :utes, li- 

braries, museums, art schools, workmen's nuNlel 
dwellings ami farms, literary cultun*, and scien- 
tilic fouiiilations." 

Mr. Harrison conclude*! that the e<lucational 
machinery of the nation, taken as a whole, inusl 
be at lea.st tenfold that of the I'nited Kingtloin. 

AMERICAN ARCHITECTIHE. 

The Capitol at Washington struck him " aa 
being the most effective mass «»f public buildings 
in the world." From the pictorial jKMnt of view, 
the admirable proportions of the central donio 
impre.ssetl him more than tho.so of St. I'eter's, the 
cathedral of Fl«»renc©, St. Soj»hia at Constantino- 
ple, St. Isaac's at St. Peterslnirg, the I'antheon, 
St. Taul's, or the new cathedral at Merlin. The 
site of the Capitol he c«)n.siders the noblest in the 
world, if we exclude that of the I'arthenon in it« 
pristine glory. " Wjvshinglon, the y^ i- 

tal city in the world, bids fair to Ix-i ...^ . . :o 
the twentieth century is end«'d, the most lieauti- 
ful and certainly the most commotlious." 

Nothing since tln^ fall c^f old I{ome and Ryzan- 
tium. not even (Jeiioa in its jtrime, ha.s «M|ualed 
the lavish use of magnificent marble culumnn, 
granite Idocks, and ornamental stone, as we se<» 
it today in the United -' 'w. "|f the arlista 
of the future can Xm n I within the limiU 

of gof)d sense an<l go<Mi taste, AVashington may 
look more like the Rome of ■' ' ' " m 

any city of the ()1<1 World." i "I 

has much to learn from incMlern American build- 
ers. In matu-rs of construction, contrivance, the 
free u.-^e of new kinds of stone and w.hmI. of 
plumbing, healing, and the minor art* of fittinn, 
the iH'lated KurojH'un in America fwlii himself a 
Rip Van Winkh* whirl.»«| into a new ivnlury and 
a later civilization. 

" .America is making violent effurtu to ovolvo 
.1 national archiUM-ture, but as yet it I d 

litth- but V " • '" 

lyjM'y (Old 



78 



TliL AMl.KICAN MUM HI. Y REl'll'M' Oh RF.k'lHiVS. 



MORAL roNOITIONS. 

Mr. Ilnrrison's conflusions nro on tli«» whole 
(i«>«-:<li>illy opliiiiist 

•• As to ■■ ■ >'i tin' * Aiiiii^iiiy l»i>lliir.' 

I lu'iiluT ^;^ .. - ■ anl of it ; lianlly iis niuoli 
(IS \vu ilo at lioine. I may say tlie same as tu of- 
II and {Hilitieal intrigue. New 
^ «iix, ... ii...i.-»«, has the vices of great cities, but 
tiiey are not visible to the eye, and they are a 
«ltx>p in the ocean of the American people. Even 
the tourist must note the entire freedom 

of A t!i towns from the indecencies that are 

{mrailed in European cities. I received a deep 
■on that in America the relations of the 
.-. A. - ..;e in a state far more sound and pure than 
tliey are in the ( )ld World ; that the original feel- 
ing of tlie Pilgrim Fathers about woman aiul 
alMiut man luis sufficed to color the menial and 
moral atmosphere. 

" I close my impressions with a sense that the 
New AVorUl ofTei-s a great field, ])oth moral and 
intellectual, to a peaceful development of an in- 
dustrial society ; that this society is in the main 
sound, honest, and wholesome ; that vast luiiii- 
bers and the ]>assion of equality tend to low aver- 
ages in thought, in manners, and in public opin- 
ion, which the zeal of the devoted minority tends 
gradually to raise to higher planes of thought 
tnd conduct ; that manners, if more boisterous, 
-ire more hearty than with us, and, if less refined, 
are free from some conventional morfjue and hy- 
pocrisy ; that in casting oflf many of the bonds 
of European tradition and feudal survivals the 
American democracy lias cast off also something 
of the {esthetic and moral inheritance left in the 
Old World ; that the zeal for learning, justice, 
and humanity lies so deep in the American heart 
that it will in the end solve the two grave prob- 
lems which face the future of their citizens — 
the eternal struggle between capital and labor, 
the gulf between people of color and the people 
of European blood." 

MR. CARNEGIE ON ENGLAND'S INDUSTRIAL 
FUTURE. 

A TR. ANDREW CARNEGIE contrilnites to 
■^^ ■*• the AV/ie/een/A Century an article on 
• • Hriti.sh Pessimism. " It is no doubt well meant, 
but John Bull is not likely to derive much com- 
fort from Mr. Carnegie's consolations. He is a 
Job's comforter, indeed, for the foundation of 
all his discourse is that Great Britain lias })een 
beaten in the race by tlie United States, and that 
nothing in the world can restore John Bull to 
the position which he formerly occupied. lie 
tells us that comfort is near, but iiefore England 
can secure it one step is indispensable. The 



Briton must adjust himself to present conditions, 
and rcialize that there is no use in these days 
dwelling upon the past, and especially must he 
cease measuring his own country with the Ameri- 
can Union. It is out of the question even to com- 
pare 4 1,000, 000 people upon two i.-^lands 127.000 
square miles in area with 77,000,000 upon 
3,500,000 square miles. 

THK LAST HKLIC OF HIUTAIn's OLD IMUMACY. 

Only in one particular is Great Britain still 
ahead of the United States. Tlie American 
citizen, man for man, is not as wealthy as the 
Briton, for with nearly double the population he 
has only one-fifth more wealth in the aggregate. 
In every other respect England is beaten, and 
all the consolation that Mr. Carnegie can give is 
that if the English make their minds to give up 
the attempt to compete with the United States, 
they may, if they reverse their policy, still keep 
ahead of the other nations of the world. Their 
trade' is not ex])anding. Sir Michael Hicks- 
Beach tells the world that the limit of present 
taxation is about reached, and the only consola- 
tion Mr. Carnegie can give to the Britisher, who 
still doggedly refuses to stop tlie war in Africa, 
is "that the. British people will soon be com- 
})elled to change the policy of seeking increased 
responsibilities throughout the world, of provok- 
ing wars and antagonizing . . . the peoples of 
other countries, a policy which inevitably de- 
mands the increased expenditures which have 
already lost for Britain her proud boast of su- 
premacy in credit — a loss of genuine prestige." 
Consols have fallen from 113 to 95, and Mr. 
Carnegie's only wonder is that they have not 
fallen much farther. Formerly, Great Britain 
was the greatest of all the countries, and in 
finance, commerce, manufactures, and shipping 
contended successfully with all the other nations 
combined. Britain in the one scale, and all the 
rest of the world in the other. 

Now everything is changed, and Mr. Carnegie 
in his consolatory article thus summarizes some 
of the causes which lead the average Briton to 
feel discouraged : 

"No longer Britain versxLs the world m any- 
thing, no longer even first among nations in 
wealth or credit, in manufacturing, mining, weav- 
ing, commerce. Primacy lost in all. In seagoing 
ships still foremost, but even there our percentage 
of the world's shipping growing less every year. 
It only increased 46,000 tons in five years, from 
1894 to 1899, and was 9,000 tons less in 1898 
than in 1890. Worse than all, supremacy lost 
upon the sea in fast monster steamships — those 
unequalod cruisers in war which now fly the 
German flag, all built in Germany ; not one cor- 



LEADING ARTICl.HS Oh Till- \10NTH. 



70 



respondinjr sliip Imilt or ImiMin^ in Britain, tlm 
fi»'M ontin-ly surri'iuU'n-il t«> hrr rival. In iron- 
making. Germany lias rison from l.:)no.(i()0 to 
7,000,000 tons j)fr year, wliile Britain has stood 
still, her hifrhest proMiu't boini; !i, .")()(), 000 tons. 
The United States made l.'J.rjUo.ooo tons last 




" An American syndicate lias uii(lertal<eii the constnictioti 
of new and tlie reform of old iinrsof railway in London and 
it.s 8ut)urh»." 

•' .Mr. l'ieriM)nt Morgan has purchased the Leyland line of 
HteuinHhips." 

John Hull loolcs on and watches in illsniay 
His children hy the ojjre dragi^ed away. 
First he picked up tlie Iwiy and then the jfirl - 
One by tlie breeks. the other by the curl. 

—From the Daily Hrin-CHX (L<indon). 

year, to l)e e.xcceded this year, while we are mak- 
in*.; less than last. 

"In steel, the United States made iO,<;:!.s,ooo 
tons la.st year, and have ma<i<' this year, so far, 
iiiort; than last, wliih- we are falling hack fron: 
our ma.ximiim of .").000,000 tons of la.Ht vear. 

"In te.xtiFes, Loi<l Masham tells ns in the 
Timi-s that we are e.voorting less ami importing 
more. In IHIil we e.xported joii.ooo.mio ; in 
ls;iJ>, 102,000.000 sterling; in Ih<»|, imported 
of K'.xiiles 2H,oon.ooo, and in isiiii, :{.'{, 000,000 
st('rling. His lordsldp av<'rs that Great Hrituin 
has not increased her e.xport tra<le one shilling 
for thirty years. 



•• Kinaneiaily. wo an* also rnpidlv l.ming pri- 
mary. The d ' .MIS of ihe' New York 
K.xchange exei .,f Lundon. Our loAns 
at a discount rin<l inventont in the I*nit<*«l .^tates, 
which, s«. long our greatest debtor, is becoming 
our chief creilitor nation." 



THK ONK KA^ 



"t Ui'ffc. 



He then pr<" • ' * ' ' .,{ 

con.solation. th. .^^i 

although British industrial supremacy is out of 
date, as the British army is. and their men can- 
not or do not work as they tlo in America, 
neither do their captains of imlustry compan* 
with those of America, and they are liecoining 
more and more dependent u|M>n foreign nations 
for food, importing every yoar more and more 
machinery from America, yet there is a certain 
degree of hope left for them. Not only so, but 
he tells them that they must les.sen their fon«iness 
for conquering new t«'rritory fur markets al.road. 
Kiigland is risking a terrible war now in Cldna 
lor the sake of ( hine.se tra«I«'. the profit u|M.n 
which he maintains is not worth more tlian 
*:},000,000 or *;{..*00.000 a year. The only 
consolation which Mr. Carnegie can give to Fing- 
laml beyond the pitiful attempt to minimize 
her misfortunes is that if she turn right face, 
repuiliate Jingoism and all its works, abandon 
the vain dream of con()in'ring nu»rkets V»y the 
sword, and aildre.ss herself diligently to the cid- 
tivation of the homo market, she may escap** 
perdition ; otherwise she is lost. 

The British (Jovernment's exp«^nditure is now 
clo.se upon ♦!.') a heatl, as against the United 
States ♦."). and ♦O.-SS of the Germans. Knglaml 
has a <lefi<it of <?."i.'>.000,000 at a time when the 
American Govenimeiil is taking off #.'».'>. 000,000 
of taxation. " Kven jifter British emplovers and 
employed reach the American standant of eco- 
nomical iir<vluction, Britain will still remain 
heavily haiidi<-apped in the indiislrial race l>y the 
enormous load of taxation under wliich her pro- 
ducers labor as coinpari'd with .\merica.'' Kng- 
laml's soldiers, he .says, have Ik'^'U phiving at 
work. Her industrial army will, he thinks, im- 
prove, but "it is the financial situalioii which is 
alarming, for it neeils no ; ' "it 

a continuance of the ag;^ , n 

alienates other governments and |M*op|es. and 
which has mistaken territorial ac(|uii«ition for 
genuine empire-making, must sikmi sir " '':e 
nation's [)ower and lay u|Min its pi. e 

capacity such biinlens a» will render it inca|)able 
of lelainiiig tin- le of trade. . . ." 

If ever a nation : nmiHtukalile warn- 

ingM, Kngland Iuim IiikI I hem nl (he pniH<nt lime. 
Therefore. Mr. Carnegie Iio|m*m the dear old 



80 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RFIIEW OF RH^/EU/S. 



inotliorUixl will reassert its saving cotiiinon sense, 
ami deliver itself from the doom which is in- 
evitable if il jwrsists in its present course. 

IS ENGLAND HANDICAPPED BY HER 
RAILROADS? 

IS the economic decline of Britain now so gen- 
erally taken for granted by writers in the 
reviews »lue to natural causes or to artificial liin- 
dranj-es? The author of '-Drifting" alteinpts 
an answer to this question in the Coutcmporari/ 
for June. This writer declares that the English 
workingnian holds his own, in America and else- 
where ; that Ureat Hritain's n;itural resources are 
as great as they ever were, and that Great Brit- 
ain's strategical position for industry-, coiiinie?-co. 
and navigation is a.s advantageous as ever before. 

Nevertheless, nearly all productive and wealth - 
creating industries, except ship-building and the 
Construction of machinery, are decaying. Only 
sucii primitive industries as mining, fishing, and 
cattle-breeding can now be carried on at a profit. 

This is largely due, he maintains, to the fact 
that railways throttle industries, and enormously 
increase the cost of living. He asserts that the 
railways have watered their capital to such an 
e.xtent that between 187.3 and 1898 the amount 
of addition to their capital was equivalent to very 
nearly |!.500,000 per mile for each mile of the 
new railways constructed. Tlie result of this is 
that, while the capital of German railways is only 
*1(»0,000 per mile, that of French §125,000, and 
that of Belgium $1 42, 500, every mile of English 
railways represents a capital of $250,000. The 
railway capital of Great Britain has been inflated 
to the amount of $5,670,000,000, which is three 
times as much as is necessary. Hence, in order 
to earn a fair dividend, British railways must 
charge at least three times the amount they need 
to charge. But that is not their only offense. 
The writer complains that the methods of man- 
agement are so wasteful, and the result is that 
they really charge four times more than what 
would be a fair price. 

ALLIES OF MONOPOLY. 

Not only are their charges four times heavier 
than they ought to be, with the result that the 
population is congested in the city slums, but 
they have differential rates for the purpose of 
favoring the foreigner at the expense of the Brit- 
ish producer. Apples from America and Tas- 
mania can be sold at a profit at (jovent Garden, 
when apples growing a few miles out of London 
are left to rot on the ti-ees because the railway 
charges are so high that the farmer cannot af- 
ford to send them into the market. According 



to Sir Hiram Maxim, the rate; of transport on 
British railways per ion is two jiinl n. IimIF times 
higher than on Anu-ric^an rjiilways. Il(> com- 
jilains that the English have all the tlisad vantages 
of a monopoly and none of the advantages of 
competition, for the railways have created a gi- 
gantic trust by their working agreement, which 
abolishes free competilion. 'J'hey have barred 
the most important canals or secured possession 
of them. They oppose secretly and indirectly 
the construction of light railways and (jjcsctric 
trams, and they show the greatest enmity in Par- 
liament and out of it to motor traffic. As a 
result of the crippling restrictions wliich they 
place upon electric trams, l^ritish trolleys cannot 
go more than eight miles an hour, while in sleepy 
old Italy, Austria, and Spain and Portugal they 
go at fifteen. In England there are not over 
300 miles of electric traction, in Germany there 
are 3,000, and m America 20,000. 



BY RAIL TO INDIA. 

STR THOMAS HOLDICH, who contributes a 
paper on the geography of the northwest 
frontier of India to the May Geographical Journal, 
discusses at length in the Scottish Geographical 
Magazine for May the vexed question of railway 
connection with India. He considers three sug- 
gested routes. 

ALONG THE SEACOAST ? 

He begins with "the assurance that east of 
Herat there is no way open to railway construc- 
tion on account of the natural obstruction offered 
by great mountains and high altitudes." The 
east of Herat being sealed, he proceeds to ex- 
amine the west. He says : 

" One alignment which has been suggested, and 
wliicli has already received some consideration 
in scientific circles, is that which would connect 
Basra with Karachi by way of the Persian coast 
and the northern shores of the Arabian Sea." 

He mentions as all but decisive against this 
route the great natural obstruction, the Ras 
Malan, which "thrusts out into the ocean a 
gigantic headland with sheer cliffs 2,000 feet in 
height," backed with a mass of mountains ex- 
tending far inland and some sixty miles east- 
ward. He concludes : 

" Taking the alignment as a whole, we have at 
least 1,600 miles of line passing through a district 
which is, as yet, undeveloped, and wliich can 
never develop without roads to supplement the 
7-ailway ; which enjoys the reputation of simmer- 
ing perpetually in one of the worst atmospheres 
in the world ; and which possesses at least one 
obstacle to engineering which may be pronounced 



LEADING ARTICLFS OF THE MONTH. 



ei 



impracticable iintil full tpclinical exainiiiation . 
he maile. There is the further and tinal di.-.. . 
vantage that it comjM'tes, on almost impossible 
terms for success, with a s<>a service which is al- 
ready established and is capar)le of much im- 
provement. I think, then, we are justifietl in 
setting aside the coast- line project as a desirable 
enterprise." 

THROUGH CENTRAL PERSIA? 

He ne.xt calls attention to the remarkable fact 
that " from the e.xtreme west of Persia to Kalat 
and Quetta. or even to Karachi, it would Ijo 
equally possible to indicate an alignment which 
would never cross a difficult watershed or ascend a 
mountain-side.'' He predicts that in the progress 
of Asiatic commercial evolution this route will 
sooner or later figure as the great central line of 
Pei-sia. It traverses a cultivated autl in many 
parts a rich and prosperous region. It could 
readily be connected with the Indian systems. 
•'It is bound to be one of the important lines of 
the future.'" whether constructed by Hiissian or 
English engineers. But the decisive argument 
against the selection of this route is the difficulty 
of connecting it with any European system to the 
north or west. "'A compact band of mountain 
ranges " directly traverses such an alignment. 

THE ROITE VIA IIKUAT AM) KAXDAIIAH ? 

Sir Thomas then treats of the central opening 
at Herat. He says : 

'• While employed on the Husso-.\fghan Bound- 
ary Commission, both as surveyor and reor- 
ganizer of the defenses of Herat, I had ample 
opportunity for studying that special link l>e- 
tween p]ast and West which has been .so much 
in men's minds of late, and which must inevita- 
bly occupy pul)lic attention yet more closely in 
future. . . . Here, between Herat and Kanda- 
har, or rather between the Russian terminus of 
Kushk an<l tlu^ British terminus of New ( "haMuiii, 
we have a short five-hundred-mile project offered 
to us of such favorable nature as we may n.ssur- 
edlv look for in vain elsewhere. . . . From the 
Hu.'isian station of Kushk to Herat i.s roughly a 
distance of sixty-six mih's, ami midway is that 
great .Asiatic water divide which, insigidfi^-ant as 
it may appear when represenli;d by tlie n>und«'<i 
crests of the Paropamisus. can bo traced east and 
west right across the continent. The one gate- 
way through it. which is forme.l by the paRxago 
of the Hari Kud Kiver, is considerably to the 
west «»f Herat, and the direct connection between 
Kushk and Herat is by tlm .\rdewiln pa*w — a 
pa.ss which is so little formidahle t«» engineering 
projects that it is improbable that the circuitous 
route which takes advantage of the gorges of the 



I Ian IIikI would U< adopted in pn'' even 

ior a railway. . . . Taking '• ay 

Ih' said that then* are no for: .ig 

(lifficulties to l>e encountered, hut there aro three 
' ' ■ ii uncertain ri\' " -.-d 

.V ...i-^kand. anti He.; ;..;«« 

being liable to heavy flixnU. There iH an irreg- 
ular distrii)ution of populous and fertile districts 

intersjHT8«^d with V * * • ,|, 

of it to insure the - ;d 

venture indi'jH'ndently altogether of its value a« 
a link U-tween EurojH> an«l India." 

A I.I.NK OF AN'ULO Hl'SSIA.V GOOD WILL. 

The writer then deals with political difficulties 
in the way. The Ameer and the .\f ' 'it 

object ; but they might \h> induced • , , iio 

the .solid commercial advantages of such a line, 
which need Ix? no menace to their intlep«'ndence. 
Even if they could not \yo jH'rHuaded. the line 
might \)G run just over the border in Persian in- 
stead of Afghan territory. 

" Not much less serious is tiie (.iijection of 
military experts to the construction of a lino 
which wouhl at once offer a strategic highway 
from the Russian bonier to India. But here 
there are many considerations which have not, I 
think, as yet l)een fully weighed. W«' have oidv 
learned (juite lately much alxtut the value of sin- 
gle lines of railway in supjMirting a iinlitarv ad- 
vance in strength, and what wo have learned has 
certainly not increa.sed our appreciation of their 
value. A single line of railway from Herat to 
Kandahar would n«'ver (so far as we may be |M>r- 
mitted to judge from South African exjH>rience) 
support a sufficient force to deal adequately with 
the strong defensive jxtsitions which would l>o 
found at the Indian cml of it, even if the initial 
<liffi<-ulty of the break of gauge U'tween Russian 
and Indian systems were Hucce.s.sfully dealt with. 

" With Mr. Ijong, I am incline«l to Udieve 
that political difficulties lM>tween Russia and In- 
dia would Im lessened by free intercourse and 
commerce b«'tween the two countries, that the 
more wo know each other the U^tter we hhall ap- 
pn'ciate the legitimate aims and aspiratiouN of 
each, and the less likely we shall bo to come into 
collision. I sj^eak froii« a certain amount of jx»r- 
sonal ex[)orience when I say that whatever may 
Ik) the state of international rivalry l)etween the 
two countries, jtersonal animosity (which is (K*cft- 

sionally only too apparent in «>ther ] - -f the 

continent) is entirely wanting in 1. but 

perhaps the really aggri>SRivn N4>ction of the Kng- 
lisli trav' ' d>lic has not yet ma<le ilcetf felt 

<|uite HO .... .1 .' l«l. It is, at any rate, the com- 
mercial an<l not the military a.<ipoct of the 
tion which will diH'ide when this line shall Lmi 



82 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OE RE^IEiVS. 



const riu-ttHl. Thai it will Iw const niclc><l linaily 

• > ' 1 ••■low of ilouiil, and in my 

nstruction of it will njakw 
inor© for jwaoe and jjoodwill among the nations 
tliaii a< i-ni of jwaco conviMitions wliich 

,•..■..'! ! >o inauiru rated." 



c 



THE FUTURE OF RUSSIA. 
"* \LCn.\S," who has alroadv written some 



pxcelleut articles on the future of Ger- 
man v, Iw'irins, in the Fortnvjhtly Review for 
.June, a series of articles on "Russia and Her 
rrohlem," dealing in this number nominally 

the " Internal 
li..i.lem," hut in 
reality with hroad 
considerations of pol- 
icy. 

btssia's policy. 

" Calclias" begins 
by putting liis ar- 
ticle, as it were, on 
an international ba- 
sis, by pointing out 
tls.1t the Russophobe 
talk about Russias 
bad faith is really 
nothing more than 
an echo of the accu- 
sations brought by 
Russia against Eng- 
land, and, indeed, by 
every nation against 
any other which 
damages its interests. 
It is the smallest coin 
of international re- 
crimination. But 
•■ Calchas, " while he 
rejects the charge of 
l)ad faitli as childish, 
does not even think 
Russian policy particularly able. Russia has not 
only acquired less than Great Britain, ])ut she lias 
done so, not by virtue of any exceptional di- 
plomacy, but by the operation of natural laws 
which the stupidest diplomatists could hardly 
have prevented. 

" It might be strongly argued on the contrary, 




A FRENCH VIFW OF RITSSIAN POLICY. 

From Lr (iirbit (Paris). 



comniiltcd by the statesmanship of any country 
e-xcepi l''rance in the last fifty years. Russia, in 
a word, is neither so aide or powci'l'ul, nor as 
iHM-lidious, nor as mucli under her own control 
as we commonly think. Her expansion toward 
free outlets and up to solid frontiers like the 
Hindu Kush, or the impervious mass of China 
proi)er, has been a iiaturiil force upon whicli 
we have att('iii])te(l to phice uiu'eal bounds. 
Russia cannot l)e i-esliaine(l by artificial restric- 
tions. To have imposcnl lliem in tlx; past has 
argued moi-e folly on our pail tliaii overflowing 
them has implied the absence of a moral sense 
on hers." 

THE REAL PROBLEM. 



Russia's real prob- 
lem, says "Cal- 
chas," is that she is 
now approaching her 
natural obstacles, 
which can only be 
overcome, and then 
partly, l)y a develop- 
ment of internal 
forces. In short, she 
has not got capital, 
nor education, nor 
high internal organi- 
zation. For these 
reasons, "Calchas" 
makes the very origi- 
nal but probably true 
statement that Rus- 
sia has not progressed 
in power, and that 
her position is w'eak- 
er in relation to the 
other European pow- 
ers than it was a 
jmndred years ago. 
'I'liat Russia was il- 
literate then was no 
drawback, for all 
That she was a pooi- 



countries were illiterate, 
agricultural comniunity only meant that she was 
in the same state as Prussia. In war, this low 
organization and ignorance tend to weaken Rus- 
sia, especially in view of the recent develojiments 
shown by the Boer war. Russia has not accumu- 
lated capital, and has now only about 2,000,000 



as will better appear upon a further page, that people engaged in the accumulation of capital 
Russian diplomacy has never won a single great by means of industry, as against 26,000,000 in 



game of statecraft except when her natural posi- 
tion has placed all the trumps in her hand. The 
neutrality in 1870. which had the Treaty of 
Berlin as its consequence i'n 1878, was probably 
the most remarkable and far-reaching blunder 



Germany. 



RUSSIA AT PEACE. 



For this reason, Russia is weak, and wants 
peace to develop herself internally up to the 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



88 



level of the organic states of western Kurojte. 
Her present formula is not conquest, but rapital, 
and M. Witte, whose policy is to turn his country 
into an industrial state, is for this reason her most 
significant tigure. But at present, against "the 
accumulation of money during the last thirty 
years in the United States, in Great Britain, and, 
iiliove all, from a political point of view, in the 
(Jerman empire, there has been no counterpoise 
in Russia. In case of a struggle, even France, 
where the fiscal problem is taking a verv grave 
aspect, would need all her means for herself. If 
the last sovereign wins, as in anything but a de- 
fensive war — as in a war against a great power 
for the Balkans or Asia Minor, or upon the Intlian 
frontier, or at Tort Arthur, it must win — it will 
be admitted to be more probable than appeai-s at 
first sight that Russia for the present is at an al- 
most immeasurably greater disadvantage than at 
any time since Peter the Great. To mere num- 
bers, unsupported by moral and intellectual su- 
periority or concentrated striking power, when 
has the victorv belonged y " 

"Calchas " says that for Russia war could only 
mean ruin, owing to her want of money. There- 
fore, Russia is peaceful, and the Hague Confer- 
ence was for her an act of tlie highest poiicv, 
quite apart from its moral significance. "Cal- 
chas" also foresees revolutionary dangers for 
Russia in the growth of the industrial population. 



SERVIA-A KINGDOM OF PEASANTS. 

IT is pleasant to be reminded by a Uiunanituriun 
interview with the Servian minister in L()n- 
don, Mr. S. M. Losanitch, that for tlu' good blood 
shed in freeing Servia fi'om the Turk there is 
something lietter to show than the scandals of the 
Servian court. 

OOVEHNMENT. 

To begin with, a nation has been created : 
" A people — tall, stalwart men, brave to reck- 
l«!S8ne.ss, born soldiers ; women with magnificent 
liark eyes, flashing * i'romethean fire,' and voices 
whose music has oft stirred the embers of patriot- 
ism into living flame — capable of, at any time, 
putting a quarter of a million of well-armed men 
in the field, is not likely to submit to Iw-ing treated 
Jis a r/nntitiU negliffeuh/i:.'^ 

Mr. Lo.sanitcli declares that the recent marriage 
of the King with a lady whose ancestors were men 
who fought and died in the caus<Mjf Servian free- 
<lom has endeared him more than ever to his peo- 
ple. He is assisted in government l»y a council 
of state of sixteen or eight<,'en memlx-rs, each of 
at least ten yeare' service to the state. Then 
comes the Skupshtina, numljcring 'J.'JO, one- 



fourth ui Whom are " _', the rent 

by the I i.li.. •• y, ■■ ...... .....] 

pays I. the an 

has a vole. ' Most of the <: uro peasants, 

illiterate, ' • -ne are born uraiore, and many 
highly int. 

EDICATIOM. 

But illiterwy. apJ•'»•.•■''^•. will goon lie a thing 
of the past. Sir. L. . says : 

" Kducation, with us, is compulsory ami free. 
To show •. •' ' ■ ' !,.. iti I. S.S.J we 

had (JlS ~ (male and fe- 

male) and 36.314 pupils. We have now 920 
.'schools with 7.J0. UOU pupils. In the > ary 

schools, in addition to the ordinary br. wo 

teach geography, drawing, history, . ry, 

practical agriculturt>. and, in the case of girU, 
domestic duties. After a child has left 
he has to attend clas-ses once a week for t! 
two years." 

There are gymnasia, techiiiiai - and girls' 

high schools, and a university oi n... . • — '■• s. 

The Gn-ek Orthodo.x Church is the . of 

the state and the people, but non-conforming sects 
are also subsidized by the state. 

A NATION OF FAKMKKS. 

In his account of industrial and social condi- 
tions. Mr. Losanitch says : 

"We are a nation of ]M>asants. We have 
scarcely any aristwracy. On the other hand, 
we have no proletariat — the ' :• great 

cities — no pauj)ers, no suIj:..; .^ . .; 

Agriculture and cattle-raising are our princiftal 
occupations. . . .Our ex|K)rt8 of farm produce 
ami live stock . . . are very large. Austria is 
our principal cu8tom«>r ; she pun-linses over H3 
|>er cent, of our commodities. We have 

doubled our trade tiuring the hi.-^i lilteeu years. 
. . . Our trade in 1S!>;» amounted to Xl.lS*;, - 
919. . . . We have the Insst and latest agricultural 
implements." 

COMMCNAI. TIIKIKT. 

The Servian minister then spi'aks of the social 
life of his countrymen, the basis of which is the 
commune : 

•• All «>ur |H'aj*ant8 are land«*d pn)prielor». 
Some of them are rich, while others are |KXjr ; 
but to prevent en' ' ' ir- 

antees to each' |M'ii. .. .- . the 

necessary numUT of agricultural implements. 
They am inalienable pi The living lo- 

acts in llie same «liru<'tion, — it prt»nu)t«i sucial 
equality iMttwiHMi the inenitMTS of the clan. 



84 



THE AMFRICAN MONTHLY RF.yiEW Oh' REyiElVS. 



• In the noxt place, eacli coininuiu' is bound 
hv a law, wliich was fii-st jiromulgatcd by Kinji: 
y." ■•' 'ohave a jfiMioral I'ontrul slorehouao ; each 
I is l>ountl to contribute to it annually five 

kiio^mniinos of wheat or mai/.o. Tlie object is 
to ktH'p in n^orvo rortain quantiti«»s of food (we 
havo at pn'sonl 40, 000, ()()() kilograniiiu's stored 
up), so as to prevent the possilnlity of famine. 
S" I local magazine, either throuirh a bad or 

.;. ... .. ..; harvest, or from causes j)ertaining to 

a jwrticular place, run short, it obtains a tempo- 
rary loan from a store more favorably circum- 
stanced. 

'• I was the means of introducing agricultural 
societies into Servia. The idea originated in 
Germany, but I think we have imjjroved upon 
it. The central society is at Belgrade. We have 
now more than two hundred and twenty branches 
in the country, but we shall not relax our efforts, 
vou may be .sure, so long as there remains a vil- 
lage without a branch." 

This is not merely a loan society. It pledges 
its memliers " to alistain from intoxicating drink, 
gambling, and all immorality.'' 

"THE PARADISE OF WIVES." 

On the status of women, Mr. Losanitch says : 
"Our girls receive a very excellent education. 
They have a choice of professions afterward. 
Some go in for teaching ; some of them become 
doctors ; others, again, are employed in public 
oflBces. But the greater number of them pre- 
fer to get married. The majority still cling to 
the domestic ideal — our girls are very domesti- 
cated. In the house they reign supreme ; no 
sensible husband would ever think of question- 
ing their authority in the home. The man rules 
outside, the woman holds undisputed sway with- 
in. Tell your readers that Servia is ' the para- 
dise of wives. ' " 

ENGLAND AND FRANCE. 

THE Fortnightly Review for June contains two 
articles of considerable interest on the re- 
lations of England and France. The first is by 
Baron de Coubertin. and is entitled "The Con- 
ditions of Franco- British Peace." Baron de Cou- 
bertin does not share the general optimistic view 
as to the improvement of Anglo-French relations. 
Superficially, indeed, relations have improved, 
but the potential causes of conflict have not been 
removed. These causes are the colonial expan- 
sion of France and her alliance with Russia. 

THE ENGLISH VIEW OF FRENCH COLONIZATION. 

Baron de Coubertin says that nobody in France 
dreams of enlarging the French possessions at 
England's expense. But a much more serious 



danger exists from the view which English peo- 
ple in general take of French colonization. The 
Ib-itish, says tiie baron, belicn'c^ thai tliciy alone 
are capable of bringing civilization to Asiatic 
races, and that of all the rest the French are the 
most incapable. 

'•This is a settled conviction with the majority 
of English people. But it is childish to a degree. 
Goodoess knows that personally I value Anglo- 
Saxon civilization highly enough, and I do not 
mind saying so. But the notion that there can 
be any people in the world so perfect that it 
is ilesirable for entire humanity to receive its 
.stamp, — that notion is absurd, and cannot stand 
a moment's serious examination. But if the 
English interrogate their conscience they will find 
that, if they do not profess this tlicory, they in 
every case act as if they professed it. Result — 
unhappy inspirations, regrettable actions, im- 
prudent words. It does not necessarily lead to 
open aggression and brutal conquests on their 
part, but the impression they labor under that 
the populations of Pondicherry, Cliandernagar, 
and Martinique, or St. Pierre and Miquelon, would 
willingly welcome the Union Jack, that nothing 
could more safely insure the happiness of the 
7\namese and Malagasy than to come under 
British rule, — this impression, I aflfirm, makes 
them indulgent to many entei'prises and encroach- 
ments of doubtful loyalty, which may entail 
serious consequences, for they are sparks that 
may set light to a very big fire. In short, they 
look on our possessions with veiy much the same 
feelings with which the Americans regarded their 
neighbors in Cuba under Spanish rule." 

They also regard tlie French colonies as stag- 
nant, and think that they might turn them into 
a source of profit to themselves and to the natives. 

' ' This is precisely the new danger which 
threatens Franco-British peace. I call it new 
because it has not yet had time to show itself 
openly, and I am quite prepared to have my per- 
spicacity doubted by any one who reads these 
lines. Unfortunately, there are too many 
chances that the future may prove me right, and 
the friends of peace should have no illusions on 
this score." 

THE RUSSIAN ALLIANCE. 

The other danger comes from the Russian alli- 
ance. Baron de Coubertin evidently does not 
regard the alliance with enthusiasm, but he ad- 
mits that it would be impossible to go back on it. 
What, then, is France's position ? The condi- 
tions since the alliance was entered into have 
changed so much that it can no longer be re- 
garded as directed against Germany. The 
Triple Alliance is practically dead. But two 



LEADING ARTICLFS OF THE MONTH 



WV 



questions have arisen which tend to lurn the 
Dual Allianrt- into a potential weapon a^'ainst 
Knglaiul. The Asiatic rivali y U'lweeu Kii>;lantl 
and Russia may develop into war, into wliich 
France is likely to he drawn. 

" Supposin«^ one of these incidents, pushed a 
little bit too far — at a time when England, hav- 
ing settled her affairs in South Africa, is less 
trammeled in her movements — were to bring on 
a war between England ami Russia, England 
might be very strongly tempted to attack the 
enemy nearer home in the person of her allv, to 
immobilize and if possible destroy tliat fleet, the 
first in the world after her own, which miglit lx> 
of so much help later on to Russia. The temp- 
tation woulil be so strong that possibly Eiiglaiul 
might yield to it. And two countries would be 
fighting witljout mercy, two countries that stand 
alone in the whole world as representing all that 
is best in liberal thought — and all for what ? 
That Manchuria may only fall more surelv into 
Muscovite hands, and that Russian garrisons may 
be established in Afghanistan." 

AUSTRIA. 

The Austrian question also ilireatens the 
whole world : 

" It is on the shores of the Baltic and Adri- 
atic that this moral earthquake will be felt. Our 
frontiers will be spared ; and if a greater Ger- 
many is formed, stretching from Hamburg to 
Trieste, far from being disturbed, we shall bent'- 
fit by it in more ways than I have time to dis- 
cuss here witliout digressing. 

"If, then, France were not bound to Ru.s.sia. 
she could regard all these events with a tranquil 
eye, drawing her small profits from them liere 
and there, and carrying on her own develop- 
ment in peace in the midst of the general agita- 
tion. But, bound to Russia, she finds herself 
to-day mixed up in all the imbroglio at Peking, 
and to-morrow she may he concerned in another 
at Vienna." 

Haron de Coubertin concludes his article as 
follows : 

" 'J'hese are the two great enemies of Anglo- 
French peace, the two 8ourc(>s of probable con 
flicts. Let the P'rench retain tlieir allies if 
neccs.sary ; let the Englisli exercise jH^rpetual 
self-restraint, so that th.'y may not be carried 
away by a disastrous cupidity. ' 

A HLKA KOK AKIilTHATIo.S. 

Mr. Thomas Barclay, who plea«is for *« A (ien- 
eral Treaty of Arbitration b«!tween (Jn-at Britain 
an<i France," is not so jx-sHimiHtic lb- ' it 

since tin* war of 1870 th«! French, bolli y 

aud unofBcially, have seldom been so anxious fur 



uH an) ad- 



gooil relations AitJj Knt'land. Mr. Barclay i1<m» 

n«,' • 

F.., . 

foundland and New liebri'. 
mirablf .- for arl>itration. 

ties vs 

come between England and France, except that 
of Egypt, will bt! tnwlo qu. 

Their interests for V. ' ' ■ sin,.;.uii.» 

diminished if the tw i to ji poi- 

icy of equality of treatment lor the tnwle and 

eii- of Ixjth for all ' or 

pr. iifs assumed by . . . iljo 

future. In any case, neither England nor France 
ha.s any conflicting trade rights to arbitrate ujKjn 
at present, and. as regards war, it ia - ' • 
openly entered up<m in pursuit of purely u. 
objects. Even the American-Spanish and Brit- 
ish-Bot-r wars have ' 'of 

the two Anglo-Saxon , , „ ... , .pu- 

lar belief that the motives were disinterested, 
aud that national dignjty was at stake." 

EGYPT. 

Mr. Barclay does not regard Egypt as a prob- 
abl.' irritant. Tin* following is his rtM:otninen- 
dation of his proposal : 

"()ne of the chief advautagi>8 of a general 
arbitration treaty is that, as the two nations wouhl 
know that no ' - ' ' , • 

ami that any ■ 

lied iiy negotiation, and, if need be, eventually 
by arbitration, they would feel no r to 

back up the government bv pub!;-- ra- 

tittns anil tlisplay of devil-may care ;on 

»to fight for country, right or wrong. ' It would 
rt'inove the dangi'r of ob- d of th i 

dering to cheap popular : alH>ve ... . 

weak politicians are unable to rise, of those ' firm 
stands' which an uncritical public caaily mis- 
takes for patriotic duly." 

THE FUTURE OF THE TRIFLE ALLIANCE. 
"T^IIK future of the Triple .Alliance is disrii..m-.l 

A i.y .Mr. Lucien Wolf in the Srw . 
lieview for June. The greater |tart of Imh |>»|N?r 

• ' ti up with a lb- Munftli. t .. . 

The rliH'f with w 

is that Italy's atlhexion waa cauMul by > to 

Franc«". and '" 
away the mjia . 
exists. Italian vanity wa« II 

accfssion to the rank of a great |M(wer, but in 
every •' • ' ' ' 

•• It.i tunity of conceiving 

new external ambitions, of adding fn*sb wilder- 



•'t] 



THli AMFRICAN MONTHLY Rmi-W Oh RF.I^IP.WS. 



n(>m«>s to her own rotrogra«l«' ncres, of assuming 
\\w rhi»rg© of semi l»arl»arou8 populations wlu-n 

(«) . ' ' ' >>\\n sons, nmi of risk- 

11, , no inlt'icst when tlio 
fiimncial l>urd«Mi8 of her |>eoplo hmi nlii'iuiy l)o 
txnuf well-nigh t: If this was not toni- 
fiK)U»ry,' •' •■■ " •..•>. .luse the word does not 
admit of .. ve." 

OKKAT BKITAIX IN TIIK ALLIANCE. 

The inleresling part of Mr. Wolf's article is, 
however, that in which he deals with the rela- 
tions of (ireat liritain to the alliance. The re- 
newal of the alliance in ISSG was agieed to by 
Italy only on the condition that England should 
become a party to it. 

"It happened that Lord Salisliury, who was 
then in oflice, was exceedingly well disposed to the 
Triple Alliance, and there was every likelihood 
that if its stability could be sliown to be bound 
>ip with the maintenance of the status quo in the 
Mediterranean, some sort of official connection 
Ijetween it and England might be contrived. The 
value fif such an understanding to Germany and 
Austria would be enormous, lor if it only took 
the form of a guarantee of the Italian coasts it 
would set free 300, UOO men for operations on tlie 
land frontiers. Overtures were at once made to 
Downing Street, where they were received with 
the utmost 8yin])athy. The upshot was that Lord 
Salisbury, while refusing to sign any definite en- 
gagements which would pledge the country and 
his successors in office, authorized tlie German 
Government to assure Italy that as long as lie 
was in power Italy might rely on English sup- 
}X)rt in shielding her from any unprovoked attack 
in the Mediterranean. With these assurances 
Italy was amply satisfied." 

In 1891, says Mr. Wolf, these assurances were 
renewed. 

"This latter transaction was personally negoti- 
ated by the Emperor William at Hatfield, on July 

12, 1891. In his later years, Piince Bismarck de- 
clared that a protocol was drawn up and signed 
at Hatfield, but I have very good reason for be- 
lie\ing that this was not the case. At any rate, 
if such a document was signed, it must have re- 
mained in Lord Salisbury's private keeping." 

Italy's new policy. 

More remarkable even than this assertion is 
Mr. Wolf's statement that the new King of Italy, 
having leanings to the Slav-Latin combination, 
" has not failed already to convince our govern- 
ment that his reign is likely to be marked by a 
sensible diminution in the traditional coi'diality 
of Anglo-Italian relation ; and if that is his feel- 
ing toward us, from whom politically he might 



reasonably hope much, what must be his disposi- 
tion toward his more formal allies, whose asso- 
ciati(>n with his country has been so cons])i('u- 
ously steiile ? The accession of the new King, 
liowever, was not the precipitating cause of the 
Toulon festivities — or, ratlun-, of the significant 
scope they were allowed to assume. That, cause 
must be sought partly in the composition of the 
new Italian cabinet, in which the foreign port- 
folio is held l)y a declared Fj'ancophile, and ])art]y 
in the agrai'ian agitation in Germany, which I'en- 
ders doubtful the renewal of the commercial 
treaty which was negotiated in 1891, and which 
has proved very profitable to Italy." 

A HAD TIME COMING. 

Mr. Wolf concludes his article by presaging a 
bad time as the result of the Franco- Italian fra- 
ternization : 

' ' That we are about to witness a collapse of 
the Triple Alliance in form 1 do not believe, for 
Germany will make desperate efforts to keep it 
together, and she will certainly secure the signa- 
ture even of Signoi' Prinetti — should he remain 
in office long enough — if slie can manage to guar- 
antee him the renewal of the treaty of commerce 
pi'actically unchanged. This, I imagine, is not 
beyond the combined powers of the Kaiser and 
his present chancellor. But if the Triple Alii 
ance survives in form, it will have long been 
dead in spirit.'' 



THE GERMAN EMPEROR AND HIS HOBBIES. 

ON this fascinating subject, Mr. R. S. Baker 
writes entertainingly in the June num- 
ber of Pearson^s Magazine. He contends tliat 
in many respects the popular conception of the 
Kaiser is mistaken. The Kaiser, for instance, 
as is pretty well known, is not great in stature. 

" A photograph gives no hint of color. The 
Kaiser is a brown-faced man, the brown of wind 
and weather, of fierce riding on land, and of a 
glaring sun on the sea. His face is thinner 
than one has pictured, and there is a hint of 
weariness about the eyes. His hair is thin, and 
his famous mustache is not so long nor so jaun- 
tily fierce as one has imagined. But owing to 
the sin of retoucliing there is one thing that few 
of the Kaiser's photographs show to advantage, 
and it is the most impressive characteristic of his 
face. And that is its singular sternness in re- 
pose." 

Few will dispute the assertion that "William 
II., however much one may smile at his passion 
for royal display, has many of those splendid at- 
tributes of character which would make a man 
great in any sphere of life. It would be a large 



LEADISG .■IRnrtFS OF THE MONTH. 



87 



company of Oermans. indeed, among wiioin 
one would tail to sfU-ct him instinotivelv as the 
leader. A first impression, tlierefore. mav thus U- 
summed up : Tiie Kaiser is less a great king than 
one has imagined, and more a great man. The 
Fonger one remains in (jermany, and the more 
one learns of its ruler and his e.xtraordinary ac- 
tivities, the deeper grows this impression." 

It is said that on an average the coll.'ction of 
im|>erial portraits is increased at the rate of one 
per day. In Herlin. there is no escaping the 
Kaiser's features, wlu'ther in hotel, restaurant, 
churdi, or any public Ijuildings. In photograph.'?, 
paintings, busts, colored prints, medals, bas- 
reliefs, the Emperor's face is omnipresent. In 
other parts they are less numerous, and in Munich 
hardly as noticeable. 

WHAT IXTKUESTS THE K.\ISEK MOST. 

Tim German navy and tlie advance of fJerman 
shipping are, says Mr. Baker, undoubtedly the 
chief interests of the Kaiser's life at present. 
Allied to this is his absorption in (iermany's 
commercial and industrial expansion, and in 
finding new markets for her products. After 
these come many smaller interests which cannot 
all be classeil as hobbies. The Kaiser, accoiding 
to his character-sketcher, does not caie much 
for science or literature. Horse-racing leaves 
him unenthusedf 

"He loves travel ; he entertains liigh respect 
for religion — a religion of his own stern kind ; 
he dabbles in art and music ; he cares nothing 
for social aflfairs unless they have some specific 
purpose, or unless they I'each the stage of pageant- 
ry in which he is the central figure. But among 
all his lesser likings nothing occupies such a 
place as statuary. He is preeminently a monu- 
ment-lover. Not long ago he said to a friend : 
'There are tliirty-four sculptors in Berlin.' He 
knew everyone of them personally, and he knew 
all alxjut their work. Nothing pleases him bet- 
ter than to visit their studios and to be photo- 
graphed there among the clay sketches." 



"HOW WILL KING EDV/ARD GOVERN?" 

'T""') the secoiui May numlnjr of the Urvue de 
■l Piiris. .Mr. Stead contributes a pajx-r on 
this important (luestion. H(! In-gins by pointing 
out that in England the power of the monarch 
depends much more on the character of the mon- 
arch than is generally supposed ; this is certainly 
proved by tlie extent to which Queen Victoria 
iierself Ixjth modified and develo|w'd the mon- 
archy in (in'iit Britain. Indeed, it i.** not too 
mucii to say that tlit; late Queen effected a radi- 
cal revolution in the whole conception of rnon. 



archy ; and now the vexed quostion in England 
is how far .irch will ! i the 

\ ictorian t: i ...• |»ower of ; *n in 

theoretically extremely great, hut in practic«» it is 
consideretl as purely nominal. I'nder a rigime 
in which the sovereign exercises all his p«^»wer» 
nominally, while in reality he is lirnite ) t.i an 
absolutely 8ul>ordinate role and cannot ex 
any ' il prerogative except by t * .«• «>f 

his 1: ;s — under such a riyimr o.......-.v ll»o 

{H'rsonal influence of a monarch is of enormous 
importance. If he is a man of strong will and 
clear idfjus he can, in such a situation, obtain 
practically the supreme power in the state ; but, 
on the other hand, if ho is irn^sponsible, plea«uro- 
loving, and indifferent to power, he can re«Iuce 
the part he plays in the state to insignificance. 

" VICTOKIA, OfK Ql'EEN A.ND COVKKSOK." 

It is not generally known to what an extent 
tin* late Queen governed as well as ruled. The 
old formula of constitutional monarchy — "the 
sovereign rules, but does not govern " — cannot 
be applied to EnglamI without considerable re- 
serve. Mr. (.'hamberlain, in a recent spt'ech, 
pointed out that Queen N'ictoria, although always 
strictly confining hei-self within the limits of the 
constitution, had nevertheless attained a degree 




ui.s MA.IK-<rV - 
UE.HOI.VE. 

"Thciinln«)ii«» ilii 

tics \vhlrl» HOW <|r 

vnlve Ufion mc \<\ 
inlirritniiro, and ti 
wlili-li I ntn <Ii«tt«r 



lutt thf ri'm<i 
of my llf.'." I ... 
nddn-Mit Id f'rl vy 
('oitlirll liy liln MiiJ- 
•■III)' till* KlliK. 



TIIK KINO HrHVKTn lll« TAMC. 

From tlir Ifffhlv Sftim (Rlrn.liiKhnm. KiigUmn. 



88 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY Rri'lFM- Of- RHl^IEH^S, 



of |>ower anil of iwrsonal autliority wliit-h tlic 
ji)..st ili«s|K.iii- monardi ini^'lil luivf vuv'wd Ikt. 
llow. llion. roiiM n imtion so jealous of its liW- 
oriy ami so liKStilo to tlio principle of nionarcliii'al 
|H)wer as the English K'ar this tiansfoniiation of 
,, ' ' V? The answer is to be 

i, _ _ il iMjualion " of Qiu'on ^'ic- 

toria. The revolution, wliicli ought really to be 
callod an evolution, was acrouiplisheil becaiise 

t' n wislied it, but also because it was done 

^- . \- and quietly ami strictly within the limits 

of ihe constitution. It amounted, in fact, to the 
8ulistit\jtion of influence for authority. 'J'hc 
QutHMi was always ready to adhere to the decisions 
of her ministers when once they were taken, but 
she contributed to their formation, and furnislied 
that constant element which is always more elli- 
cai-ious than the will of ministers themselves. 
She represented continuity, experience, and tra- 
dition : she was neither demagogue nor despot ; 
if she differed with her ministers, she would 
always give way in the last resort, because she 
considered it more to the interest of her peoi)le 
to maintain popular liberties than to avoid mak- 
ing a mistake in policy. Thus it happened that 
in the latter years of his life Mr. Gladstone often 
found himself in direct antagonism to the Queen ; 
but Mr. Gladstone remained to the last a devoted 
and loyal subject, and it is impossible to find in 
all the mass of his speeches and writings a single 
line of complaint that the Queen had ever trans- 
gressed the limits of her constitutional power. 

QLEEX Victoria's imperialism. 

Mr. Stead goes on to explain the robust im- 
perialism of the Queen, which, however, liad its 
drawbacks. He tells us, for instance, that when 
Mr. Gladstone came to power after tlie general 
election of 1880 it was extremely difficult to per- 
suade the Queen to consent to evacuate Kanda- 
har ; indeed, she flatly refused to insert an an- 
nouncement to that effect in the speech from tlie 
throne. She only gave way wlien tlie AVhig 
members of the cabinet, headed by the present 
Duke of Devonshire, went to Osborne and ex- 
plained the strong support which Mr. Gladstone 
could command on this question. It is interest- 
ing to note that the present war in South Africa 
is almost certainly one of the indirect results of 
the Queen's opposition to the evacuation of Kan- 
dahar ; for if she had not raised objections 
against the recall of the British troops, it is 
pretty certain that the retrocession of the Trans- 
vaal would have been accomplished without dam- 
aging the imperial prestige. ^Ir. Chamberlain 
was at that time the most convinced and most 
active opponent of the policy of annexing the 
Transvaal ; but the cabinet was not unanimous, 



and the obstinate resistance which the Queen had 
made over the question of Kaiidahar convinced 
Mr. (iladslone and Mr. Chaiiilierlain tliat they 
could not hope to obtain her consent to a .second 
evacuation in aiiotliei- part of tlu; world. The 
result was lluit the decision was ])ostp()iied, the 
defeat of Majuba followed, and it was only the 
prospect of a general rising of the J)utch which 
I'nabled Mr. Gladstone to triumph over the ob- 
jections of his colleagues and the hostility of the 
Queen. Mr. .Stead states that this was the occa- 
sion alluded to by Tjord Kimberley in his speech 
after the death of the Queen, when he publicly 
avowed that he had once carried his point with 
her, and liad afterward found that he was wrong. 
Mr. Stead goes on to trace the weiglity influence 
exerted by the Queen in favor of peace. 

WHAT WILL THE KING DO ? 

Will Edward V'll. show himself capable of 
maintaining the Victorian tradition, or will he, 
through incapacity, or indolence, or lack of am- 
bition, allow the monarchy to slip back into the 
])osition wliich it occu})ied at the time of George 
IV. anil his successor ? AVitliout doubt, every- 
thing indicates at the moment, says Mr. Stead, 
that the new King will endeavor to maintain 
liimself on a level with the traditions of his 
mother's reign. When he was still Prince of 
Wales, he never concealed liis diglike to the sub- 
ordinate position to which his mother relegated 
him. Queen Victoria would not permit any rival 
near her tlirone, and though she was glad to leave 
to the Prince of Wales all the ceremonial duties 
of the luoiiarchy, she pitilessly checked any at- 
tempt on his part to express an opinion on state 
affairs. It was a deep annoyance to Albert Ed- 
ward to see the German Emperor, his nephew, 
at the head of the state, wielding an almost abso- 
lute power. King Edward warmly acquiesced 
in the parallel drawn by Mr. Stead between the 
position of the monarch and that of the editor of 
a newspaper. It is this very fact that causes 
some uneasiness in England, for it is realized 
that what Queen Victoria was able to do witb 
her vast experience, her great age, and her unique 
personal influence may not necessarily be witliiu 
the power of her son, with not a quarter the 
same experience or influence. 

It is said that the German Emperor has suc- 
ceeded in inspiring King Edward with the reso- 
lution of conducting himself in accordance with 
the Victorian ideal. So far, however, he has had 
little opportunity of revealing the manner in which 
he intends to conduct state affairs. Mr. Stead 
notes, among other things, that on the eve of the 
County Council elections his majesty expressed 
without ambiguity his admiration for the policy 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



80 



followed by the majoriiy of that assom1>la);i?,which 
at the inoiiient was IxMiig (it'rcvly altarkfU i»y thf 
Conservatives ; also, that his majesty, in reply to 
a loyal a«Mress from the Quakers, surprised ev- 
erybody by tleclariug that lie sincerely hoped that 
the principles of peace would be widely propa- 
gated among his subjects. Further, Mr. Stead 
tells us that the promotion of Dr. \Viiiiiin>;tuii- 
Ingram to the Bishopric of London was a com- 
promise, Lord Salisbury desiring to translate the 
Bishop of Newcastle, while the King desired the 
Bishop of Rochester. On the whole, Mr. Stea i 
thinks that the slight uneasiness, which undoubt- 
edly exists, may be claimed by two considerations 
— one of which is that tiie King is a man of great 
tact and native siirewdness, and the second is that 
he does not possess those qualities of firmness and 
resolution which enabled his mother to exercise 
so great an influence on her cabinets. King l]d- 
ward is not of the stuff of an Emperor William. 



il.a: the pasMing of iionie lUile would sweep 
awav the main fabric of dtsloyally and of inlpr- 



natioual dislike." 



THK Kl'XrKK. 



THE PROSPECTS OF IRISH HOME RULE. 

TIIE Xvw Liheral Review contains auiuterest- 
ing article by the Earl of Crewe on " Ire- 
land and the Liberal Party." It is a reply to 
the articles of Mr. Healy and Mr. Redmond 
which appeared in former numbers. Lord Crewe 
writes from the standpoint of one who is as much 
in favor of Home Rule as ever, but who sees 
practical difficulties in the way of carrying it into 
effect even should the Liberals return to power 
with a big majority. He sets o\it in detail these 
difficulties. 

THK WEAKENING OF TUE CAUSE. 

The Home Rule cause is at present suffering 
from the exaggerations of 
friend and foe, both of 
whom have tried to make 
out that it is a revolution. 
The Irish have exaggerated 
it in order to justify their 
triumph, and the Tories 
have done the same in order 
to frighten tlu; English peo- 
ple. The Irish i)arty, says 
Lord Crewe, has al.'«j in- 
jured its own cause l)y re- 
fusing to regard tiie Home 
Rule measui"es as proposed 
as final. They have injured 
the cause by their anti-im- 
perial attitude. <)f course. 
Lord Crewe umlerstands 
the reasons of this Irish 
policy. 

" Now." he says, " I dis- 
tinctly and heartily believe 



Rut as to the future? The average British 
Liljeral, says Lonl Crewe, wishes to see Home 
Rule carried, but each has a^i well at least one 

domestic measure on which his h< : 't. Now 

he il(M's not want to ruin the pi - of these 

measures by bringing in a Home Rule bill which 
Would destroy his n .. Sup|K)8e the Lilti-rals 

bring in a Home Ri..; the moment they attain 

office. 

" Assume that the Home Rule bill passes the 
Commons, anil that the Lords accept it at the first 
attempt — a large assumption. It may be gener- 
ally conceded that the amendment to the bill uf 
1.S9H. which left the full complement of Irish 
niendjers to vote on all British questions, is un- 
likely to appear in a new measure. The i>a.>ising of 
the bill would then practically demand a dissolu- 
tion, when the Lil>eral paity clearly could not 
count on a majority. Anotlu-r sjn-ll of Tory as- 
cendency might ensue, without any purely British 
measure having l)een carried. But u-ould the 
House of Lords pass the bill, and what would 
follow if they did not? Mr. Redmond seems 
still to resent the 'predominant partner' phrase; 
but, speaking only for myself, I do not know a 
single Liberal politician who would not indorse 
the statement, defined as follows : ' I'nless a dis- 
tinct acce.ssion of Lib«'ral opinion apj)ear8 in Eng- 
land, and notablv in London, the House of 
Lords will throw out a Home Rule bill, even if 
it were carried in the House of Commons bv 




.liiMN Itl 

I'vr '• I 



THK IKINM VIkW: A rAllt AMtWRH. 

1,1.: "{'nn*! you 1 
will whrii )iin It I 
From the HWMi/ h^mmin llMililln]. 



!i |«<«ri»T' 



IN) 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RF.yiFAV OF RF.yiElVS. 



a ronsiil.'rahlo Irisli. Scottish, ami Wolsli iiia- 
joriiy.* " 

II. MK i;i \y Af TiiK Kxn. 

Tlio ! sliould. tlu>refor«', wlu'ii 

lIu'V ati iist to fiirrv such <h>m('stic 

iiu'aaurf.<* ns tlu'V i-jm. aiul to luiiig in ii IK'iiui 
Kule bill at lh«' eiul of their ti'iiii. 11" tho House 
i' T • !s rt>j<'ct the bill, the »>cH-asioii might be 
V ., .or trying a fall with them. Hut to bring 
in a lionie Kule bill at the beginning of a Tjib- 
, " ' ' ition would probably only nieiin 

t.. . .- . 11 :iie Uiile and. at tlu^ same lime, the 
loss of all the domestic measures wliicli Lilic lal- 
ism den)ands. 

80MK TATO.S FOR HOME lU'I.K. 

Still, Lord Crewe evidently does not think 
that Home Hule is most likely to come in tiie 
way above suggested. The future work of 
Home Rulers must be undertaken witli less ex- 
citement and more dependence on arguments ad- 
dressed to the reason of British voters. The old 
watchwords must be abandoned, for the old en- 
thusiasm is dead. 

" A second contingency, that Home Rule inay 
come suddenly by a quick revulsion of feeling in 
Britain, is favored by Mr. Redmond, but seems 
to be e.xtremely remote. When Home Rule 
comes, as come it will, it may possibly arrive 
through the direct agency of the Unionist party, 
or by a compromise involving all parties. Again, 
it might conceivably appear by the road of Mr. 
T. W. Russell's land agitation, or from an im- 
pulse generated by one of Ireland's other subsid- 
iary grievances concerned with finance or edu- 
cation. Or it might be accepted as the first 
stage in a great scheme of devolution and fed- 
eration embracing the empire as a whole." 



GERMANY'S POPULATION. 

ACCORDING to the provisional returns of the 
census taken in Germany on December 1, 
1900, the empire has a population of 56,345,014. 
The following table gives the absolute and rela- 
tive increase in the population, as shown by each 
census since the empire was formed : 



Dates. 


Inhabit- 
ants. 


Absolute 
Increase. 


Increase 
per 100. 


1871 


41.a58.792 
42.727,360 
4.5.234.061 
46.85.5,704 
49,428,470 
52,279.901 
56,345.014 


1,'668.5(88 
2,.5(J6,701 
1,621,643 
2,572,766 
2,a51,4;i0 
4,065,113 




1875 


4 06 


1880 

1885 

IWtl 

1S96 

1900 


5.87 
3.59 
5.49 

5.77 

7.78 



Scicnti/iffiic for May 1 1 points out, that the ratio 
of increase is sulTeriug no decline. In the period 
1.SS0-.S5 then' was a sensible diminution of the 

nitjo, in that iiciiod an e.xcess of (Miiigration 

coincided with a falling-ofT in the exc(!ss of 
births, — but, disregarding that period, each cen- 
sus has shown a greater increase than its prede- 
cessor. Since ISTI the population has made e 
total gain of 15,2.S(>,2'22 persons (if no account 
1)0 taken of the annexation of Heligoland, 15,- 
■JS;-{,!»!)7 persons), and this corresponds to a per- 
centage of .37."2'2, which the French scientific 
review regards as " (fnornious." The present 
])opulati()n represents a density of 104.2 inhabit- 
ants to the kilometer, as against 75. i) in 1871. 

Of the total population as returned la.st De- 
cember, 27,7:51 ,0(i7 are nw.n and 28,013,947 
women. During the five years intervening since 
the last y)receding census, the male population 
seems to have grown 8.07 per cent, and the fe- 
male population 7.5 per cent. 



From these figures it appears, as the Eevue 



THE NEW CENSUS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 

COMMENTING on the recent British census, 
the National Geographic Magazine for June 
])oints out that a density of population in the 
United States similar to that revealed in the 
United Kingdom would mean a total population 
in this country, excluding the dependencies, of 
about 1,036,000,000. The population of England 
and Wales is now 32,525,816; of Ireland, 
4,456.546 ; and of Scotland, 4,471,957, making 
a total for the United Kingdom of 41,454,219. 

" For the last ten years England and Wales 
show a rate of increase of 12.15 per cent., which 
slightly exceeds their rate of growth for the pre- 
ceding decade, 11.65 per cent.; Scotland, a rate 
of increase of 10.8 per cent., also a greater in- 
crease than during the preceding decade, and 
Ireland a rate of decrease of only 5, 3 per cent. , 
which is little more than one-half the rate of de- 
crease of the preceding decade. The census 
figures are thus very gratifying to Englishmen, 
for they show no signs of diminishing national 
vitality, Vjut rather tend to show increasing na- 
tional virility. It is yet too soon to give exact 
percentages of the relative growth of the url)an 
and rural districts, but what figures have been 
given sliow a most marked increase in city popu- 
lations." 

Population of Australia and New Zealand. 

In the same number of the Geographic Maga- 
zine the figui'es of the Australian census are sum- 
marized from the cabled reports. The inci'ease in 
the population of the federation is, in round num- 
bers, 514,000, or about 16.9 per cent., in ten 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



91 



years. This exceeds Knpland'.s niti' ui ;;n>\vui, 
but falls iiiucli hfliiinl that of liie rnite«i Statos. 
The present population is 4,.">50.i;5I, as against 
4,03<J,:>7(i in IS9I. 

" Ajiparently the Australians are spreatliu); 
out more, for all the cities except Syilnev show 
a less comparative increase than the country dis- 
tricts. Melbourne, for instance, since 1 s<M lias 
added only 3,(M)U to her inhabitants and now 
numbers 493,950. Sydney ten yeai-s ago had 
a j)opulation of about 3.S5.0(((i, but the citv has 
grown very rapidly and now is only a few thou- 
sand bt'hind Melbourne. Victoria has given 
way to New South Wales as the most populous 
colony, tht>ugh the former is still the most ilcnse- 
ly populated. Victoria has a present j)opula- 
tion of about 1, 1 9(5, 000, and New South Wales 
of l,3«i2,23'2. 

" New Zealand has added 14t;,00() white per- 
sons to her population, so that to-day tlii-re are 
773,000 white people within her borders. Her 
rate of growth for the preceding decade is thus 
23 per cent., which would tend to show that her 
radical social laws attract immigrants, notwith- 
standing the very high per cupiUi debt of the 
governtnent. Including the Maori, the popula- 
tion of New Zealand is SlG.OOO." 



CHINESE FINANCE. 

T(J the first May number of the Revue des 
Deux Mondes, M. Levy contributes an ar- 
ticle on Chinese finance, which is naturally of 
considerable interest at this moment. The finan- 
cial position of China is, as is well known, greatly 
complicated by the numerous loans which she 
has borrowed from various European countries. 
There is, to begin with, no (ixeil monetary sys- 
tem in China, for the tael, which is the common 
unit, has no fixed value, but varies in different 
places. Silver money is only found on the fringe 
of China, in the parts jnlluenced by tlu- com- 
merco of the ports ; and when the traveler j>ene- 
trates into the interior he finds the currency be- 
coming more and more one of copjwr, and even 
zinc. At the same time it is a curious fact that 
all kinds of currencies have been trietl in China. 
Thus, one emperor coined large j)iece8 of gold 
three centuries before Christ, an<l another em 
peror, 24 B.C., issued bank-notes engrossetl 
upon deerskin. 

THK BANKI.no SYHTKM. 

M. Levy goes on to descrilH) the banking sys- 
tem of China, which ha.H, he says, attained a 
n-markabl.' development. The bunk enjoy,* an 
absolute lil)erty in each province. Then- is one 
to which is intrusted the treasure of the local 



K ' and wliich colle<>u all the taxes, on 

^^ K' 18 » coinmisgioM i>f 2 p«*r ceti' V r 

the n^t ih,. banks conduct itrdinary g 

I thf>y negotiate bills uf exchange, and 

" -urity, " uH »leal in 

1"' .;iy of t. ;y in curn*- 

spomience with Kunjpeau biuiks. anions which 
thi'v have a high n-i i for I. and 

ability. Hy the sitle i. ■>- 

are a largo number of I. a 

what Would be considertnl m uiodt countries ex- 
tortionate ill' much 

cent. i«-r nic ;. _ ,rs are .i 

sometimes as much as thre<^ years in which to 
pay back. M. Levy says that certain Kuro|N-an 
bank.s, .such as the Chartennl Hank of ' ' 
Australia, and China, the Deutsch- A.- 
Hank, the Hongkong and Shanghai lianking 
Corporation, the HussoC'hinese Hank, and some 
othei-s have thems4.'lves gone into tlie business of 
money-lending with very profitable results. 

THE BIDOKT. 

We pass on to consider the budget of China. 
In the modern sense of the word China has no 
budget, and the accounts which are • 
published certainly do not represent the ti ,.. ...... 

of affairs. Tliere must therefore always l»e a cer- 
tain element of doubt in discussing the financial 
position of China, and • only do so un«ler 

the distinct understaii'i , at the figures men- 
tioned are not necessarily accurate. Without 
following M. Levy through the elalK>r. 
which he adduces, it will {x>rhaps \h.} .- .i.i. .. m to 
say that he is ileeply convinced of the enormous 
wealth of China, not only in tea and silk and cot- 
ton, but also in various minerals. It is by ni' 
of railways, he says, that this wealth can 
opened tip. With regard to the indemnity to bo 
]>aid by China to the jwwers, M. Levy makes the 
illuminating remark tl : ■ *' ■ ■> ■ ■ ; *. in 
order to rect)Up them.sel ■ stor- 

ing order in I'eking. furnish tiieir debtor with 
the means of augmenting her revenues. 



DID THE BUDDHISTS DISCOVER AMERICA? 

IN tiie Juiv ILirprr's there ih an -lug 

article by I)r. John Kryer, p) of 

Oriental languages and literature at the Uuiversily 
of California, on "The HuddhiHt I' v of 

America." Dr. Fryer g-- ■-''•••> '•' "!> 

to .America from Asia i 

Aleutian islands to Alaska of a Hudcihiitl priMit 
some I 

on thi .--... i. 

in the theory, as ■ l»e<'U n»ft«le 

from Kanx-hatka, wincli wan cuiiy kuuwn to lb« 



92 



Tin- ASHiKn:.'iN momhly REyiEiv of rei/ie^vs. 



t'hint>Me. in an o|umi iMial or canoo, by following 

i!» rurrenUs. In faft, it would In- 

. i.> Ije uiit of siglil of luiid luoi'u lliaii 

•'From Alaska down tl»e Aiiu>rican coast tlm 
' ' Ik' still rasiiT. Such a trip, com- 
!ue of llu" wi'll-autlieiiticateil waii- 
.. rings of Hudtlhist priests, especially of tlioso 
wlio traveltMl overlatul between China aiul hulia, 
:-j .1 mere trifle. Each part of the journey Iroui 
Amu to America would be as well known to the 
natives of the various chains of islands in the 
lifth century as it is now. Hence the zealous 
missionary, »leterniined to fulfill tlie commands of 
Huddlia and carry his gospel to all lands, would 
merely have to press on from one island to an- 
other.' The natives of each island would tell him 
of the large continent farther east ; and thus he 
would ultimately find himself in America. 

ALLUSIONS IX CUINESE HISTOHY. 

"The direct evidence of this early Buddhist 
mission, though chiefly based on Chinese his- 
torical documents, covers also the traditions, his- 
tories, religious beliefs, and antiquities to be 
found in America, extending all the way down 
the Pacific coast from Alaska to Mexico, as well 
as to many localities lying at a considerable dis- 
tance inland. 

" From early times the Chinese classics, as well 
as the historical, geographical, and poetical works, 
allude to a country or continent at a gi'eat dis- 
tance to the east of China, under the name of 
f'usang or Fusu. Its approximate distance is 
given as 20,000 li, or above 6,500 miles. 
Its ])readth is stated to be 10,000 /*', or about 
3,250 miles. A wide sea is said to lie beyond 
it, which would seem like a reference to the x\t- 
lantic Ocean. It grew a wonderful tree, called 
the /MAany, from which the name of the continent 
is derived." 

Dr. Fryer thinks that the Mexican ayave may 
be this tree which gave its name to the new 
land. 

A priest's account of his travels. 

There is one, and one only, account of a visit 
to the land of Fusang in Chinese history. It is 
written by Hui Shen, a native of Kabul, which 
was a great center of Buddhist missionary effort 
in early times. The record states that this Bud- 
dhist priest went to the country of Fusang and in 
502 A. D. was received by the Emperor of China, 
to whom he presented various curious presents, 
which Dr. Fryer identifies as articles in use in 
Mexico of that date. Hui Shen gave an account 
of his mission work among the people of Fusang, 
stating that the Buddhist religion was introduced. 



ihcic in l.")S A.I)., :iM(l described his journey 
ihrouirh the .MfUlian lsian<ls and Alaska; and 
his account of liie natural resource's and tluiinan- 
luM's and customs of ilic pcoph; fit perfectly with 
the theory thai he taught in Mexico. 

SURVIVALS IN RELIGION AND IN AUT. 

Now Dr. Fi-yer turns to Mexico, and finds 
there a tradition of a visit of an extraordinary 
personage, having a wiiite coni])l{'xion and clothed 
in a long robe and mantle, wlio taught the peo- 
ple to abstain from evil antl to live righteously, 
soberly, and peacefully. 

More than this. Dr. Fryer cites most remark- 
able instances of the a])parent survival of Buddhist 
influence in the religious customs, the architec- 
ture, the calendar, and tlie arts of the nations of 
Mexico, Yucatan, and Central America. He 
finds that independent observers who knew noth- 
ing of this story of Hui Shen had become con- 
vinced that there must have been some kind of 
communication between America and Asia since 
the beginning of the Christian era. Even the 
names of Mexico and Central Ameiican countries 
bear strongly on the theory. The Asiatic name 
foi' Buddha is "Gautama," or " Sakhya. " 

" Hence we may expect to find these names 
constantly recurring in America. In the places 
Guatemala, Huatamo, etc., in the high priest 
Guatemotzin, etc., we find echoes of the first of 
these names. In Oaxaca, Zacatecas, Sacatepec, 
Zacatlan, Sacapulas, etc., we find more than 
a hint of the second. In fact, the high priest 
of Mixteca had the title 'Taysacca,' or the man 
of Sacca. On an image representing Buddha 
at Palenque there is the name 'Chaac-mol, ' 
whicli might have been derived from Sakhj^a- 
muni, the full rendering of one of Buddha's 
names. The Buddhist priests in Tibet and North 
China are called ' lamas,' and the Mexican priest 
is known as the ' tlama.' " 

A MODERN BUDDHIST MISSION TO MEXICO. 

Finally, there are hundreds of notable visible 
traces of Buddhism in the antiquities of Mexico. 
Images and sculptured tablets, ornaments, tem- 
ples, pyramids, etc., abound that cannot well be 
ascribed to any other source. Dr. Fryer gives 
specific descriptions of a number of these. He 
calls attention to the striking fact that the 
Japanese Buddhist mission is now working on the 
Pacific coast in exactly the same way that Hui 
Shen and his brother priests labored in Mexico 
fourteen centuries ago ; and one of the priests of 
the Japanese mission is just about to go as a mis- 
sionary among the Mexican Indian tribes, to 
preach on the very scene of the first Buddhist 
mission to America. 



I 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



M 



PRESIDENT CASSATT OF THE PENNSYLVANIA 
RAILROAD. 

MR. FHANriS NELSON HAKKSDALK 
contributes t<. the July WnrliVs Work an 
excellent sketch of Mr. Ale.xander Johnston ('as- 
satl, the president of the great Pennsylvania svs 
tem, than which there is no better- managed or 
more important railway property in the world. 
A striking evidence of the magniticent operations 
of this great railway system is given in the an- 
nouncement made since Mr. Barksdale's article 
was written that the railroad had purchased the 
Pennsylvania Steel Company, and would hence 
be in a position to make its own steel rails, the 
Pennsylvania Hailroad being the largest single 
purchaser of steel rails in the world. Mr. Harks- 
dale tells us that Mr. Cassatt came from the 
Huguenot Scotch stock wliich has given Amer- 
ica so many of her sturdiest and most effec- 
tive citizens. It was Mr. Cassatt who was re- 
sponsible for that famous coup by which the 
Pennsylvania system acquired the all-important 
Philadelphia. Wilmington & Baltimore Coiiipanv, 
after Mr. Robert Garrett, of the Baltimore & 
Ohio, had thought he wa.s in control, and after 
he had actually notified Mr. RoV)erts, of the Phil- 
ailelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore Hailroad Com- 
pany, that Such was the case. Mr. Cassatt was 
trained in the higher brandies of railway learn- 
ing, having studied engineering in the (Jermaii 
universities, as well as at the Rensselaer Polv- 
technic Institute at Troy. He entered the ser- 
vice of the Pennsylvania Railroad forty years 
ago, and was promptly picked out by the unerr- 
ing eye of Col. Thomas A. Scott as a young 
man of promise. 

A PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD MAN SINCE ISGl. 

"In the spring of 1861, Cassatt shouldered 
the rod of the undersurveyor and comnirncrd 
the real work of his life. Between this date 
and 1870, when the office of general manager 
was created for him, he had constructed rail- 
roads, administered the management of the 
company's .«:hops, and directed the construction 
of locomotives and cars, place<] in working 
order new branch and connrcting liiu-s. and 
had supervi.sed the operation of the entire 
.system as general superintendent, compa-ssing 
with ease the manifold and complex duties that 
appertain to so respon8ii)Ie a position. This 
was the creative period of the railroad s history. 
In order to build up a great highway of trallir 
between Kast and West, new lines w»'re ac- 

(juired, anri in molding tln^e wi«lely hi-; '''I 

and ill iiialefl factors into one homoj. 
system the best talmt and the stroiigeHi ad- 
ministrative ability were reipiired. Not only 



■ " m- 

...on. 

Ho bent his energies to acciuir: •' ter 

minal ! iit centers. ' ucted 

^•"' ro;; , . .dur.M li..^ irark 

tank, and the ,„. He wa.n lh« 

first prominent railroad official to recognize the 
^^^ ^ , and it« in- 

t'"^" . . :jini led to it« 

universal adoption by the raiIroa«i8 of the world. 
To Lis efforts also is largely due the present 

well-«<stablished p'- ■ of niaiir ice 

of thrcjugh cars i the of 

l>opulatiou, although located on different lines of 
railroatl. 

HIS SLCCES8IOS TO THE t'KEftlDEXCY. 

"On June \), 1.S99, Mr. Cassatt was elected 
by the l)oard of directors president of •' "' a- 

sylvania Railroad to succeed Frank i a, 

deceased. He was not a candidate for the place, 
and yielded his acceptance from a sense of duty 
to the corporation. He assume*! the lea<lership 
at once, and in an incredibly short jX'rio<I of 
time the railroad history of the country felt the 
impress of his powerful individualitv. 

" Within si.x months the traditions of years 
were swept aside and a new policy was adopted. 
The soft-coal territory was tloniinated by the 
Pennsylvania by the right of geographicar loca- 
tion, and the preservation of the integrity of this 
right was the aim of the new prt»8ident. The 
community-of- interest plan was iK.rn, and under 
it the presitlent acted. He purcluused thoiisamls 
of shares of the Chesap«'ake & Ohio, the Nor- 
folk I't Western, and the Baltimore & Ohio rail- 
roads, and thus established a rommunitv of in- 
terest in the soft-coal roads which at once .s«>rvtHl 
as a safeguard to the holdings of their stock- 
holders and a I -n to i" 'c. 

" Vor the pi.;, if e.xtJMi^ :..e tide-water 

facilities of the road, a controlling interest in the 
Long Island Railroad, with its valuable (lockage 

franchises, was 8< ' -I the {>o8.si>.<iHion of 

ample sliippinj; far; m?' tmivided ntrainst 

all time. 

" In order to iiind li ■ oftlietJi. ..« 

to the rail traflic of th. ...ir, the Kn« .» ., .^l- 

em Trans|M)rtation Company, with its valuable 
terininal.H at Buffalo, was taken over, and to fill 
in f! ' • •»„. p,.,j. ' • „p 

and ; , I lie \\ n i . ^v 

Pennsylvania Railroad was al>soriM*d and the Al- 
legheny Valley Railroad ronitolidal^Mi with it for 
the purjXfseH of -■'-•• —i'-'. 

"And when .did pn>|M>rti<>s ha<i )N*(«n 

gathered in, the l/egmialiire was ankini t4i autliof' 
i/.«« an increiute of the cspilAl Nlock of the Penn- 



M 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RTAIEW OF REyiEWS. 



gvlvania KAilroad. 






It was done. 'I'lio stockliold- 
Ircii millions of dollai's to I ho 
,n llu> iiu'aiiliiiU" tlii' stork of 

tlu« coinjMiny reached the liighest niarkpt price in 

its history." 

A MAX WI.SK KXOrOH TO REST. 

At the very height of his power and eflfoctivo- 
ness in th<« work of the ronnsylvania Railroad, 
in ISSJ. at tilt' age of forty two years, Mr. Cas- 
galt voluntarily resigned for the purpose oi de- 
voting some years of his lilo to the pursuit of 
leisure, and for seventeen years he was not odi- 
cially at work, though his great constructive in- 
stinct led him even in this play-time to further 
manv important matters, notably the construc- 
tion of the New York, riiiladelpliia & Norfolk 
Railroad. It is thi^ line which we chiefly have 
to thank for the fruits and vegetables of the 
South. Norfolk is the forwarding point for 
these commodities, and the quick railway ser- 
vice of this new line was necessary to bring the 
j)erishahle fruits and vegetal)les to the citizens 
of Philadelphia, New York, and Boston. Mr. 
Cassatt had the bold idea of building such pow- 
erful and fast transfer tugs as would transport 
loaded trains thirty-six miles across Chesapeake 
Bay, and these powerful vessels were constructed 
from his designs with complete success. It is 
interesting to note that this is the same kind of 
vessel that the Trans- Siberian Railway is using 
on Lake Baikal. 



GENERAL BOOTH, OF THE SALVATION ARMY. 

M\{. W. T. STE.\D supplies the Young Man 
with a character sketch of General Booth. 
lie remarks at the outset that "the Salvation 
Army was very fortunate in its beginnings. The 
Devil has always been its best friend. As an ad- 
vertising agent he has left nothing to be desired ; 
Vjut of late years he seems to have been some- 
what neglecting his duty." Tliis is the sum- 
mary impression given of the man : 

"General Booth is a picturesque personality, 
full of kindly humor, wide tolerance, and almost 
savage earnestness. Lord Wolseley told me he 
always reminded him in appearance of General 
Napier, whose statue in Trafalgar Square does 
bear a certain resemblance to General Booth, 
especially in its nose. 

"Apart from his distinctively religious work, 
General Booth is chiefly interesting to me as al- 
most the only Englishman of our time who has 
made any distinct impression upon any consider- 
able number of foreigners. 

"As the facilities for travel have multiplied 
and increased, the insularity of our people seems 



to have developeil in the same ratio. Mrs. Jo- 
sephine Butler and General Booth stand alone as 
the one woman and one man who address public 
meetings abroad and are in active living contact 
witli at least some departments of tlu; national 
life of ff)r(>iuners. 




GEN. WILLIAM BOOTH. 

"If all mankind are brothers, as we are sup- 
posed to believe. General Booth deserves credit 
for being pi-obably one who knows more mem- 
bers of the family to speak to than any other 
living man." 

" MORE OF A RUSSIAN THAN AN ENGLISHMAN." 

"He is absolutely free from 'side' . . . that 
hauteur wliich does so much to make us detested 
by our continental neighbors. . . . General Booth 
is hail-fellow-well-met wherever lie goes. To 
him all human beings are children of one Father, 
and he is singularly free from the prejudices of 
race or of color. 

" In this respect, and also in some others, 
General Booth is much more of a Russian than 
an Englishman. When the Russian painter, 
A'^erestchagin, was in London, he attended one 
of the services of the army, and was immensely 
delighted with the free-and-easy spirit and fra- 
ternal jollity which prevailed at the meeting. ' It 
is just the kind of thing that would spread like 
wildfire in Russia,' he said. ' It is so fraternal, 
and hearty, and simple, with any amount of en- 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



thusiasm.' "Whether from that reason or not I 
<io not know, but the army has never been al- 
lowed to enter Kussia, and 1 well rt'iufmber the 
kind of holy horror tliat was excited in ct-rtain 
orthodox quarters in St. retersburg by an en- 
tirely baseless report that my first visit to Russia 
was undertaken witli a view to securing an open 
door for the Salvationists in the Russian empire. 
(Jeneral Booth has visited Finland, where the 
Salvation Army is strong. He is extremely 
popular in Stockholm, ami in the northern coun- 
tries generally. In the Latin countries, the Sal- 
vation Army has not taken much root." 

THE GENERAL AXD THE AMALGAMATOR. 

The general is declared to be best known at 
home and abroad for his "Darkest England" 
scheme. His relations with the South African 
C'olo.ssus are thus described : 

"He met Cecil Rhodes both in Africa and 
London, and liked him well. Cecil Rhodes was 
very much taken with the general. He visited 
the Labor Colony at Hadleigh, and spent a ilay 
with the heads of the army. The visit of in- 
spection ended with tlie inevitable pniyer-meet- 
ing, in which the general prayed earnestly, as is 
his wont, for the salvation of his distinguished 
visitor. Cecil Rhodes' demeanor was noted at 
the time as being singularly reverent and sym- 
pathetic, m marked contradistinction to that of 
others of the party. He told me afterward : 
•The general's all right. T quite agree with 
liim, only with the difference of one word. 
Where he says salvation, I say empire. Other- 
wise we are quite in accord.' Possibly, General 
Bootli might be of a different opinion." 

Mr. Stead regrets tliat General iiooth hius not 
used the Salvation Army to support the Pro- 
gressive cause in the London County Council 
elections. 

HIS DISTINCTIVE IDEAS. 

"A leadim; member of the Salvation Army" 
sends Mr. Stead the following list of distinctive 
i<leas in the geiieral'.s teacliings : 

"The old-fashioned faith at a time when al- 
most all rev(;lation is criticised away. 

" Tlie idea of concentration upon salvation 
versus materialism and philo.sf)phies. 

" The union of all U)r the good of tiio worst. 

" Lay ministry ; the raising of th»! poorest to 
the iiighest hovels of ministry, authority, and 
efficiency. 

" Woman's public ministry. 

" Pra<;ti(al vKrsu.s university education. 

" The higher militarism voaua the ajKitheoeia 
of fogj'ism. 

" The gospel of work. 



"Quality of t! ' -■ • ,..• achi.-ved. 
" Union of tli. 

X 

" Fellowship and brotherhood between various 
natioualitieg." 



HOW PICTURES ARE PAINTED. 

MANY jH-ople s'!' • 'it the j- ■• ■ - ,- 
iia.sht'd off b. at the 

inspiration. To assure ourselvos of the sbsurUuy 
of ■' '. a, we reijuire ■ ' ' " ,•»<•- 

qii' •• with the ch . ! 

habits <»f painters. A -at ih« pi 

commonly employed in picluri'-; unI 

in an article contributed to liruu fur 

June by Mr. Edgar Cameron. _ to 

this writer, the painter l)estow8 as much care and 
tliought on his ]■ 

story, and the j; . . : ..... 

similar. 

Injusmucli as tlie picture cannot well rt'present 
more than one idea, • • ' ice, or • - • - • 
time, the artist is co i to coii 

he has to say into one single effect ; and ho is 
confronted witli the ta.sk of !-• ■ _: his materials 

from the mass of suggest ioi ; come to him. 

Some artists, it is true, are able to see their pic- 
tures finished Ijefore they begin to paint ; but 
they are exceptions. 



ARTISTS 



STUDIES. 



Most artists make preliminary "studii's" for 
all iini»ortant pictures requiring arrangement or 
composition. 

•• When an artist has received his 'inspiration,' 
or found a motive and given the su' iTiciont 

thought to have decided sonietliiii^ ... ..'W it is 
to be treated, he generally makes a com|M>sitiou 
sketch, j)08sibly several of them, Ijefon) the ar- 
rangement of tlie picture is dei-i' ' 11. Thes«» 
are almost always ma<ie -out of ; il," without 

models, with only the memory of effects previ- 
ously obs<'rved in natun? to guide him. 

"From this point in the production of the pic- 
ture there are various ways by which the artist 
may arrive at the completion of his work. H«* 
ma' ' :e hix n ' ' . ' 'on to the 

ace. ; .lily asp ...:i com|M»si. 

tion and paint directly from them, or he may 
'square up' or in H4)me other manner transfer tho 

lines of his CO- ■ • ' ' • ••:••■: 1 • - — > 

by painting j 

nature or from studies. 

" Making i' • 

it is once CO) . . 

go<xl resiilta as a rapid ex< i«tl by 

inaturu preparation. It Is tor this rraiMtn thai 
most artbu who [>aiiit liguru suhjocta inako cara. 



96 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RE^IEIV Oh RE^^/EIVS. 



ful «irnwinp8 of tho various figures of thi'ir coin- 
j>.»sitions, Hud m.M imMilarv stinlicsof lioads, 

hamls, or other ; ^ in which the fxprossioii 

of a pose or movement may play an important 
part in tho pictur«>. Studios of drapery, of ar- 
ce<- •■• ■ '>f architecture, or landscape which may 
CO! the setting for the figures, are other 

important elements in the preparation of a pic- 
ture. When animals are introduced into a pic- 
ture, manv studies of them are necessary because 
of the great difficulty in securing a suitable pose or 
action, owing to their almost constant movement. 
" Facial e.xpn^sion also requires much study. 
There are models who have sufficient of an actor's 
ability to enter into the spirit of an artist's con- 
ception and give him a pose or an expression 
which may be literally copied, but they are rare ; 
and in order to secure exactly what he desires in 
this respect the artist often becomes his ow^n 
model, with the aid of a mirror." 

THE rSE OF MODELS. 

" In a subject in which there are numerous 
figures, animals, or objects of similar size, the 
element of correct perspective is of great impor- 
tance, and the grouping together of maquettes, 
or small models in wa.\ or clay, makes it possible 
to avoid those errors which creep into the work 
of some of the greatest artists. Sir Frederick 
Leighton frequently made use of tho plan, and 
it is said that Detaille, in composing liis battle 
scenes, arranges whole companies of pewter sol- 
diere on a table on which the inequalities of the 
surface of the ground have been represented in 
various wavs. 

*' Maquettes and manikins are of great service 
in composing decorative subjects when it is de- 
sired to show figures in unusual positions requir- 
ing violent foresliortening, as in flying, or in a 
perspective system such as is sometimes used in 
ceiling decoration, with a vanishing paint in the 
air. 

"For the study of drapery they are also in- 
valuable. An effect of flying movement may be 
given to drapery by laying it upon the floor and 
drawing it from above, or by arranging it in sus- 
pension with strings ; but a more effective model 
may be made of paper whicli is sufficiently stiff 
to retain its folds long enough, without support, 
to permit it to be drawn. Its folds are sharper 
than those of cloth, but it has the advantage of 
more natural effects, and it is possible to find in 
tissue-paper colors approaching almost any shade 
desired in a painting, or to tint or decorate it as 
one may wish wilh water-color. 

"Portrait-painters frequently use large lay 
figures, upon which they place the costumes of 
their sitters, rarely for the purpose of making 



studies, but to serve as a substitute for the sitter 
in painting directly on iho. portrait. Other art- 
ists make u.se of tlie lay figure to make studies of 
elaborate costumes or uniforms." 

HOW "studies" AKE ITTIIvIZKD. 

"The ways of using studies when they are 
made are as various as the ways of making them. 
If a study is in the form of a drawing it may be 
copied directly in the picture, or it may be trans- 
ferred either in its actual size by tracing or 
pouncing, or on a larger scale by ' squaring up. ' 




STUDY "squared" FOR ENLARGEMENT. 

(By Eugene Carman.) 

In squaring up, lines are drawn over the drawing 
to form squares, and corresponding squares of a 
different, proportion are drawn on the canvas 
where the picture is to be made. All of these 
processes admit of a certain amount of refine- 
ment, correction, or simplification of the original 
study, and anything which gives an artist an op- 
portunity to prolong his preparations and shorten 
the time of the actual painting of a picture is of 
great benefit, as the result will be more sponta- 
neous, fresher, and more vigorous than if it is 
puttered over and shows traces of experiment. 



LEADING ARTICI.FS OF THE MONTH. 



Vt 



"Tho artist's studies arc fl»»» aniinwiiiUoii witli 
which he htails up for a liiial otTcctive ('•)ii/>, which 
makes a hit or a miss, as liis aim has Ikjcii tnie 
or not." 

THE TYPHOID BACILLUS AND THE BLOOD. 

A Most interesting paper describing a series 
of observations niatle directly upon living 
typhoid bacilli in th? blood, by means of the 
microscope, is contributed by Dr. E. Matirel to 
the last numlxjr of the Archives de Meiltciuc rx- 
penmenfale. 

Many diseases, such as scarlet fever, typhoid 
fever, tuberculosis, etc., are known to result 
from the invasion of our bodies by certain kinds 
of bacilli, tlve course of the disease depending 
upon the resisting powers of the ti.ssiu's of tho 
body, especially of the l>lood, whose white cor- 
puscles or leucocytes are free-moving and serve 
in the capacity of a police force, seeking out the 
inva<lers and disposing of them, as far as possi- 
ble, by eating them and converting them into 
their own substance. 

In the e.xperiments devised by Dr. Maurel, the 
reaction of the different constituents of our blood 
to bacilli could be watched with the microscope. 
(Jne-half of a sterilized glass plate was dotted 
over with small drops of a mi.xture of typhoid 
bacilli and recently boiled, distilled water, then 
dried at 38° C. , a temperature which produces 
no change in the microbe. An aseptic puncture 
was ma«le in the finger to obtain blooil, some of 
which was placed on the si<le of the sterilized 
plate carrying bacilli, an<l some on the other side 
where there were none. The whole plate was 
then covered with a tiiin slip of sterilizcnl glass, 
under which the blood on each half of the plate 
spread out in a thin layer without the two jKjr- 
tions coming in contact. This arrangement 
made it possible to watch tlie action of the ba- 
cilli, and to compare the condition of the blood 
in contact witli them with the condition of the 
blood on the other half of the j)lat(! where there 
were no Ijacilli. 

The glass plate, microscope, and other ma- 
terials used were all U('\>t. at .'JT" ('.. so tliat there 
were no sudden changes of tem|x>raturo and the 
organisms were, as far as possible, under the 
same conditions as in the body. 

EKFKCT ON THK WIIITK COKI'l'Kf'LES. 

At first, the leucocytes in both portions of 
blood moved about slowly, many of thoso in tho 
typhoid culture absorbing bacilli as they moved 
without appearing to be inconvenienced ; bui 
tho encounter seeme<l to be fortuitous, and not 
to result from the pursuit of bacilli by tho leuco- 



cytes, altliough they had perfect rreetlom of 

motion. 

Seven minutes later, Bome of tho leucocyten in 
tho typhoid culture were lem energetic in their 

">" ; ■ },^|f gjj hour a few wero 

em.. ,-...,u h" I....- .-.I 1... .....'.... K. 

and showed a tendency to 

form assumed by leucocytes when exhausletl or 

about to die. 

Raising the temperature from 37** to 38* or 
40° stimulated the leucocytea and caused them to 
resume their movements, but thev l>ecanie mo- 
tionless in a very short time. Within two hours 
all tho leucocytes among the typhoid ba«-illi were 
motionless, spherical, and in many inRtanc«>s pre- 
sented the granular apjK^arance that precedes dis- 
integration. 

The red corpuscles were not affected, but there 
was a de|>osii of fil)rin in the blooil. 

The leuccK'ytes of the blo<»d placed on the 
other side of the plate at the same time, and kept 
under the same conditions, were as active aj« ever 
at the end of four and one- half hours, and no 
filaments of fibrin had formed. 

Similar observations were ma<le on a numl)er of 
preparations, and from them the writer concludes 
that our leucocytes alworb the typhoid bacillus, 
l)Ut succumb to their ab.sorption in less than half 
an hour, showing that this bacillus is one of the 
most virulent for them. The soluble - 

formed by the typhoid Ivacillus seem tii 

marked action upon the leucocytes except the ab- 
sorption of the l)acillus nso\{ ; for, in some in- 
stances, leucocytes that had not alworU'd bacilli 
were se«>n coirtinuing their motions after the 
others had become unable to move. 



PROBLEMS OF MODERN ASTRONOMY. 

** T^IIK Problems of the Astronomy of the So- 
A lar System " is the subject of the r*»n- 
eluding article of Dr. Hruhns' series of discus- 
sions on the problems of modern astronomy, 
in the Drntsrhr lievue for June. Less sweeping 
results have been reached here during the nine- 
teenth century, says Dr. Hruhns, than in the 
field of stellar astronomy. The sun itself, of 
course, comes first into . 'i .Xfter the ex- 

citement over the di.HCo'. . the -iiiii^iKits, in 
Ifiin. on the invention of tho new ' -•. ha<l 

sulwided, the sun was comparatively '>^\ 

for twi ' ■ — ■ .\ffer the seconil (»f 

the niip itury. again, the sun - ''m 

increa-ningly studie<l. esperially after the sun waa 
.•rved t' ■ ' ' Ml- 

,. ..1 c<»n»ii: .< ... . ■'■■ ■- ''>o 

protulH>rftiice?«, were made iho - \j. 

And in the seventh dwatle various the^rim on 



08 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REk'lEU' Oh' RE^IEIVS. 



th«» sun, it« composition, 8j>ot8, corona, etc., were 
•tlvanced. "Hut." continues Dr. Hrulms, "in 
spite of the many active emleavurs, no results 
have as yet Ihhmi reached beyond the most ele- 
mentary knowlevlge, and the problem of the sun 
is • ' -tirely unsolved. Some American ob- 
sei ^, however, and tlie astro physical ob- 

servatory at Potsdam, Germany, give especial 
and regular attention to that problem, collecting, 
chiefly tlirough many spectroscopical observa- 
tions, the material necessary for the formulation 
of any further theories." 

THE PLAKETS AND THEIR MOON'S. 

Our knowledge of the planets and their moons 
is hardly less elementary. Since earliest times, 
the planets were made the objects of superstitious 
regard, giving rise to the pseudo-science of as- 
trology. And liere again the new telescope, to- 
gether with the computations of the astronomers, 
has dealt the death- ijlow to those ancient astro- 
logical su{>erstitions, and has opened up new fields 
of vision to science. Satellites were discovered, as 
those of Jupiter ; also the rings and the moons of 
Saturn ; new planets, even, and finall}' the group 
of asteroids, numbeiing 447 by the end of the 
year 18f»8. The observatories of Nizza, under 
Charlois, and of Heidelberg, under Wolf, give es- 
pecial attention to the discovery of new planet- 
oids : but nothing is known of the nature of these 
bodies, whicli are proiiably the fragments of a 
larger planet. ''The public," says Dr. Bruhns, 
"is chiefly interested in the planets on account 
of the speculations concerning their physical as- 
pect. Spots were discovered as early as the sev- 
enteenth century. The magnificent modern in- 
struments have made possi])le a more exact 
knowledge, and many interesting details have 
been discovered, which are of coui'se of the 
liighest importance. But the same does not ap- 
ply to the theories which immediately sprang \\\\ 
in incrediVjle abundance, being, unfortunately, 
often adopted even by scholars of weight. Any 
speculations concerning the habitability of the 
planets are at present a mere vague chimera 
which cannot be founded on any facts." 

WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT MARS. 

Mars, even, which of all the planets excites the 
greatest interest among us, and iias lately been 
made the subject of several Utopian romances, is 
not excepted from these strictures. Tinlike his 
celebrated Fi-ench confrere, and our popidar ro- 
mancers. Dr. Bruhns does not indulge in specu- 
lation, but gives only the facts, as follows : 
"Mars has decided white spots at the poles, 
which varv according to the season. As Vosrel 
has proved by the spectroscope liiat Mars con- 



tains hydrogenous vapors, it seems likely that 
these wliite spots are snow-fields, and that Mars 
is stirrounded l)y an atmosphere. The planet 
also shows light and dark spots, which are des- 
ignated as land and sea or lake, respectively, and 
dark streaks and lines, which are called canals. 
These words are merely used as designations, 
witliout implying that there really has been proved 
to be land and water. These spots have been so 
definitely fixed that Schiaparelli was able to con- 
struct an exact chart of Mars. Since 1881, some 
canals have often been seen double, the phenom- 
enon of their doubling, even, having been ob- 
served. Herz says that these so-called canals of 
Mars are probably not canals at all, but single 
mountain-chains which appear double owing to a 
phenomenon of refraction. . . . Since it has 
been proved by the spectroscope that Mars con- 
tains water, it is possible that the so-called land 
and sea really are land and water." 

THE MOON. 

"We know more about the moon than about any 
oilier heavenly body ; yet even this faithful com- 
l)anion of the earth, says Dr. Bruhns, "still 
offers many a riddle to the astronomer, not only 
as regards its orbit, and its infliience on the 
waters and the atmosjihere of the earth, but also 
as regards its own surface. It is well known 
that the moon presents to the earth always the 
same side ; so that, apart from portions of the 
rim which become visible in consequence of the 
libration, that one side only can be studied. And 
in view of our present state of knowledge it is 
idle to speculate on the appearance of the other 
side." The charting of the moon has opened 
up numberless new problems. Detailed special 
charts are being constructed in the different ob- 
servatories, eitlier by means of photograpliy or 
by surveying with the heliometer, the former 
being employed especially by the Observatory of 
Paris and the Lick Observatory. Here again 
Dr. Bruhns concludes his summary by saying : 
" Xaturaliy, a good deal of speculation enters 
even now into the observations on the moon : 
but the importance of tliat work becomes appar. 
ent when we consider that we are merely begin, 
ning to know something of the surface of the 
moon, and the more details are discovered, the 
more the problem is complicated." 

COMETS AND METEORS. 

"Although the astronomers have succeeded 
within the last century in proving the connection 
between the comets and meteors, the problem of 
the comets is still unsolved ; which is not sur- 
prising, since there are very few opportunities 
for exact observation. Any comets that appear 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



M 



are therefore attentively studie.l hv all th»> o)>- 
servatories, and many of those institutions fre- 
quently observe the meteors and shooting stars, 
it must he admitte.i. Ik - that uktc mi^'ht 

lie done in this tit-M, .- ly by amateur lus- 

tronomers, since these ol^servations may be under- 
taken without costly instruments." 

OTHER PROBLEMS. 



is made up bv v»riou» 

- ■■■-- ■■ ' '■ -> :-„ 

mdinavta a leaf-tree, a 



ary. . . . T' 

kinds of irt'L ... 

continents. ... Tn >■ 

hind, and in n 
l'<'riii of the no- 
groat Woods. i 

east of Berinjr Straits mostly the Ural lark trw. 
»nd in • ■ " ' ■ 

varieties . ^ .... „, , 

existence of northern . ,t 

of warmth during the year is not of such vital 
imix)rtar. -> - - • ^ 



.\mong the other problems of the solar astron- 
omy. Dr. Hruhns mentions renewed computa- 
tions and corrections of tlio planetary orbits, ob- 
servations of eclipses and of favorable oppositions season a; 
of the outer planets, and, finally, the movement is aljove the freezing-point 
of the whole solar system, and the zodiacal li<rlit. "In the {>,-.lar regions llu- wi 

Bradley was the first to state dt-finilely, in 1748, Apri" 
that the sun was moving with all its planets. 
Since that time various attempts have been made 
to compute the movement of the whole solar sys- 
tem by the apparent movement of the fi.xed stare, 
but without reaching any definite results. Our 
knowledge of the zodiacal light also is still very 
imperfect. It is by no means certain that it pro- 
ceeds from the sun, as has been assumetl ; but as 
it has the character of reflected sunlight, it n»av 
be due to gases or other bodies lighted up bv the 
sun. But as the observations are still insufficient, 
the riddle of this light must be left to the future 
to solve. 

Dr. Bnihns sums up the work of modern 
astronomy as follows : *' After tiie sixteenth and 
the seventeenth centuries laid the theoretic as well 
as practical basis for a scientific astronomv, the 
eighteenth century saw the mathematico-theoretic 
development of the mechanical problems of the 
orbits : and the nineteenth century is distin- 
guished by the immense and magnificent collec- 
tion of material gatiiered through observation, 
especially in the field of the astronomy of the fixed 
.«tars. The eighteenth century may Ix) called the 
century of mathematical astronomy, and the nine- 
teenth, the century of observing astronomy." 



;t 



uter la.st.s far into 



riio ex- 
liiut life is 

T., ..:.r1,i 



THE FLORA OF THE ARCTIC REGIONS.- 

I''*) a late issue of Nordisk Tidskrift, a promi- 
nent student of the Arctic flora, Gunnar 
-Vnderson, contributes a lengttiy paper a.s to the 
fjM-ts and results at which In- has arrived after 
long and careful studies in the plant life of those 
rt'gu»ns. "Tlie desolate fields of the .Arctics,'* 
we (juote from his pajM-r, " show a flora wl ;.-li 
has sunk its 8tan<iard of life a.s low as po- 
und it is from this point of view that the .Arctic 

Mora is of ili« utmost importancn to the ' -t. 

Temperature is the most important oi .-r 

con<litions to vegetable life. . . . The northern 
limit of the forests is the southern .Arctic lM)und- 



in May the tern 
July is the warmest nv 
August the sun's radiation dcMrn 
plosion-like aw;.' - of tin- 
also a result of i ^adden 

days the snow melts ; green I- 

cover trees and ground, which a week l>eiore were 

covered by deep wii:' • ■ w. T! ' 

the swifter is this ci om win 

The rapid progress in the maturity of the Arctic 

V' ' ' i by the ]'■ 

SI- - - -. - :... : ■"•■^ms. T... .,... .,f 

blossoms and leavt^are . in the fall. When 

the warm season sets in, the buds have only t*> 

uncover and mature. ! * ' 

cess«rs take place, no ■ . _ : , . r 

the work of awakening and development b»»gins 
when the air tem|>erature is l" to 4" ('. , and in 
most parts of the .Arctics this temperature is 
reached not earlier than June. 

" Spitzbergen is, on account of its nature and 
location, an :■ " ' ' V 

-•V study of 

therefore, stand as an example of the wln)lo of 
the .Arctic region. He- it the 1 

soming takes pla<'e alni' ........ 

active work within the j i 

that before June 1.3 no flower has ))ccn fouml at 



*^" . . • 

ties in blossom has roacheil 24, while durintr.l 
<i2 more var: ivo develop«Ml into b! 

In •' "- ' . ..1 June "^ • ' '■ • 

of .1 of tile I' 

vanetuw. reaches the bloxwiming »<■ \ condi- 

tion hiifhly f.! 

of .Arctic flo: 

horixon duriiiif the irrratpr 

til 

«« ■. 

an< tiiua able toalMorb a gn^at quantity of warmth 

by the conntant an«l direct sun radiation." 



100 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF RE^IEiVS. 



HOW ARCTIC PLANTS AHK WAUMKD. 

Mrnlioning the fact that in) explorers have 
a- •• in the Arctics, with the exo-ption of 

{I, '"-fonland. made systematic and careful 

o; as to the quantity of warmth in this 

way brougijt to tiie plants, the writer gives tiie 
r»>s'ults of a '" '. investigations made by him- 

self iu Van 1\ Hay- '^ hillside, 50 meters 

above the sea. was covered l»y a rich vegetation 
of 22 sjHvi«»8, flourishing in a sandy ground and 
nourished by the melted snow higher up on the 
summit of the hill. At midday, July 7, when 
the sun had shone down from a cloudless sky for 
twentv h<MU-s. he Tiiade the following interesting 
observation concerning the temperature : 

1 meter above ground plus 4.7" C. 

3 to 5 mm. under the surface " 15.6° C. 

At the rot)ts of the plants " 9.3° C. 

At a depth of 25 to 30 cm. the ground was 
completely frozen. By comparison with several 
other similar observations he concludes that these 
measurements can be considered as showing the 
normal temperatures and their normal propor- 
tions in the Arctic air and ground. Continuing, 
he says : 

"The roots liave thus to perform their im- 
portant work of absorption in a temperature 
that is about twice as high as that of the air. 
Another exatnple of the great influence of the 
constant radiation is the fact thatwiiile the south- 
ern side of a turf is in full blossom, its northern 
side is hardly budding. Iceland, with its high 
July temperature of 8-10° C, has 435 floral spe- 
cies ; Greenland, with 6-9° C, 286, and the 
Lena district of northern Siberia has 250. At 
present, it is impossible to state exactly how rich 
the complete Arctic is, but it seems to be made up 
of a total of some 900 species. The number of va- 
rieties of mosses and fungi cannot be stated even 
approximately. Evident as is the influence of 
temperature on the Arctic flora, its direct ini- 
p)ortance to the form and structure of every sin- 
gle species is not yet understood. 

THE IXFLUEXCE OF WATER. 

' ' The supply of water has been of the greatest 
importance to the formation of the Arctic flora. 
The rain-supply of the northern polar region is 
comparatively small. About 200-250 mm. may 
be considered as an average for the greater part 
of this vast territory. Most northern Asia, Arc- 
tic America, and upper Greenland have only 
about 125 mm., or one-fourth part of the rain-sup- 
ply of Scandinavia. But the absolute quantity of 
rain is not of so great importance to tiie polar 
flora as is the quantity of physiologically accessi- 
ble water — that is, such water as the plants are 



able to receive for nourishment ; and this kind 
of water is not always contained in all rain, which 
may consist not only of snow and ice, but also of 
a water cooled to the neighborhood of zero ; or, 
as is the case in the vast swamps, of a water filled 
by humous acids from decayed plants ; or, again, 
of a water made too saliferous by mingling with 
sea- water. Many species living in the water 
have, on account of this, a structure reminding 
us of desert plants ; they are not able to assimi- 
late more than a very small part of the water in 
which they live. Biit in reality tliese polar coun- 
tries are veritable deserts, and the resources to 
fight the nature of a desert are the same in the 
Arctics as they are in the Sahara, inasmuch as 
the plants of both regions have organisms al- 
lowing the greatest possible economy with us- 
able water. . . . The influence of tliis limited 
water-supply is noticeable especially on the vege- 
tative organs. The root system is very shal- 
low, usually but 5 to 15 cm. deep; in greater 
depths there exists such a low teinperature that 
no humidity can be absorbed from it. The stem 
is covered by a more or less heavy bai'k, and 
grows above ground usually, with only a few 
thin branches and leaves. These leaves indicate 
the water- saving nature of the plants. They are 
usually grouped in rosettes, small and rounded, 
seldom parted, and often as hard and stiff as fir- 
leaves, leathery or thickly fleshy. Tlie cleav- 
ings, the dii-ect agents of transpiration, are often 
in the lee of existing dwellings, or on the back 
side of leaves strongly recurved, or capable of 
rolling together. 

OTHER FACTORS. 

" Another peculiarity of the polar florals its 
dwarfed size. Numerous species, existing even 
in southern lands, are in the polar regions repre- 
sented only by purely diminutive forms. Whether 
it is the low temperature or the scarcity of humid- 
ity that lias the most to do with this, is yet an 
undecided question. The constant day of the 
polar summer is, as has been shown, of the ut- 
most importance to the flora. Experiments by 
C'urtel and others tend to show that the work of 
assimilation continues through the whole sum- 
mer, although somewhat lessened at the time of 
midnight. ■ Of still greater importance would 
this continuous light be if the Arctic sky were 
not so cloudy. The wind is another meteorological 
factor of importance, especially for the detailed 
distribution and the shape of individual plants, 
as it, by its capacity of drying the air, robs the 
plants of the humidity which is their life. The 
last external factor to be considered is the con- 
dition of the ground. The nortliern polar regions 
are so vast that they contain nearly all kinds of 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



101 



earth. There are earths rich in lime and silicic 
acids, moraines, and extensive marine mud-bed:^ 
besides, most iinj)ortaia of all. great plains and 
hill lands, (ireeulaiid, .*^|)itzbergen, and parts 
of Asia aiid America have more or less impu.siii'; 
mountain-chains, with deep-cut valleys and ra- 
vines, where tilt* riclu'st of the Arctic flui:' 

But tremendous widlhs of all three cu:.. ^ 

are spanned by wide plains, monotonous, soml>er- 
looking deserts, with a flora of a very limileil 
number of species. 

•'When considering the peculiarities and the 
narrow scope in varieties of the Arctic flora, it 
must also l>e remembereil that all Arctic ground 
is frozen at a depth often not more than '10 cm., 
and very seldom exceeding 70 cm. This means 
to the plants the same as if they grew on a moun- 
tain covered by a bed of earth to that thickne.«;s. 
From this ground must all nutriment through 
centuries be found, and its deposits of moisture 
are the only ones that the plants have in times 
of great torridity." 



It n . I ••>( 1 1 <*u f I ( in 



Piiln.r.. 1,^ \j^ 



aimg the hiMnunic »bilitjr 



IS THERE A DRAMATIC PROFESSION? 

MR. FRANKLIN FYLES, the dramatic 
critic of the New York Sun, contributes 
to the July Everybody's Magazine some very in 
teresling talk about the profession of acting. Mr. 
Fyles answers his title question with an emphatic 
affirmative. He says that it has not been long 
since one could scarcely call acting a profession, 
but that now it fulfills the dictionary definition 
of an occupation that properly involves a liberal 
education and mental rather than manual labor. 
He admits that the tinsel and blare of the circus 
have but recently been relegated to the ba<.-k- 
ground sufficiently to dignify the actor's occupa- 
tion with the name of profession. The pii 
has been retarded by the vanity and boasifuii- .-- 
which stage success tends to bring, and by the 
laziness into which actors are tempted after the 
grind of rehearsal is over and their busine.ss at 
the theater may demand only an hour or so of 
work a day. 

As to the morals of stageland, Mr. Fyles is 
very positive in his o[)iiiion that t! "' iter has 
not produced the disreputable ch- ~ we as- 

sociate with it, — "the stage did not degratle 
them ; they degraded the stage." " Almost all the 
eminent personages of the American stage are of 
good re|)utation, and most are also of good char- 
acter. The m<^ral average of the dramatic 
profession is as high as that of the !• ' the 
medical. The steady gain in this reg;i • liad 

much to do with the advancement in the art of 
acting. The recruits during the past <leca«le 
have been preponderatingly young men and girU 



of i/ood rpn» 
.o coini 
Mr. 

of t' ■ !..i« li. . ■ -' III. 

i««ii ' ,1* M; i .d- 

ern lit«'rary exploits at comfianHl witn achieve- 

ts in letters of ; •*. \V' no 

...vin Uuoth now, h« .......,.- ..ud '• we 

may not have this century ; but i i.ot 

prove that our players a& a body are not abler 
than t' ' " '' • • • ,, ,n,i 

risen b_ ^ it act- 

ing is not in a good and ~ improving con- 

dition. He thinks that au nd far 

more than they used t<.>. •■• _. i ... i • •■ Not 
only this. Mr. Fyles is .• that the stage 

has made distinct advance in the kmd of plays it 
present.*, in spite of t' 

contrary. "If you . . . :. 
such an elevation as I am describing, do not 
trust your vague belief to the contrary, but ex- 
amine the ohi tiles of some i:-" T '; at 

the irrefutable record of the .. us. 

and you will find that the plays were generally 
of poorer quality than x\:- 

To show that in earniu^ .., . too. the actor 

is able to take his place beside men in the older pro- 
I' --ions. Mr. Fyles cites the : - of a number 

oi |>eople making their li- ■ ' ■ • ':»y. 

exclusive of those who, 1. ive 

become rich through the accumulation of their 
estates. He < er to the 

effect that the ... > ,. . the pres- 

ent day are earning net inconu'S well up to the 
incomes of the lea«lers in us. This 

e.xpert • ' \> n . , . ,„on. 

than ^~ • Mrs. 

Carter's at between $50,000 and $75,000 ; Mrs. 
Fisk's, in spite of her i the theatri- 

cal syndicate, at $35.1 . . ^-.. . if. He thinks 
a year's average net income of the twelve Ameri- 
can actres.- i>opular to-day would amount 

to at least »-.."," ' V ' ■ > < •» -^ j^ 

of course, has an 1, an 

the average hank or railway president, and Mr. 
M:iii>ti<ld and Mr. ^ made 

X ' I to $(',0,(100 ...nl not 

. to invest all ti nnn pro- 

ductive luxury of e.Htabhsimi. o- 

ductions. As it ' ^img 

to this ujanager, i. , 't- 

On the whole. Mr. Fyles takes a most cheer- 
ful view a) I the n of to- 
day. ' • • •• •«h' 

recomj" '" ^^'O 

stage. No artiwtic repre>H«ntatu»n ot a worthy 
play in the city of New York fails to get iu just 
deserU." 



Till-: ri'lRlODICALS REVIEWED. 



THK CKNTIKY. 

IN tbe July Vnituru lUtTv is priiitiHl i'X-1'residiMit 
I'lfveland's hecuiitl lecture on the Vene/.ueliiii 
i . this I'lmpter iif that incidentdealini; 

w iitioii by tlie I'uitfd Slates, and with 

Mr. lleveiHiui s liiuiitiis messajie i>f 1W»5. Mr. ("ievelaii<l 
considers that the whole incideutof this uuicli-distussed 
ueKotiHtiun luus served to strengthen forever the Monroe 
DiKtrine. and he meets the criticisni of tliose lu-ople 
will) have sjiid it was dreadful for us to invite war for 
the Mike of a jieople uuwortliy of our consideration, 
and for the purjwse of protecting their possession of 
land not worth possessing, with thefollowing argument: 
"It is certainly strange that any intelligent citizen, 
professing information on public affairs, could fail to 
see that when we aggressively interposed in this con- 
troversy it was iK'cause it was necessary in order to as- 
sert and vindicate a principle distinctively American, 
and in the maintA-nance of which the people and gov- 
ernment of the United States were profoundly con- 
cerned. It wa-s l)ecause this principle was endangered, 
and l)ecause those charged with administrative respon- 
sibility wtiuld not abandon or neglect it, that our gov- 
ernment interposed to jjrevent any further colonization 
of American soil by a Kuropeau nation. In these cir- 
cumstances neither the cliaracter of the people claim- 
ing the soil as against Great liritain uor the value of 
tlie lands in dispute was of the least consecjuence to 
us ; nor did it in the least concern us which of the two 
contestants had the best title to any part of the dis- 
puted territory, .so long as England did not po.ssess and 
colonize more than belonged to her — however much or 
however little that might be. But we needed proof of 
the limits of her rights in order to determine our duty 
in defense of our Monroe Doctrine ; and we .sought to 
obtain such proof, and to secure i^eace, through arbi- 
tration." 

HOW COLLEGE WOMEN WORK TIIEIU WAY. 

The opening article in this number of the Century, 
" Working One's Way Through Women's Colleges," by 
Alice Katharine Fallows, shows that the girls are not a 
whit behind the boys in resourcefulness when it comes 
to earning an education. Although the girl college 
student cannot weed lawns, clean furnaces, shovel 
snow, or turn clerk for the grocer, baker, or butcher, 
she looks after dining-rooms, does housemaid's work, 
cooks, acts as agent for various articles, sews, type- 
writes makes manifold copies, takes charge of the 
libraries and reading-rooms, assists in the laboratories, 
sells books, distributes college magazines, and even, in 
the ca-sa of one plucky undergraduate at Welleslej', 
blacks the lx)ots of her fellow-students. 

There is a plea.sant article on gardening, hy Anna Lea 
Merritt, a curious study of imitative physical develop- 
ment of animals by Prof. William M. Wheeler, and 
several short stories. 

Mr. Frederick Keppel gives a story of a great master- 
piece by Millet, "The Wood-Sawyers," which Mr. 
Keppel places above " The Angelus." A photographic 
reproduction of William Hole's etching of this master- 
piece forms the frontispiece of the number. 



iiAUi'KK's mauazinb:. 

MK. KLIOT GHK(;OKY, writing in the July Har- 
pcr'a on "Newport in Summer," in an article 
illustrated with pictures of brilliant colors, tells of the 
great effort and expen.se of a season at Newport. In 
London .society he sees a detinite aim and tlie exercise 
of great political influence. In Frauce, the aristocracy . 
is lighting for its very existence. 

AIMLESS AMEKICAN SOCIETY. 

"Until many reforms are worked, Newport will con- 
tinue to give a continual performance of 'Hamlet' 
with the Danish prince left out; sumptuous dinners 
served and imperial jewels donned to entertain callow 
youths from college ; carriages that would not be out of 
place iu a coronation proce.ssion ordered out for a drive 
in country lanes, or to take people to the Fall River 
boat — efforts continually out of proportion to the re- 
sults obtained — enornums fatigue incurred, great for- 
tunes .spent, and .serious sacrifices endured to keep the 
costly ball turning toward no visible goal." 

CARELESS PRONUNCIATION IN ENGLISH. 

Mr. Alfred Ayres makes "A Plea for Cultivating the 
English Language." He calls attention to the charm 
of the speecli of cultured people iu Germany, France, 
Spain, and Italy, and contends that even the most cul- 
tured of English-speaking people mispronounce at 
every breath. He cites numerous instances of the 
abuse of the vowels, of shall and will, of anticipdte, 
anxious, financial, and hurry. The only cure at all 
effective is, of cour.se, possibly with the child, as one's 
mispronouncing inevitably comes from one's surround- 
ings. 

LOVE A RECENT DISCOVERY. 

In a brief essay on "The Scope of Modern Love," Mr. 
Henry T. Finck contends that romantic love hcis been 
the last to develop, and has really only existed within 
the last century or two. The maternal affection which 
is at first sight a refutation of his theory that love as 
we think of it now is a very late develojjment of the 
race,^ — maternal love he regai'ds as merely an instinct, 
shared with the lowest animals, and he finds it devoid 
of the altruism which is the sole test of real love. He 
points to the great growth of real affection that has 
come in modern times, as exemplified in the love of 
children for their aged parents. 

"Aged parents being unnecessary for the mainte- 
nance of the species, natural selection developed no spe- 
cial instinct for their benefit, wherefore filial affection 
has developed more slowly than parental love. Harrow- 
ing tales might be cited of the cruel and widely preva- 
lent custom of exposing old men and women to star- 
vation and death— the obverse of infanticide. The 
Sardinian proverb, ' It is easier for a mother to support 
a hundred sous than for a hundred sons to support a 
mother,' .shows how hard filial indifference was to erad- 
icate." 

Dr. John Fryer's article on " The Buddhist Discovery 
of America "we have quoted from in another departs 
ment. 



THE PERIODICA IS KE^^'/EU'ED. 



ion 



SCRIBN'KR'S MAGAZINK. 

SCHIBNKKS for July i.seliiellj takiii iij) with i)leaj*- 
niil travel sketches and otiier uuittor largely of 
!«n a'stlu'tii- interest. A 8chularly fs.s«y by Mr. W. C. 
Biowiifll analy/A's Mjittlu-w Ariiohl »i.s a critic, a.H a 
poft. ami as a religious writt*r. Mr. Hrowiiell ex- 
plains the fiu't tliat Ariioltl's iKjetry is uot aud uever 
can Ih* {K>pular by tiiiding tiiat it is addreshtnl to "the 
iiukhI of inurui elevation, and it would be fatuity to 
contend that this is a frequent frame of mind." "We 
come to the reading of poetry in an unmoral moml. We 
re.spoud to the aesthetic apiteal a thousand times more 
readily than to the mural." 

AN UN KNOW X ALASK.W COAST. 

.Mr. G. R. Putnam describes "Tlie Delta Country of 
Alaska," with the aid of many photographs of the coun- 
try and of the Hskimo fishermen who inhabit it. He 
.says there is a stretch of 3oO miles of Alaskan coa.st l»e- 
tween the Kusko<juim liiver and the northern month of 
the Yukon in which no white man lives, and about 
which practically uothiug is known. The Rskimos who 
inhabit the land succeed in livinj^ l)y reason of the 
siilmon. seal, waterfowl, and driftwood wliich they lind 
in plenty. 

GLADSTONE ANU DIStJAKLI AS OKATOKS. 

Senator (ieorge F. Hoar, telling of "SoiTie Famous 
Orators I Have Heard," describes his experience as one 
of the audience which heard the git-at parliamentary 
ilel)ate in 1871, with Gladstone and Disraeli as the chief 
opi)osing orators. He contnusts the two as follows : 
"(iladstone showed in his speech the jirofounder reflec- 
tion on the general subject, the more iihilosophy, and 
the inten.s«'r earnestness ; Disraeli showed i|iiickness of 
wit, a ready command of his resources, ability for subtle 
distinctions, and glimpses of his almost Satanic capacity 
for mocking and jeering. He describf(l .\lr. (Hadstone 
most felicitously as • inspired by a mixture of genius and 
vexation.' " 

Mr. John La Farge continues his " Pa.ssages from a 
Diary in the Pacitic," with an artist's account f)f the 
island of Tahiti. He descril)es King Poniard as a man 
of .sociability and good-humor, with a fine aristocratic 
head. He has an adopted .son, who will succeed to the 
tjarreu honor of the throne. 



THK COSMOPOLITAN. 

THE July Cosmijijolitiin gives an account of "Tlie 
Great Texas Oil Fields," by Edward R. Tre- 
herne, and of the metlKnls u.seil in reaching the oil 
strata. The derricks seen in the illustrations of oil 
borings are from 8<) to 70 feet in height, and the drilling 
consists in ilriving down a ca-st-iron ciusing. or pi|M', 
through the soil, the drill l)eing push^<l ilown inside the 
pipe and (jfterating there. As the casing reaches lower 
and lower (lepths, sections of pil»e with smaller diam- 
eters are substituted, HO that a 3,<)0i>-foot well may l»e- 
gin with a l()-inch casing at the surface and end in a 
'i'^-inch pipe at tin- lowest level. The cost of l«)ring a 
well varies with the kind of material encountered by 
the ilrill. but is not often over $.s,(XJ<» for a :i,n«>-f«Ktt 
well. When the drilling has reached the oil iM-aring 
stratum, a torpedo of from tine to twenty (Ive gallons 
of nitroglycerine is carefully lowen<l to the bottom 
an<l discharged by dropping an iron weight, or "go- 
devil," on it. This exploHion creates a chamber In the 



Hand or rock, and when th« nil flowa iMwk. iiiiiirllMi hy 

it.H OM I 

The 1. 1, ,, 

tlie air when th(< turpeUu wm vxpl<idr<). The oil tsry-^r 

then <|uieted down into a stemly t1 

face in a M>li<| colunui six inches m. ^ 

to a height of LVi feet, flowing .'iii,<ii«i lM»rrel« « .lay. 

Mr. Hrvt Harte cuntribuleK a new hliort ulory to ihU 
numbtT. "A Mercury of the KtMiUHilU ; " Mr. Kichanl 
I./e (iallienne I " m old K' 

mances in " .\ i m nn .i u 

hou.selMiats by l>oroihy Hichard.Hon, an esi«iy on "What 
Women Like in Men," by RafTonl Pyke, an<l wveral 
short stories. 

Mr. . I. H. S<-ho«>ling enters into H i 

of the numlierof year^ that will el , I 

will \h- fidl of i)eople. He thinks 5-2,00l» millloUM of peo- 
pie will nil it up, and that at the present rate of growth 
our 1,H»)0 millions now living on the earth slmuld untw 
to 5i,(MM) millions by the year '."JTiO. He c<iiisiders that a 
square mile of the worhl is full enough of people when 
there are 1,000 {teople to that area. 



MCLURE-S ma(;azink. 

THE July Mrduri'M o|ienH with an article by Mr. 
Walter Wellman on " I.ong-Distance iialloon 
Racing,'' in which he gives an account of the race from 
France to Kus>ia by <.omi>eting ImlliKinistH in OctolN-r, 
IWX). The winning IxiUoon traveled I,1U3 miles in :C> 
hours and 4.'> minutes, attaining at lim«M a height of 
1S,S10 feet. In this event the Comte de la Vaulx broke 
all reconls for luilltMin traveling, s«i far as ilir^t^ince trav- 
ele«l and duration of voyage were c«)ncerne«l, having 
gone in a little less than a day aiui a half nearly acroHs 
EuroiH', at an average s|>ee<l of X^\ miles an hour As 
Andr<''e had only MX) miles to go to get t4> the |s>le, and 
hful fitted his Ijttlloon to remain in the air from ten to 
fifteen days, it will be seen that his project was not by 
any means an imiK)ssible matter. 

OOVKUNOU ODELL AND UI8 PAUTY. 

Mr. Rollo Ogtlen, describing "(Jovernor Odell of New 
York" as "a man of business in i>oliticii," telU of the 
feats of the go%-ernor in cutting down expenditures and 
dealing with the dangerous class of |H>liticians. The 
friends of (iovernor Odell feel that he in the most mus 
terfu! man who ever sat in the governor'schair. "0<lell 
remains very friendly with Piatt, always speaks of 
him as the leader of the party, but the real power haa 
{ULsstnl to him.H«'lf ; and. when neceHJ^«ry, 1" ■>«'s It 

without hesitation." .Mr. Ogtien thinks : . rnor 

will ha%'e a task indeed to deal with his party in the 
future. "So far, he has playtHl tipon fear of punish- 
ment. In what way will In- play u|>on the e«nu»lly strong 
and e<|ually necessjiry iMotive of h' ■■!? \N dl 

he do it by actually convincing i . - that re- 

trenchment, economy, efllcleney. high sUndanIs in the 
public mrvlce, are really 'gtssl pollticH ;' that thry lead 
straight U> jmrty surcess and the legitimate rrwards 
which go with It r If he d<M'». he will have \»-: ' » 

work more marvelous than any achievement <■ .•( 

reconli><l. and have wrought MuniethinK very Hk« a po- 
lit ical miracle" 

Mr. Wllilanj D. Hull>ert, who has glvru ovcellent 
nature-sluilles «»f the bulTnlo and the iImt in '«. 

t«IUlhe llf»-«tory of that plctureM(ue li^ il. the 



101 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REI^IFIV 01- RI:1^/E11^'S. 



Kvu, In X' ■ 
Sl4»rv of 



■ ' r; MivH !«!« M. TiirU-ll ti-Us " 'I'lii' 
ion of Ind«'|)eiiil»'ncf." wilh tin- aid 
of tlif sijjiH'rs : tluTi' iiri' 
I _ ilfctiuus of Cliirii Morris 

and M»VfnU rxwileul sloriex 



THE LADIP:S' HOMK .TOrKXAL. 
'T^HE Ladim' Home JininnU for .luly lugiiis with ii 
1 fiiticinating side ulanct- at Mr. Joseph Jeirer.son, 
(jiven by Mr. James S. Metcalfe, in an account of 
n" witli J<H' JelTer.son." and in tlie diarm- 
ijih^ of tlie veteran actor wliich accompany 
the article. Mr. Metcalfe fished with Hip Van Winlvle 
on his seventy-.second birthday, and found Mr. Jeller- 
son as hale and agile as if he were a generation younger, 
not minding the return home in a driving storm. "I 
don't mind l^ing wet all over," says Mr. Jeffer.sou, philo- 
sophically, "because then you don't notice any one 
spot." Ca>ually, and apart from the more important 
.subject of fishing. .Mr. Jefferson e.xpre.ssed a doubt as to 
the wis<lum of a national or subsidized theater. Of the 
many difficultie.s. he thinks one of the wor.st is that 
IKjlitics would enter into the question. With a chance 
for four years of Republican actors, and then a sudden 
change to four years of Democratic players, there would 
not be much of au improvement ou the present state of 
affairs. 

A FKEXCH GIRL'S LIFE. 

Madame Blanc describes "A Girl's Life in France," 
and the e.xtreme protective system of girl-training. 
She sjiys progress is being made in physical education 
of girls in France. Whereas formerly nothing was 
taught but dancing and swimming and riding for the 
wealthiest girls of Paris, now all gymnastic and cal- 
isthenic e.xercises are in favor, and a great many young 
ladies play tennis skate, or ride bicycles, as they do in 
England. She calls attention to the simplicity of ap- 
parel which is emphasized among girls even of the 
highest station. Even the daughters of the nobility 
have but few jewels, and under no pretext any dia- 
monds. "Custom does not permit her to wear costly 
things ; nor does it give her the right in general to have 
a money allowance worth speaking of for her personal 
use. She receives a trifling sum for charity, and for 
books and gloves. She follows the degree of elegance 
that her mother permits herself, but at a respectful dis- 
tance. A young girl never takes the lead in conversa- 
tion, but always allows a married lady the precedence, 
and she finds it quite natural to occupy the back- 
ground." 

In a p1ea.sant nature-study by Ernest Seton-Tliomp- 
son. "The Mother Teal and the Overland Route," that 
writer and artist gives the life-history of this beautiful 
and sprightly bird, and tells how the mother succeeds in 
raising her broofl, in spite of the countless dangers 
which surround their family life. Another pleasant 
nature-study is Mr. William D. Hulbert's "Story of a 
Maple-Tree." 

Mr. Edward Bok devotes his editorial department to 
the ironical ta.sk of .showing just why it is that the edi- 
tor always returns the manuscripts of unknown 
writers unread, why it is he only wants to buy the lii> 
erary wares of the mo.st famous people at the highest 
prices, and why. especiallj-, he has a cardinal principle 
in his philosophy to guard against the appearance of 
fresh works of genius. 



THE WORLD'S WORK. 

IX the July number of the WorhVH Work, Dr. W. H. 
'rolniamlescribesthe village comnuuiily built up by 
the Cadburys near Birmingham, England, for the em- 
ployees of their cocua manufactory. The property con- 
sists of about four hundred acres, and (contains a great 
number of cot tages for tlie two thousand employees of 
the firm. The cheapest of the.se homes has a rental of 
$1 ..")() a week, for which the tenant gets three bedroom.s, a 
ki'clien, !i parlor, a third room downstairs, and a bath. 
Tlie houses are in the best sanitary condition, and a 
large garden goes with each house. There is a large 
recreation ground, swimming-pools, a dining-room for 
the girls, a boys" club, and well lighted and ventilated 
workrooms. A block of beautiful cottages, forming a 
quadrangle, beautifully kept up with turf and (iower.s, 
is for the old or semi-dependent. Each home consists 
of three rooms, and may be occupied by any old lady 
who can pay, either herself or through relatives, five- 
pence a week. 

Among many other articles in this number of the 
World's Work is a description of "The Machinery of 
Wall Street," by Mr. S. A. Nelson ; an account of " Pho- 
tographing Tropical Fishes," with some remarkable 
illustrations by A. Radclylfe Dugmore ; a bird's-eye 
view of the great timber areas of the Government, given 
by Mr. Gifford Piuchot, the Forester of the United States 
Department of Agriculture ; a sketch of James H. Keene, 
the famous Wall Street manipulator, by Edwin Le 
Fevre ; a discussion of "Our Relations with Canada," 
by J. D. Whelpley, and an explanation of "Why the 
French Republic Is Strong," by Mr. Sydney Brooks. 

" The Good Roads Train," by Mr. Earl Mayo, de- 
scribes the object-lesson given by the National Good 
Roads Association to the people of the South and mid- 
dle West in the building of good roads. The good roads 
train left Chicago for New Orleans on April 20, loaded 
with all manner of the most improved machinery for 
building efficient roadbeds, and when a particularly 
disreputable section of highway was encountered the 
outfit stopped long euougli to put it in good order. 

In "The Salvation of the Negro," Mr. Booker T. 
Washington writes of the value of the work of Hamp- 
ton Institute as it has been tested by time. An excel- 
lent sketch of Mr. Alexander Johnston Cassatt is con- 
tributed by Mr. Francis Nelson Bark.sdale, from which 
we quote in another department. 



THE ATLANTIC MONTHLY. 

IN the July Atlantic Monthly, Mr. A. P. Winston 
writes on "Sixteenth Century Trusts," giving 
most of his attention to the attempts by cei-tain great 
German financial houses to corner the supply of copper. 
This attempt, in which the great mercantile house of 
Fugger was the most striking figure, failed, owing 
to unexpected supplies of the metal appearing in the 
market, which made it impossible to maintain prices. 
Even quicksilver proved to be impossible as a monopoly. 
Another wealthy family, the Hoechstetters, conceived 
that it would be possible to effect a monopoly of quick- 
silver, because nearly all the metal came from a single 
small district in the Austrian dominions. A monopoly 
was actually secured, but very soon the discoveries of 
new deposits in Spain and Hungary brought on, not 
only the failure of the monopolistic enterprise, but also 
the utter ruin of the Hoechstetter house. Tin, pepper, 



THE PERIODICALS KEI^IFM'ED. 



lo: 



niauy druwfs and spices, and othiT articU's of luxury 
tempted the tifteeuth and sixtet-ntli tt'iitury nn-rihants 
to build up a iuouo}H)ly. but all failitl. One rt'as«^u why 
there wjus not a single iustmice of success wan liecauM* 
in the lifteeuth ceutury navi);ation became a stieuce 
almost at a stroke. Goo<l charts, the u>e of the eom- 
piuss, and new navi-^atinhC iii>.triinu'Uts were iiuide ; ves- 
sels were const ructetl vastly siifer and much larger than 
ever before, and the Kreat merchants of Germany \\\m 
were making these efforts toward monoi)oly found the 
ancient nwuls of trallic through their country and over 
the Alps abandoned, and the world's trade flowing 
along new currents. 

THE LIMITS OF OUR UNIVERSE. 

An exceedingly readable article is Prof. T. J. J. See's 
on "The Limits of the Stellar Universe." l»rofes.sor 
See examines into the evidence which the l)ody of lustro- 
Domical achievements has produced concerning the di- 
mensions of our universe. One would not exjx'ct to flnil 
such a matter Jis this decided, nor does Professor S»'e at- 
tempt to accomplish sucli a thing. However, after a 
very interesting review of the arguments resulting from 
astronomical observations, he suggests that our universe 
is not neces.siirily infinite, even though we cannot con- 
ceive of an actual end to space. •■ For as we can con- 
ceive many things which do not exist, so also there may 
exist many things of which we can have no clear con- 
ception ; as, for example, a fourth dimension to space, 
or a boundary to the universe. The surface of a sphere 
ha.s no end, and yet is Unite in dimensions ; and if a l>e- 
ing be conceived as moving in the surface of the sphere, 
it is clear that he would find no end, and yet he might 
start from a place ami return to it by circumnavigating 
his universe. The .space returns to itself. In like man- 
ner, though we cannot conceive of an end to our tri- 
dimensional universe, and it may have no end so far a-s 
we are concerned, it may in reality l>e finite, and return 
to it.self by some process to the human mind forever 
unknowable." 

Mr. Kngene K. White, writing on "The Aspects of 
the Pan-American Kxpusition,'' calls attention to the 
fact that our great fairs are rather calcidatttl in their 
details to amu.se than to instruct. He tinds that of the 
$10,000,000 -spent in making the Huffalo Ex|)osition, 
$3,000,000 W!is devoted to the .Midway. He thinks that 
in a way the late P. T. Barnum woulil have made the 
ideal director of one of our great national fairs. 

Mr. AUiert Phelps tells of "The Keconstriution Peri«Kl 
of New Orlean.s," and President William l)e Witt Hyde 
contributes an es.sjiy on "The Cardinal Virtues," which 
he apparently reduces to the single virtue of temix.*r- 
auce. 

THE NOKTH AMEKICAN REVIEW. 

IN the June tiumber of the North Amcrinin, .Mr. H. 
G. Wells gives a series of articles entitled " Antici- 
pations : .\n Experiment in Prophecy." The first chaj)- 
ter «)f Mr. Wells' " anticipations"deals with thesnbject 
of locomotion in the twentieth century. Mr. Wells 
predicts that motor vehicles will develop n|x>n three 
distinct and definite lines : (1) a motor truck for hen%'y 
trafflc ; (2) the hire<I r)r i)rivately owned motor carriage 
capable of a day's journey of three hundred miles or 
more, and (:<) the motor omnilHM developing out of the 
horse omnibus company and the suburban lineti. In 
reganl to this latter veidcle. .Mr. WelU nuggenU that 
the motor omnibutt companies may secure power t^j 



form private romlM of a new Hort upon which their re- 

hiilr-. may !»*• free to travel up to the lindt of the very 
higlie^t s|HHHi. Thette special r<r< ' *'- \' " ,^ 

will Im? very different from iimca , y 

^^''" '" N ne»rr Worn 

'^y '»" :• ucart*. The 

materi:;l used, .Mr. WelU tbiukM, will p.»y.ibly be «»- 
phalt, but more pnilNtbly houK ilminni-e 

In the r«Hlistril»ution of jx , . Mr. Well» luokn 

for a division of great citie-s for the new developments, 
in his opinion, tend decidedly in this direction rather 
than towartl farther concent ration. Taking into ac- 
count l>oth the centrifuual ai' 

erning the ma.-v>ing of city |Wij >. ,. 

dudes that the old terms "town" and "city" will 
Ix'come as olwolete as the "mail ttwich." For the new 
areas that will grow out of then» he suum-Nts the t.-rm 
" urban dinirict "or "urlMin region." 1' ,• 

whole of (jreat Britain south of the H:^ . .y 

to l)ecome such an urban region, "Iscett all together, 
not oidy by railway, telegraph, and novel roads, but by 
a dense network of telephones imrcels «lelivery lubeB, 
and the like nervous and arterial cuuuectiouH." 

GOI-UWIX SMITH ON THE IRISH QUESTION. 

Apropos of the revival of intere.st in the Ii " 
tion. Prof. (Mildwin .'^mith .sjiys : "Great Bi . .u 

never afford to have Ireland torn fn>m her side. Ire- 
land, if she cejLse to lie a luirtner, would Ix? a foe. and 
the satellite of Great Britain's other foes, as a separate 
Si'otland was a .satellite of France in former days." As 
Profes-Mjr .'^mith views the matter, Irelands interest 
al.so i>oints clearly to iMirtnership in the rnite4l King- 
dom. But in their oppo.sition to Jingoism he thinks 
that the Irish Nationalists may In- just now playing a 
very useful |)art. and from union in what I*rMfc.«.s«ir 
Smith terms a great pretlatory empire, to which the 
Jingo aspire.s Irish patriot.H, he says, may well recoil. 

CHINESE POETRY. 

In the course of an extremely interesting article on 
"The Poetry of the C'hine.se." Dr. W. A. P. Martin, 
president of the Im[H*rial I'niversity at Peking, de- 
clares that the educatiti Chinese is of all men the most 
devote<l to the cultivation of jsK-try. "If he makes a 
remarkal)le voyage, ho is sure to give the world his ini- 
pre.Hsioiis in verse. He iiiM-riben fre-I n his 

door(M»sts every New Year's Day. P<» .-.the 

gifts of friends, adorn the walls of his shop or study." 
Indeed. Profes.sor Martin has found that an apprentice 
ship in the art of |MH-try forms a leading feature in the 
Chinese e<lucatioiial system, and in China i !i 

who aspires to civil ortice or literary honom is i >. . , d 
from coni|x>sing verse in his trial exiunination. To U- 
a tax-collector, he is test*"*!, not in ar ' ii-. but in 

prosiMly— a usjige that Iiils lieeii in l. nearly a 

thousand years. 

THE TKMI-OR.VL ItiWER OK THE rtlPE. 

Signor I)e Cesjire. a mi'mlwr of the Ital '" ' r 
of Deputies, replies to tin- n-ceiit article . 
Avti'rlritn by ArrhbLnhop Irelnnil on liie nutijtH't of 
"The Pojje's Civil Priiictslom." This writer dmdarr* 
that noCatholic or Proteslant |iower in the worlil couhl 
nive Ix'o X I II. •«nch a !■ ■^ ii 

by Italy. Tonlay tlie T . ■ i 

can exist by lti% own moral foree alone. " .Never hajt it* 
InftueuM been ralacd to a higher |Milut than kIiicv It baa 



Km 



TUF AMFRUIAN MONTHLY REI^IEW Or RH^/HU^S. 



(. ' . :^iit y, Mini iifVtT li;ivc 

■ taken place in Konie 

^^ V iin<i fnttiuni- jubilees, pil>;riniaues, 

— >. ... .-;, I'utcr'.s «xhibiti(tii.s uinl even a ccui- 

TIIK V. M. V. A. .lUHILKK. 

Prf-shlent L. I.. Ik>jcgett, of tiie Youiik .Men's ("liris- 
tiiin A!*.M)ciRllou TraiuiiiK ScIkhiI i\l SprinKHeld, Mass., 
\« tlie development of the \vt>rk of tins yi-eat <ir- 

i. II throughout the worhl. Dr. Dogj^ett states 

that four-flfthsof the eniph>yed otlicers in the Jissocia- 
tion movement arv uixm this contiueut. Tlie rapid de- 
velopment t>f the building; movement in America is 
shown by the fact that the lunnber of buihlinj^s in the 
United State-, and Canada has increased in the last ten 
years from 'Jt»5 to ;i59. During tlie la.st year alone, 
40 iisstx-iation buildings have been erected. In Au- 
gust, 1S1C>, the world's student Chri.stian federation of 
undergra«ltiates of all lands was estai)lished. This now 
enrolls f»5,(KiO ineml>ers. in 1,400 institutions, in 30 dif- 
ferent countries, and is the largest organization among 
undergraduates in the world. For the railroad work 
of the as-sociation during IIKX), railroad corporations 
eont Hilling nearly three-fourths of the railroad mileage 
on this continent contributed $195,000 toward the cur- 
rent expenses of the 159 railroad associations now in ex- 
istence. These railroad a.s.sociations have 7(5 buildings, 
valued at $l,r22. IKK). The work in the army and navy 
h&a developed very rapidly, especially since the out- 
break of the war with Spain. A building is now in 
course of erection near the navy yai'd in Brooklyn to 
cost fioO.OOO. This building is due to the nuinificeiice 
of Miss Helen Gould, who has contributed in many 
ways towanl the railroad and army work. 

PKICES AND TRUSTS. 

The question "How Trusts Affect Prices" is dis- 
cu.ssed in this number by Prof. J. W. Jenks, of Cornell 
University, who concludes that, so far as combinations 
exert a monopolistic power over prices, the result is 
usually, but not always, injurious to society. So far as 
they are able to affect savings by less expenditure of 
industrial energy, these savings are directly l)eneficial 
to society. These savings may in no way affect prices 
immediately, but be retained by the capitalist or 
divided between him and the workingman, or they 
may be distributed through the community immedi- 
ately in the form of lower prices. Professor Jenks be- 
lieves that so far as experience goes it seems to show that 
the chief Ijenefit has been retained by the capitalist, 
while the laborers have secured a small part, and the 
great mass of the consumers no benefit at all. The gen- 
eral tendency, however, seems to be in the direction of 
giving to the consumers a larger part of this fund in 
the future. 

MODERN CHRISTIANITY. 

In the series of articles on "Great Religions of the 
World," Dr. Washington Gladden describes "The Out- 
look for Christianity." He .says, in conclusion : " Chris- 
tianity must rule or abdicate. If it cannot give the 
law to society, the world has no need of it. Not by 
might nor by power can its empire be established ; only 
by clear witnessing to the supremacy of love. But the 
time has come when there must be no faltering in this 
testimony. Hitherto, it has hardly dared to say that 
Love is King ; the kingdoms of this world have been 
ceded to Mammon. With the dawning of the new cen- 



tiiry comes the di-epening conviction that the nde o\ 
.Mammon can never bring order and peace ; and it be- 
gins to be credible that the way of the Christ is the way 
of life, for industry as well as for charity, for nations as 
well as for men." 

OTHER ARTICLES. 

Sir Norniaii Lockyer contributes a valuable scientilic 
study on "Sunspots and Kainfall;" -Mr. Sidney Wei)- 
ster discusses the instruct ions given by President Mo 
Kinley relating to the recent treaty with Spain as made 
known in the Senate document from which the injunc- 
tion of secrecy was removed in February last. Under 
the title "An Earlier American," Mr. W. I). Howells 
reviews Mr. William J. Stillman's autobiography, re- 
cently published. 

THE FORUM. 

THE opening article of the June Forum is by Prof. 
Paul S. Keinsch, of the University of Wisconsin, 
on " Governing the Orient on Western Principles." 
Professor Reinsch holds that our Western ideas of po- 
litical organization are utterly unadapted to the Orient, 
and that when applied they may lead to the opposite 
result from that intended. He describes the political 
comple.xion of the Orient as "a theocratic absolutism 
combined with local self-government." Every Oriental 
ruler, he says, looks upon himself and is regarded by 
his people as a direct representative of God. The Eng- 
lish have tiirned this sentiment to account in their In- 
dian possessions, and Professor Reinsch quotes an Indian 
paper as having said at tlie time of the Queen's last 
jubilee : "Indian loyalty is a hundi'ed times deeper and 
sincerer than English loyalty. In England, the Queen 
is only a constitutional monarch. In India, she is a 
goddess incarnate." A radical change in the character 
of Oriental thought and life, Professor Reinsch thinks, 
would deeply affect and might even endanger the entire 
world. The introduction of the mechanism of Western 
civilization would "not only disturb the philosophical 
ideas of the Orientals, but would also create an army 
• of anarchistical revolutionaries." 

RUSSIAN NIHILISM. 

Writing on " Russian Nihilism of To-day," Mr. Abra- 
ham Cahan points out as the most significant feature 
of the recent disturbances the fact that large numbers 
of workingmen took part in the demonstrations sup- 
pressed by the authorities. Open anti-goveunment 
demonstrations of secret trade-unions are reported by 
the revolutionary press. The meaning of this is — as 
Mr. Cahan interprets it — that labor forms the rank and 
file of the revolutionary party to-day. The movement 
differs radically from the political crusades of the 
seventies and eighties, in which the term "Nihilist" 
first came into vogue. 

THE UNITED STATES SENATE. 

Writing on "The Place of the Senate in Our Govern- 
ment," Mr. Henry Litchfield West, an experienced ob- 
server of Washington affairs, declares that wealth is 
not yet the standard by which the members of the Sen- 
ate judge each other. He cites instances of millionaires 
in the Senate who occupy insignificant places, who are 
never consulted by their colleagues, and who simply 
follow where others lead. On the other hand, there are 
several men of little or no material wealth whose 
mental powers have made them consequential factors 



THE PERIOniCALS RFk'/ElVFD. 



107 



in legislation. The conclusion of tin- whole matter 
seems to be that men can get into the Stnate by the use 
of wealth, but that once in, wealth ili>e-> nothing fur 
them by way of M-curing eminence. 

KEUUIUN IN C'OLLKCK. 

Prof. Francis U. Peabo<ly, of Harvard, tlelines the 
main characteristics of tlie " Heli^fion of a College Stu 
»lent " as "a love of reality, rea.sonalileiies.'s, and practical 
service." Tlie college boy, sjiys l'rofe.->.sor I'ealMKly, is 
■pliiced in conditions which tempt to excellence, and is 
peculiarly resjionsive to their sincere ap{)eal to his high- 
er life. Professor Pealnnly e.xhorts the Church "to dis- 
miss all affectations and all assumptions of authority, 
and to give itself to the reality of rational religion and 
to the practical redemption of an unsanctilied world. 
This return to siiuplicity and .service will Ije at the .s;ime 
time a recognition of the religion of a college student 
and a renewal of the religion of Jesus Christ." 

THE DOMESTIC SERVICE PROBLEM. 

The Rev. Aldeu W. Quimby gives some excellent ad- 
vice on the theme of hou.sekee[>ing. The magic word, 
be .siiys, is .system, without which success is doubtful, 
and with which failure cannot ensue. "There nui.st be 
sy.stem for all work, — system in hours, system in 
promptness, .system for occupation, and system for rec- 
reation : .system in the rigorous observance of hours of 
rest and sleep, and sy.stem in the hour of rising." He 
also advocates bright and well-ventilated rix)ms for 
servants, and suggests that whatever the mistress e.\- 
|)ends upon her maid's apartment " is an investment 
sure to result usuriou.sly to herself." 

THE M.\NIL.\ CENSOHSHIP. 

In criticism of the methods followed by the military 
authorities at Manila during the past two years and a 
half, Mr. Harold .Martin says: "I have heard the cen- 
sorship described as legitimate when it prevented the 
.sending out of news of advance movements of American 
troijps which would inform the enemy of our plans ; 
but I have never heard of a reputable correspondent in 
the Philippine.s who tried to send out such information. 
Insurgent ol)servers of American military movements 
were always well posted concerning our projected e.\- 
I)edition.s, and this without the aid of news cabled froir 
the United States back to Manila. The supposition that 
the censorship prevented the insurgents in Manila from 
communicating with their agents in Hongkong and 
elsewhere is notoriously ridiculous. It utterly failid 
to accompli.sh this." 

CHEAT BRITAIN AND PROTECTION. 

In stating "An American View of the British Indus- 
trial Situation," Mr. John P. '^'oung comments on the 
aptitude of the British people toward the policy of pro- 
tection in view of the present economic situation. As 
a protectionist, Mr. Young urges that KuKlaml, by af- 
fording the manufacturing and agricultural interests 
a rea.sonable th-gree of [)rotection, would give them a 
new life. The shifting of the incidence of taxation, he 
says, would have tlie effect of makiiitf I hi- contlitlons of 
life more passible in the country, and of drawing from 
the cities a part (»f the statfiiant iH)pulHtion the main- 
tenance of which is a public burden, while the manu- 
facturer would have lesM trouble in making Ijoth end» 
meet. Ah ri'iiards t he external relations of (in-at Brit 
ain, Mr. Young holds that the itssumption of the Col>- 
deDiteH that their Hyntem made for peace ha* lieen proven 



wholly erruneouM. The ext4>nHiun of the BritUh erapirr 
necehsary In ortler to «j|>en up new nvenueH for foreign 
' iry and 

'' ' . -r mar- 

kets abroad and neglinting tht»»- nt home U MlM«ndour«l 
by (ireat Britain, she will at once iliNarni the ho-ktilitv 
of her rivals, and t.he will \»- able to n-<liice her .irmj 
and navy to reiuMinable pn>|HirllouH." 

.siiMK OK T.VMMANV's KEbiil i:i l^>. 

.Mr. liiistavus Myern uuutributeH nunUmirahle article 
on "The SecreU of Tammany't* SueceiM." The article 
is incapable of recapiln' he 

called to some of the m- ii4« 

in seji.Min a!id out of Hea.Hun to this lenactouK orgnnlxn- 
tion. The social activity of the Tammany organizntion 
htLs not a little to do witli its htrength and vitMlity. Ah 
Mr. Myers j»oints out, Tammany Hall adap' ■ t<» 

the environntent of each nei^hlMirlKHxl, and < lUt 

direct touch with the i>eople. " It*i leaitent give annual 
dinners to the jMMir of their di.stricts ; they get thiK or 
that nuui out of trouble ; if a |MM>r widow is in danger 
tif iM'ing disiMi>..ses.sed. her ca.se is seen to; 'jolm' are 
distributed ; entertainments are held for the iM-nellt of 
struggling churches; and a thousand and one other 
varieties of a.ssistance are r«Mulere<r to the n«H*dy. All 
this, of C(jurse, is tlone s«-llishly, with a view toslrength- 
eniiig the leader and the organization in the districtM, 
and much of the money useil ctuues from sonrccM that 
wiiuhl not U'ar invest igatiiui ; but the simple fad of it.« 
being done affects |Miwerfnlly certain da.s.M-s of voter*. 
This element of human sympathy has more effe<-t with 
*them than all the lofty manifestoes isiiue«l by commit- 
tees or iKxIies with whom they never come in such jht- 
.sonal contact." 

OTIIKR AHTU'LKM. 

Mr. Karl Blind sliarply critici.ses the recent utleranceo 
of Kmperor William of (iermany in an article entithil 
"The Kai.ser's SiM'tn-hes and (ierman Hi.slory ;" in an 
article on "Pin- Fifty Years After," Prof, hxlwin W. 
Boweii attributes to Pue the(|Ualitiesof "a ureal artitit, 
indeed, but hardly a «reat |KK't." P • in 

Professor Bowen"s judgment, is his n. I :'ge. 



THE ARENA. 

TIIR o{H>ning article of the June Arciui in a ^rut<i<l 
against "imperialism" from .Iudgi> Samuel C 
I'ark.s. The nuiin pur|>os4' of Judj{e Parks' argument Im 
t«) show that the treaty with Spain »lid not convey a 
giKxl title in the Philippines to the Initeti States, aud 
that therefore our Government waM not Juntifletl lo •»- 
suming iMts-HCHsion of the islands. KxPi * Harri- 

son wa-H not fully convinced that Spain i n elTe*-- 

tually ou.steii fn)m the archiiNdaKo, as he ntateii in hU 
ynrth Avitrhitn articles, but Jmlge Parkn U inmltlve 
on that |M)int. Spain had no title, and hence could |muu( 
none. All that we ha\ ppinew luw 

Ix-en by an a-sHcrtion of n . ly. 

MR. 8TKAD AND THK BOUTII AKIIHAN WAR. 

Mr. \V. T. St4Mul. of the liOiidon lirvirw vf Jicvieira, 

Isihesp 'ch by Mr. B (► Flow 

er, who 1 a« "a journaliol with 

twentieth-century Ideah." Mr. Flower almi glvwi a 
coinrrsatlon held with Mr, Stead on " KiiKland'H Crime 
in Siulh Afrini," in which the action of the ItrllUh 
(ioverumeut lu South Africa la charact«riM<l m tmr 



lOS 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY R El/ 1 EH' OF REI^IEIVS. 



Ill 'iwiIiU* Ihnii ilijii I'l iiu- I iiit<-ti Stat*"!* in tin* 

r . H. liidit'il. Mr. St<':nl K***'"* >»" f'*!" "•'' '♦> ^-''.V 

tliMi liir wtir ill the l'liilii>iiiiu's is •'a spli-ntliii litcd " 
«hi'ii (tuiiiuintl with tho iiifiimy of tlf \v ir in Smiili 
Afriirt. 

"You n»it into ihr IMiilippiiii- l)ii>iniv'.> unawares, imi 
having any iiloa of wliat would hap|u>ii as the result of 
de«>trt)yini< the Spanish tleet ; and froni tliat time to 
thi.H you liHve found it ditlieiilt to extrieate yourself 
from the toils. We, on the other liaiul, tleliberately in- 
trin"«'<l '•nrs«»lves into this ])Usiiiess for the purpose of 
M>iiiiiL; the country and ilestroying the independence of 
the Boers." 

THE SEKVAXT QUESTION IN SOCIAL EVOLUTION. 

The MTvant (|Uestioii is discussed from a 7iew point of 
view hy Anne L. Vrooinan. This writer lu.hls thattlie 
unrest and <iisfontent of tlie .servant clas.s are not an 
evil, but a part of the evolutionary process now going 
on everywhere. "If servants were content to remain 
as they are. they would he a positive check upon so- 
cial advance." The discontent of the servants is con- 
tributing to our preparation for a full cooperative life. 

OTIIEK ARTICLES. 

In this number 'appear two articles in support of 
Christian .Scietice — the first by a scholar jmd thinker 
long identified with the movement, and the second by 
the accredited press representative of tlie church. This 
presentJition of doctrine is thus oflicially authorized. 

Mr. Kit weed Pomeroj' outlines the programnie of the 
National Social and Political Conference to he held at 
Detroit on the five week-days preceding the Fourth of 
July. 

GUXTOX'S MAGAZINE. 

IN the June number of G Hilton's the editor com- 
ments inci.sively on "The Wars of Wall Street." 
Profes-sor Gunton argues that the evil of stock gam- 
bling must be dealt with sooner or later bj' the gov- 
ernors of the Stock Exchange, the responsible leaders iu 
Wall Street, or it will some day be dealt with iu a, less 
intelligent but more caustic way by the public. "Bor- 
rowing and lending," says Profes.sor Gunton, "are le- 
gitimate business transactions. Buying and selling 
are essential to the distribution of wealth in the com- 
munity, but buying what one can never pay for, and 
.selling wliat one does not own, are not legitimate in- 
dustrial tran.sactions. They are dangerous gambling, 
and, what is more, they are gambling in a way and 
with interests that involve the public. When a man 
bets on a race-horse and loses, somebody else has his 
money, and that is the end of it. He cannot bet again 
until he gets more money. That is not the case with 
this gambling element in the stock market. The risk 
is not limit€d to the amount involved by the individual 
speculator, but it affects the value and status and per- 
haps solvency of hundreds of thousands of others who 
have no part in the gambling transaction." 

COTTON MANUFACTURING IN THE SOUTH. 

Mrs. Leonora Beck Ellis contributes.an extremely in- 
teresting paper entitled '• Industrial Awakening of the 
South." Mrs. Ellis shows that many of the conditions 
are favorable for the transplantation of cotton manu- 
facturing to Southern soil. "It is not merely proxim- 
ity to the cotton-fields that renders it expedient, but the 
marvelous abundance of building materials, the copious 



w.-iier-piiwi-r. the nearness of vast coal-fields and timber 
stretelies tiiat giv(^ us fuel often at less tliau half the 
jiiice i)aid ill New lOngland, tlie long summers and brief 
mild winters that make heating and lighting far less 
expensive, and the presence of an amj)le supply of na- 
tive white labor." It has also been claimed by some 
practical cotton men that in the niihh'r cdimatc; of the 
South the machinery "treats" the delicate lilier more 
favorably and with better results than under the infiu- 
enco of the long Northern winters. 

POLITICAL AND CO.MMERCIAL EDUCATION. 

That unique institution, the Eeole Libre des Sciences 
Polithiuis, in Pari.s, is described by Mr. Leon Mead. 
Recently .several American universities have established 
courses modeled to a greater or le.ss extent upon those 
pursued in this institution. The programme of the 
.school provides not only for instruction in what we 
should understand as the political .sciences — namely, 
tho.se relating to government aiul administration, in- 
cluding courses in diplomacy — but it also otters excel- 
lent preparation for posts of initiative or control in the 
great industrial and financial companies, especially 
bank.s, railroad companies, financial corporations, etc. 
In other W'Ords, it is a .school of commerce and finance 
as well as of politics. 

OTHRR ARTICLES. 

Dr. J. W. Iledway writes on the influence exerted by 
trade routes on civilization, and the editor contributes 
an interesting historical sketch of the change in the 
character of interest in the evolution of industry. 



THE INTERNATIONAL MONTHLY. 

IN a rather elaborate article on "The American 
Woman," wliich opens the June number of the 
International Monthly, Prof. Hugo Miinsterberg, of 
Harvard L^niversity, draws some suggestive distinc- 
tions between the German and American ideals of 
womanhood. On the subject of marriage, he says : 
"The average German girl thinks, 1 am sorry to say, 
that she will marry any one who will not make her un- 
happy ; the ideal German girl thinks tliat she will mar- 
ry only the man who will certainly make her happy ; 
the ideal American girl thinks that she will marry only 
the man without whom she will be unhappy— and the 
average American girl approaches this standpoint with 
an alarming rapidity." 

A THREE TEARS' COLLEGE COURSE. 

Judge Simeon E. Baldwin, of New Haven, writing on 
" The Encroachment of the American College Upon the 
Field of the University," argues in favor of reducing 
the term of collegiate education to three years. Under 
present conditions, as Judge Baldwin shows, it is prac- 
tically impossible to complete both college and profes- 
sional courses before the age of twenty-five. Thi.s, in 
his opinion, does not meet the proper demands of society. 
" A quarter of a century is too long for the ordinary 
man to give to learning how to pass the next quarter of 
it. Time is a dear commodity, nor is his the only loss. 
The liberally educated are so few that the world needs 
all it can get of them. The professional school now 
gives to the professional student all that he need seek 
of university training. Its course, of late years, has 
been both broadened and lengthened." Judge Baldwin's 
contention is that a professional education of this broad 
character ought, if possible, to be preceded by a collegi- 



THE PERIODICALS REyiEWED. 



109 



ate edncation ; but it cannot l»e. in the majority «»f 
cases, if for a collej^iate etliication more than three years 
is demanded. 

RKSl'LTS OF "CX)MMtrXITV OF INTEREST." 

Prof. Charles H. Hull, of Cornell University, contril>- 
utes an article on " Kaihvay .Mli.ime ami Trade Di-,- 
tricts of the United State's." While Profe.>vsor Hull 
believes that the policy of " community of interest" may 
Ije counted uiK)n in the lonin run to tend to an advance 
of rates, he is by no means sure that such will Ik- the 
immetliate result. The i>olicy will, however, unduubt- 
€«Uy enable roiids in the consoliilatetl districts to in- 
crease their net earnings even if the rates are not 
raised. The sjime rejisons which have restrained some 
of the successful industrial trusts from charging yreatly 
advanced prices may influence the railroad.s to leave 
rates in general on the present basis, but the net earn- 
ings may Ix* e.xjH'cted to increa.se — first, from tiie intriH 
dnction of various economies and, second, from the 
gradual growth of the country and the progress of the 
tnwle districts which the railroads drain. 

THE WORK OF BOOKER T. WASHIXGTOX. 

Prof. Harry Thurston Peck, in a review of Mr. Wa.sh- 
ington's autobiography, '• U]i from Slavery," advances 
the opinion that if Mr. Washington were a white man 
his mind woidd not 1h' regarded as in any way excei>- 
tional. He would have no great eminence as an orator 
or a.s a literary man. In making this reservation, how- 
ever, Profes.sf)r Peck, far from belittling Mr. W.ishing- 
ton or minimizing the value of that on w hich his repu- 
tation ought to rest, .'>eeks rather to enhance and 
augment that reputfition by bringing it out into clear 
relief. " He is not an orator ; he is not a writer ; he is 
not a thinker. He is something more than tliese. He 
is the man who comes at the psychological moment and 
does the thing which is waiting to be done, and which 
no one else has yet accomplished. All the honor that 
is paid to Mr. Washington is really due to just one 
thing,— to the fact that by his special knowledge, by 
his special training, and by his possession of unnstnil 
sanity anrl common sense, he seems to have hit uiMin 
and, in some degree, already to have drinonstrated a 
practical solutitm of the race problem, which now for 
nearly forty years has .seemed to the American people, 
and especially to the people of the South, in.soluble." 



THE XIXETEEXTH C"P:XTURY AXD AFTER. 

THE Xlnrtrcnlh i'nittirif for .Tniie contains articles 
by Mr. Carnegie upon "British T'essimism." and 
by Mr. Frederic Harrison u]¥>u his "Impressions of 
America," which are noticed elsewhere. 

AX AXGLtCAN VIEW OF THE nOER RELIGION. 

Canon Wirgman. of firahnmstown cathcflral, din- 
cours<'S from the .Aiiiilican colonial loyalist jioint of 
view npfni the reiiirion of the Hot-rs. His main object is 
to show that the whole trouble lias arisen l)»'ca«i«M' the 
Boers, like Hie S<'otcli. are Calvinisfs. The Hocrs, he 
said, were the otdy real ami |)racfical Calviiii«>ts of the 
nineteenth century, witli ideas unmiMlifle<l by truer pn*- 
sentmenr of Christianity. Their reliuinns ideas finally 
plunged them int4) national ruin and destruction. Those 
who are nf)t ,\nglicans and who grafefnily reinemlx-r 
what Calvinism did for (Jeiu'va, for .S-oiianil. for Hol- 
land, for the Puritans of the Commonwealth, and for 



the men of the .»fa|/f«oi(tr, will Hmileat what will nrem 
to them the thoologicat prejudice of Canon Wirgmnnit 
imper. 

SLOOFJiTlDXS FOR THE t"OROXATIOX OF KIiWAKD VII. 

.Mr. Lulu Harcourt di.Hcn»i»eH prf>c«<4lrntM an to corona- 
tion, anil suggests that King t^lward VII. nhould n- 
vive the once invariable custom of Koing In : .m 

from the Tower to WeHiminHt.T in u'nuid le. 

This almost tuir to.>k piner for 

the la.st time ai i^^ II. It wn« 

aluindonetl at his coronation liecaUMe the plague had 
mmle its appearance in Iami-1 1 the city waa oon- 

sideretl to Ik- t<K> unhealthy i 

now ENGLAND TRIED TO GET RID OF GIDRALTAR. 

Mr. W. Frewen Ixird, in a brief but very interniting 
pajK-r, recalls a fort^otten fact that in the s. th 

century si.\ times <iver Hritish miiiisteni, sup: i»y 

theirambassjidorsabroiid. pro|ioMed to give up<iibmltAr 
to .Spain. Even Pitt saw no lulvantage in maintaining 
the Hritish garrison at the Ko<-k. In ITs't, i^.nl .»^hel- 
burne otTereil (Jibniltar to Spain in exchance for P«irto 
Kico. but the SiMiniards thought it was tt>o luml a l>ar- 
gain. and did not accept it. But although the king 
was neutral, and minist4>rs were anxhius t4> get rid of 
(iibraltar. the nation wa.s .sjivagely op|M)s4*«l l4) any 
alKiiKloiimeiit of the great fortress that (Himmands the 
entnmce to the .Meiliterranean. .S|win thniughout was 
most indignant that England would not give up the 
Hock for nothing, and coii " liir«,«'lf rather hononMl 

than otherwise by the ti - .11. It wuiild lie inter- 

esting to know whether Spain would l>e difi{io«ed to 
swap (iibraltar for Tangier to-<lay ; but thatisaqucM- 
tion that Mr. I.^>rd dot's not <li.scuss. 

WHAT TAX BE DOXE FOR MOROTtX) ? 

The Countess of .Meath, in a brief |Mi{>er entitled "A 
Land of W«k-." pleads for the aliandonment of the in- 
.sens;ite |H)licy of international rivalry which sacriflce* 
the welfare of tlie .M«M>rs to the ambitions of the Euro- 
pean |)owers. Lady .Meath concludes her |>a|ter by sug- 
gesting that it might Iw poewible to establish a conmdt^ 
tee represi-ntative of various nationalit jd the 

prisontTs who at pre.s«'nt an- suffering .. ,li|y in 

the pri.s4)ns of .Morocco. .S)|,. njijs that when then* in a 
revolt and the capture«l prisoners are mart^he<i in chains 
to ttieir prison.s in the Niimnier-time one-third or om- 
liJilf di»' on the way ; and then adds the follnwitm grew- 
.some detJiil : As it is ne«es.sjiry lo prove that none of 
the prisoners have escjipe<l, the heiuis of theme wht» die 
an* cut off and wilt«d, in order to show th.it the full talc 
of prisoners hius Iwen duly ai-counle<l for. If b> some 
ndschance a head is missing, they will even cut off a 
soldier's head to make up the niimlier. .MiMirish prlwinn 
S4>«>m to Im' as near an approximation to hell on earth aa 
could lie imatdne<l. 

THE DEf AHEXrE OF TITK IIOfSK OF •'OMMONR. 

Mr. Atherley-.Iones, M.P., write** lugnbri<iii-K iim- 
cernlng the extent to which the cancii* ha* t| 

the H4>nHe of individual re«>|)nnHlbllit> ' ■ hr 

nietnlMTs of the HotlHj- iif ( 'nlnmoliH. ! Ii..ni 

St. Stephen's nien of lMde|M>ndencf< like .Mr. Court nvy. 
He Miys that the Houm- of Commons hax alniimtentlrrly 
Hurn*ndered to the ndnlHtrr the control of It* leirinl*- 
live fun Jij 

n|>on ill' . t li« 

miKlern nilew of procedun* at the mercy of minUtrra. 



110 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REI^IEIV OF REI^/EIVS. 



THE CONTKMPOHAHY HKVIRW. 

TH|- • uni liivltH' fnr.TuiH' luis two arti- 

, ;, .:»« a wricnis contrilmtioii to h vory 

MTioUM c<ii»trt>viTsy— nmnfly, tlwit lus to w lu'tlicr <>r not 
I-.. .: ...,\ jj, i„ n statv of i-nmnu'rciiil decay. The other 
with the exception of Mr. Churrington's paper 
lion," are of only ordinary in- 
I ven to an article by the Hon. K. 

Lvulph Stanley upon "The Government Education 

Mill.' 

KKAmXO FOU THK YOITJO. 

Mr. H. V. Weisse contrihnt^'s a doleful article on thi.s 
subject, the gist of which is that we are rottiuK the 
minds of our young people by letting them read maga- 
zines. "Magazines, the sporting columns of the daily 
news|wiHTs, are tlie only kind of reading that the./ni- 
tlf-nit\lc young man jussimil.ites." The result is that, 
to use .Mr. \Veis.se's elegant phrase, " it stodges the mind 
and weakens the apjietite for apower of attacking more 
solid f<M)d." He deplores the disintegrating force of 
short stories and of highly colored ))ut shallow articles, 
and attributes to t he destructivene.ss of magazine litera- 
ture much of the worst vice of the j'oung rising genera- 
tion. 

SIDK LIGHTS ON BKITISII AltMY KEFOU.M. 

Captain Cairne.s, the well-known military correspond- 
ent of the Westminster Gazette, contributes a brief 
pjH>er upon this subject, in which he enforces the doc- 
trine that the question of home defense is not a military 
but a naval question, and that it is a waste of energy 
and of money to accumulate a great land force for the 
purpose of repelling an invasion which will never come. 
What is wanted is a small, effective force to repel a 
raid, for if once the sovereignty of the seas is destroyed, 
no foreign power need take the trouble to invade Eng- 
land. They would simply sit around and starve her 
into submission. 

AXOTHER VIEW OF THE MISSIONAKY QUESTION. 

Mr. H. C. Thomson, writing on the missionary in 
China, alleges that the missionaries, especially the 
Catholics, meddled with the courts of law and urged 
the claims of their converts to the great detriment of 
ju.stice. The injudicious championship by the priests 
of their converts' causes was the chief cause of the sud- 
den rise against the foreigners and the formation of the 
Boxer .Society. 

Mr. Thomson advocates allowing missionaries in 
the interior only under a strictly enforced passport sys- 
tem, and insists on the abandonment of all fraudu- 
lently oVjtained rights and privileges. Of women mi.s- 
sionaries, especially when they are qualified as doctors, 
he greatly approves. Speaking of the indemnity ques- 
tion, he says : 

"Only a self-denying ordinance, such as that adopted 
by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
(which has lost several of its members and a great deal 
of its property), to accept no compensation of any kind 
from the Chinese Ciovcrnment, but to make good the 
losses sustained, V)oth by the missionaries themselves 
and by the societies to which they belong, by .sitbscrip- 
tions from their supporters at home, will avail to coun- 
teract the mischief that has already been caused. The 
Chinese have a long memory, and a step of this kind 
would win their respect as nothing else could, just as a 
contrarj' action will breed in their minds a confirmed 
.suspicion and dislike." 



.Mr. Thomson doubts whether the recent behavior of 
the allies in China will tend to impress the (Chinese and 
.lapanesf witli our superior virliu-. AtprescMit, he says : 

"The opportunity for proselytization is unequaled, 
for the Chinese for several centuries have been in a .state 
of uticr religious indifTerentism. TheChinaman of the 
present time is. in fact, in much the same condition of 
latent skepticism as many latter-day Christians, — he 
has jio very earnest convictions, but he does not like to 
cut himself adrift from the religion of his childhood al- 
together ; as a rule, he is frankly an agnostic." 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW. 

THE Fortvhjhtly for June contains three or four 
very good articles. We have dealt elsewhere 
with "('alchas'" paper on " Russia and Her ProV)lems," 
with Baron de Coubertin's article cm "The Conditions 
of Franco-Hritish Peace," and withMr.Thomas Barcl.iy's 
plea for a "General Treaty of Arbitration Between 
France and Great Britain." 

THE MEDITERRANEAN PERIL TO BRITAIN. 

Lieut.-Col. Willoughby Verner has a short pessimistic 
article on the British position in the Mediterranean, 
which, he says, has never been so weak. The fleet is 
inadequate for its task, and is in danger of being 
crushed l)efore it could be reinforced in the event of 
war suddenly breaking out. 

"Twenty years ago, the only naval bases which 
threatened our .seciarity were Toulon, situated some 
four hundred miles north of the course from Gibraltar 
to Malta, and Sebastopol, over one thousand miles dis- 
tant from that between Malta and Alexandria. But 
nowadays all this is changed ; the French, owing to our 
halting diplomacy, have been permitted to .seize on 
Tunis, and with it the naval station of Bizerta. . . . 
We thus see oiir most persistent and most ancient of 
foes securely established on the line between Gibraltar 
and Malta, and within less than a few hours' steaming 
from the latter place. On the other hand, the I'esults 
of the policy of alienating the Turks have been, as all 
the world knows, to throw that nation into the arms of 
Russia. To put it plainly, since the Black Sea is ta- 
booed to our warships and is free to those of Russia, the 
fleets of the latter power are unassailable by us until 
they emerge into the TEgean Sea ; in other words, the 
Sebastopol of to-day, for all intents and purposes, may 
be taken as being at the entrance to the Dardanelles, 
and in consequence is only four hundred and fifty miles 
from our route between Malta and Alexandria — a day's 
.steaming, or little more." 

Colonel Verner complains that Malta is undergarri- 
soned, and he maintains that the present dispersion of 
the British fleet constitutes a great danger. 

WEDDINGS AND PROSPERITY. 

Mr. Holt Schooling writes on " The English Marriage 
Rate," the object of his article being to show that the 
marriage -rate depends upon national prosperity as 
shown by exports. The decay of the birth-rate, he 
points out, is not due to a smaller marriage-rate, but to 
a continuous fall in the fertility of the people. 

"The fei-tility of a marriage has declined since the 
year 1880 ; during 1876 to 1880 one marriage produced 
4.41 children, 441 children to 100 marriages ; but in 1898, 
the most recent year for which I have the facts, one 
marriage produced only 3.46 children, 346 children to 



THE PERIODICALS REI^/EH'ED. 



Ill 



100 marriages, as compared with the 441 children of 
tweuty years ago, a decline of one child per marriam*.' 

AUSTKALASIA AM) KNGLASD. 

Prof. H. Mncaulay Piwnett writes on "The Ffdenil 
Constitmion of Aiistnilin," i>oiiitini: out the funda- 
mental difTerenres which exist between it and Kngland's 
own elastic system. We quote the followint; iMVssage 
trom his conclu>ioi> : 

"It is true that the federal checks and hiilaiices a|v 
jR'ar to lie a waste of energy, and tiiat a fe«leral govern- 
ment may I* at a disadvantage compared with a 'uni- 
tarian' government of etiual resourie.s. Ii, is true that 
federalism does not alnilish tin- mutual jealousies of the 
states — Australia is learning this U-.sson— and the federal 
constitution of Switzerland has positively endxxlletl t lie 
principle of such jealousies by providing (Bunde.sverfii.s- 
siuig, Art. IX'i) that each meml>er of the federal executive 
mu>t beU>ng to a different canton. Hut, grave as some 
defects of fe<leralism clearly are, and anomalous as is 
the connection of the British constitution with this sys- 
tem, I should 1h' .slow to join with those who deprecate 
the crowing British resjiect for a form of gnvei-iimeiit 
which, if the truth must be told, is little iuider.><t(Kxl in 
the British Isles. Rather am I inclined to .see in the 
anomalotis British »upervision of two great fe<lerations 
an oi)en d(M>r for .some higher ami wider imperial system 
which, while perfectly compatible with federalism, may 
.succeed in remedying, not oidy the defects of federalism, 
but those of the British constitution it.self." 

ENGLAND'S COAL DITY. 

Mr. n. A. Thomas, M.P., attacks the Britisli coal 
duty, giving twelve cardinal reasons why it is injurious 
md sh»)uhl l)e withdrawn. He .says : 

" Btit clearly the objec*. of the duty is not primarily 
to rai.se revenue. If ."^ir Michael n-ally wished to widen 
the basis of taxation he should have jilaced an excise 
duty on all coal raised. A shilling on every ton would 
have given him eleven millions insteml of the two he 
now gets fnmi exjjorted coal, and it would have In-en 
far easier to collect. The chancellor of tlie excliecjiier 
will not, he says, be sorry if the effect of the iluty is to 
restrict exports and conserve our coal resources ; but 
what becomes of his revenue in that ca.se? Revenue 
and conservation are horses that will not run in double 
harness. When one pidls, the other jibs. No, the real 
object of the dtity is to cheHi)en the cost of fuel to the 
home consumer, the Bristol sugar-refiner, the Birming- 
ham manufacturer." 

MU. WELLS' ANTICIPATIONS. 

Mr. Wells continues his " Anticipations," dealing this 
month with " Developing Social Klements." The dis- 
tinctive feature of present-day anrl coming society he 
sees in the growth of a da.ss of irresponsible pro|M-rty- 
owners, who do no work, and do not even iimnaKe their 
own property : that is to say, shareholders in imlusfrial 
companies. Anothi-r element of t he mt i liiinical civili- 
zation of the future is a great class whidi he designates 
"engineers;" that is to say. every one in any way con 
nected witli mechanical industry. Thiscliiss will really 
be the mainstay of all industries in the future, as me- 
chanicid perfected processes develop at the e.\|M'nH«' of 
the obsolete (net hods of the present day. Miin> trades 
have stagnated owing to the want of e<iuc4iticm «»f thotw 
enuaucfl in them, and I heir conseipi.-nt laik of adapta- 
bility. Mr. Wells (luoles the building tra<le itn an e.x 
ample : 



" I fail to ae« the neoeaaity of eoi«l-ra«f nMtiiodfl. 
Better walls than this, and better and lew life-wantinK 
ways of making them, are Hurely |>ONiibl«r. In the wall 
in quesfiiiM. concrete woulil have \tevn rli.-Miwr ntid 
Ijetter • i ks, if only "the nieii ' had n 

But I ■ ;. im at last of much more n 

affairs, of a thing running to and fronlonKa teni|M>rtr\ 

rail that will - 

from a tulx', ai. 

sets. Moreover. I do not hih* at all why the whIIh of 

small dwelling-houses should lie so Mdid as they an*. 

There still hang about us the monumentnl Intditions of 

the Pyrami«ls. It ought t- 

I)ortable, and habitable h< ■ „ 

and weatherpn>ofe<l |)a|>er U|ion a light franiewcirk. 

This siort of thing is, no doubt, aUiminahly ' » 

present, but that is lte<ause nn-hittnts and il. 

I)einu for the m«>st part iiionlinately cultnreil and iju i. 

uneducated, are unable to cojh* with its fundameniall> 

novel problems. A few energetic men might at any 

time set out to alter all this." 



TIIK NATIONAL RKVIEW. 

IN the Nutlotial Itct^ictc for June, .Mr. W. H. Mai 
lock reviews the economic writings of Sir William 
Petty, which have r«s-ently lieen repnblisluHl. IVttv 
was lK)rii in PVi't. and his writinifs are therefore more 
than two hundred years old. He calculated the |Mipu- 
lation of I^mdon in his day at ori,iNiu, ami thai of the 
<'ountry at ten times as miic-h. In 1K42, > ' lt to 

Petty. KuKland and Wales would contain '. <'l 

whom no less than half woidd Is* l/ondoners. 

TIIK >MTlllK OK U)NIKi\ 

Mr. H. W. Wilson «lis«'u.sM*H in an inten-stiiiL 
the (juestion. "Will I^ondon Ite .'sulT<Kat«'«l ♦' 1. 
cation he refers not to want of giMwl air, but to the in- 
ade<iuacy of the roa«ls and railways to Iwar the great 
traffic much longer. He |M>ints out that almimt every 
foreign city has In-eii radii'ally adjusted to modern re- 
(jniremenls by the construction of Kfat nuids and 
Imnlevards, whereas I/imdon is in the same NtAt4* am a 
hniidre<i years a^o. The few widenings that there ha»e 
Ih-cii are nullitii-d by the constant upheavals for umler- 
ground repairs. The effect of these ant i(|uat«><l oimli- 
tions must in the end lie to limit the si/e nf the citv 

THE BAOPAP KAILWA^ 
"X" wriU's on the Bagdad Railway, which he d»- 
scrilM's as "The F<k'Us of .Asiatic Policy." 

"St. Petersburg is uinloubiedly morfanxion«« than at 
any time since the Crimean cam|>aign to >>*•%• her nda- 
tions with this country Improvetl. in view of the new 
developments of the Fliutlern quwtion. If we ha«l 
.nettled with HusHJn, the Bngtlad Railwa\ ' " Ite a 

lnwid for tJerinany's giMMl U-lmvior. t> ■ w«« 

shfUild ne%'er h«se sight «if the |MtHnibilltr that the two 
Continental p*iwers may N- templed In avoid the liiron- 
ceix.ible diHjiMt«'n» of actual war by Ihe fandliar mean* 
of trading in comiwUHjit ion With l>oth 
for the Persian (inlf, a ctini|>»iri to push n ^ i 

altogether wouhl In< the one Imrgain by which (irriiiany 
miuht ho|H- I ^ " ' ' - ■ •»,,. 

H|M)ilH. India . . ,1 

by M-a, and when the liaudad Unil«a) nai lii->. Kl 
Kuweit the doubling of the tierman llwl will U< inim- 
plele. The in-w power at the gate fif imlla will bm not 
oidy the first military |s»w«r In Ihe worhl al ten cUy»' 



1 1 



THE AMERICAS' MONTHLY REl^lEW OF REI/IEIVS. 



r '■ ■ 1 •: hut the seronil iiiiviil, at four 

,1.^, . „ : lUimlmy. l^'t us look to it lu- 

timrss for when three powers me«'t upon the Persian 
O " ■ mny be hammer and iiiivil anil one the thiiiK 
U 

THK MONTH r.Y KKVIKW. 

THE editorial in the MnntM]i Review for July is a 
somewhat abstract article on the aims of educa- 
tioa, ontitletl "The Pyramid of Studies." 

THK POWEItS I\ CHINA. 
Mr. H. C. Thomp.son has an article on "The Policy of 
the I'owers in China." He contrasts tlie increase of 
Ku.ssian prestige with the decay of Britisli— a decay 
which has heen caused by alternate threatening and 
receding. Even when Hngland went in for a definite 
IH)licy. it wa.s at the heels of (Jennany ; and Mr. Thomp- 
son claims that the Kus.';ians j;ot on much better with 
the Chinese, once the heat of hostilities was over, than 
the Germans. The Russian policy was the right one, 
and carrietl its day. 

THE VOLIKTEEHS. 

Mr. Basil Williams writes on "Volunteer Efficiency." 
The weak point of the volunteer sy.stem, he says, is the 
inefficiency of the officers. 

" In artillery volunteer corps, where exact knowledge 
is even more reciuisite in an officer, the following figures 
show no great improvement, altiiough I have reckoned 
in the totals those who have pas.sed the special ex- 
amination in artillery as well as those w'ho have passed 
the school of instruction. In one corps only 6 officers 
out of 27 have passed either the school of instruction 
or the artillery examination; in another, 6 out of 25; 
in others, 6 out of 16, 6 out of 14, 10 out of 26, 4 out of 
11. 8 out of Ifi. 15 out of .37, and 18 out of 2.S ; in one corps 
the major, four captains, {<nd six lieutenants have not 
apparently even pa.ssed the examination entitling them 
to the prefix p .' " 

NIGERIA. 

Mr. Harold Rindloss writes an interesting article en- 
titled "Nigeria and Its Trade," which deals, however, 
more with the general conditions of life in Nigeria than 
with trade. The export trade of the country is practi- 
cally confined to palm-oil and kernels, which are paid 
for chiefly with gin and cotton. Of the former com- 
modity, Mr. Bindloss says : 

"Some describe it as a brain-destroying poison, others 
as an innocuous .stimulant, while the writer would only 
state that though he has seen great numbers of cases 
purchased, he rarely witnes.sed any drunkenne.ss among 
the natives. This may, however, be due to the fact 
that the negro can apparently consume almost any fluid 
without ill effect. On the other hand, few white men 
care to drink the 'trade' brand of gin, and the few sea- 
men who do so surreptitiously are usually brought back 
by main force in a state approaching dangerous in- 
sanitj." 

THE MAKING OF PEDIGREES. 

Mr. J. Horace Round has an amusing paper on "The 
Companions of the Conqueror," in which he shows up a 
good many manufactured pedigrees. The number of 
families who can positively be traced to William's 
knights is very small, and there is only one P^nglish fam- 
ily which still remains on the lordship which they 
gained from the Conqueror. Mr. Round laughs at 
Burke and the College of Heralds. Family after family 



which, acconling to Hnrke, came over with the Con- 
qiuTor is unable to i)rove its pedigree .so far back. 

OTHER ARTICLES. 

Mr. R. E. Fry's paper on " Florentine Painting of the 
Fourteenth Century" is admirably illustrated with re- 
productions. Miss Cholmondeley describes, under the 
title of "An .\rt, in Its Infancy," advertising as it was 
in the seventeenth century. Mr. Henry Nevvbolt tells 
the " Ronumceof a Songbook," and there is an article by 
the President of Magdalen College on " Gray and Dante." 



THE WESTMINSTER REVIEW. 

THE .Iiinc niunber of the Wcfitininntcr opens with 
"Astounding Revelations About the South Afri- 
can War," by " A True Friend of a Better England." 

Mr. Howard Ilodgkin recalls the way in which Penn 
and the Quakers acquired Pennsylvania, and contrasts 
the situation in South Africa. He ejaculates, "If only 
our statesmen could first appreciate and then imitate 
the wi.sdom of the Quaker courtier of tlie seventeenth 
century !" There would follow cessation of hostilities, 
conference, possibly a compromise to be found in "fly- 
ing the flags of two respective nations at Bloemfontein 
and Pretoria, as at Khartum." In any case, he argue.s, 
" it were better to be on friendly terms with two con- 
tented peoples outside the British empire than on terms 
of enmity with two rebellious peoples lately introduced 
within it." He closes with the remark, "If only the 
Engli.sh will ri.se to the high level of the first settlers of 
Pennsylvania, the other inhabitants of South Africa 
will rise to the level of the Red Indians." Mr. Frederic 
W. Tugman writes under the heading, "The Policy of 
Grab : Jingo or Pro-Boer," and slasliingly vindicates 
the genuine patriotism of " Pro-Boer" and " Little Eng- 
lander" as against the rival claims of Jingo capitalists. 
TWO IRISH PROBLEMS. 

Mr. Dudley S. A. Ccsby argues against Mr. T. W. 
Russell's scheme for the compulsory expropriation of 
Irish landlords. It would, he says, mean ruin to the 
landlords, extinction of the Protestant element, and 
elimination of a sorely needed source of good and hon- 
est leadership. He says that "the extension of the 
present system of voluntary purchase appears to us to 
be the best plan until the whole question of the rela- 
tionship of the people of Great Britain with the land 
comes up for settlement in England." 

Mr. Thomas E. Naughten replies to an earlier article 
by Mr. Cosby, and explains that the opposition to the 
establishment of a Roman Catholic university is ba.sed, 
not on Protestant bigotry or racial feud, but on a de- 
.sire to promote national unity and brotherhood by a 
system of education common and open to all creeds and 
parties. This he declares to be the real desire of Roman 
Catholic laymen, if they only dared to express it. 

OTHER ARTICLES. 

Mr. Maiirice Todhunter supplies a very interest- 
ing study of the historian, Heinrich von Treitschke. 
Treitschke "is on the side of life against bookishness ; " 
he " ispossessed of 'the great antiseptic style' and knows 
how to set off his mas.ses of material in a readable and 
artistic shape." He is said to resemble Macaulay, but 
was more genial and passionate, and had something of 
the lyrical and penetrative essence of Michelet and 
Carlyle. 

James Creed Meredith examines the basis of certain 
popular observations concerning the ridiculous. 



THE PERIOniCAlS RHt^/Elf'ED. 



11. -t 



THE CONTINFNTAL RHVltWS. 



REVITE DES UEIX .MONDhLS. 

WE have notice<l elsewhere M. Ia-vj-'s article on 
Chines*' fimitice in tii«' first May nunitter of the 
Hevuc ths Deux Mmofcs. The contents for May as a 
whole fully maintain the hi^h reputation of M. lirune- 
ti^re's review. 

THE DOCTRINES OF SPINOZA. 

M. t'ouchoml reviews a nuinlier of recent l)ooks on 
Spinoxa, and discusise.s whether the philosopher was a 
Christian. The external siyns are somewhat inconsist- 
ent, as, for instance, when in one of his letters Spinoza 
replies to a suy^estion of Catholicism in such a way a.s 
to make us think him no Christian ; but on the other 
hand his treatise on theolo<iy shows th.'it, in his view, 
for mathematical certainty might Ik- substituted a 
moral adhesion, based upon signs, without l)ein|Lj com- 
pletely ju.stifleil by them. On the whole, .M. Couchoud 
thinks that the reply to the question whether .*>piiioza 
wa-s a Christian is to say that he furnished a ba.sis for 
the Christian life in rea-son. 

JINGOISM IN LITEn.VTUKE. 

M. de Vogii^ has had tlie excellent idea of discussing 
the development of imperialism in English literature 
in the light of the novels of Disraeli and Kipling. He 
goes through the principal wt)rks of both writers with 
the view of showing that, undoubtedly different as 
they are in tone, talent, and conception of life, yet they 
meet upon this common ground of imperial sentiment. 
Disraeli felt strongly tlu? attraction of the East, and he 
had a uiystical faith in the influence of th.it old cradle 
of the human race ; Eurojie would (ind there, he 
tliought, the cure for all her ills. In "Tancred," which 
wa.s published in 1S47, we find the whole l)ook colored 
by this obsession, anil there is in it a passage in which 
Queen Victoria is called for the first time Empress of 
India. In the theories of Disraeli the novelist we .sei- 
the same springs at work as in the foreign [Kilicy of 
Disraeli the minister. He obtains the islanil of Cyi)rus 
with some idea of commanding Palestine and .Asia 
Minor ; the Afghan war wjus his work ; he it wa.s who 
l)oldly tf)ok the step which insured English predomi- 
nance in Egypt ; and lie it was who annexed the republic 
<if the Transvaal for the first time. So we see, .s<iy«, .M. 
de Vogii6, that English imi>erialism was at first a great 
.lewish dream. It i.s curious thjit although the latter- 
day a[M)stle of im|)erialism, Mr. Kipling, is certainly 
English to the marrow of his Imnes, yet his whole con- 
tention of humanity and attitude towaril life — even liis 
very vocabulary — are Orientalized by the long years 
which he spent in India. 

PARIS AND TIIK I'ROVINflAI.. 

Perhaps Ix-raiise France is so large a country, tlio 
metro|M»lis plays ati even great^-r part in the imagiiia 
tions of till' provincials tlian d<M's I/mdon t4> the Eng 
lish c«>untryman, or the Scot, Irishman, or Welshman. 
Nowadays thanks tocheapday tickets, excursion trains, 
and HO on, there are comparatively few |H>ople in tin- 
Unit^'d Kingdom who have not paid at least one visit to 
I^ondon. This has not hitherto been tliecime in France ; 
but, according to .M. Ifanotaux, his country in this mat- 
ter is iNToming more like England, and there arc few 
French provincials who do not consider theniwlvex well 



acquainted with Parii«, Yet n. " 

guished statesman, Pari<i, or nn 

fer to an astounding deunf from iheir prtivlndnl com- 

iwtriot.s ; but they have oue great virtue in coninmn. 

and that in love of work. "How dirTervnt from l^m. 

don !" cries .M. I' ix ; ••therv ' 

whole days' rest .-ek. . . ." W ^ \ ■ 

not enjoy the couunon round, the daily tMJtk. in the 

manner .so chariwteristic of pr - •- ' !' ,.. The 

Parisian lives and works in a . r fever ; 

he has a horror of dullness and ■ m novelty, nnd 

this is true of Parisian com men . -. ;i an of PurUinn 

art. Nowhere is this more seen than in the trade center 

of Paris. On the other hand, it is not 

find in a provincial town a business h. 

foundeil l)efore the Hevolution, and out of whu-h ItN 

owners are content to make a fair living and nothing 

more ; but this is not the ca.se in Paris, where the trailer 

who lacks initiative and invention ends b\ m- 

pletely to tin- wall. In England thecounti; ;i«-n 

comes up to Ixindon and nwikesa great fortune, whereaa 

in France the provincial is rarely so fortunate. Ever)-- 

thing is again.st him,— his early training, his innate 

caution, and his half envy, half fear, of the Parisian. 

Yet .M. Hanotaux considers that France would lack one 

of her most essetitial, most component, |vtrt« were she 

to Ik* suddenly depriveil of the existence of her capital. 

WHAT CAfSES HAIL. 

Count de Saporta contributes a curious and n-ally 
very interesting article on the close ctmnection which 
has In-en found to exist iH-twwn It ■. mis and the 

firing of cannon. He tells some e\ j.iry stories 

concerning the size of hailstones. For example. In Oc- 
tol>er, ISIIM. at Hizerta a hail-storm cciven**! a French 
warship with hailstones some of which weigheil. ac- 
coriling to thoM' on l>oard. nearly txv«Mity-one |M)unds. 
The worst hail-storms t.ike place more oft<'n in hot 
weather than iu the cooler months of the year, nnd 
these visitations are far more common in t) 'i of 

1-' ranee than in the north. Certain district- .en 

their agricultural pros|K'rity completely desiroyist by 
one very bad hail-storm. Styria which sc«'ms to Im> pe- 
culiarly liable to destructive hail-siorins. was one of the 
first |>laces to try the exiM-rimeiil of br' ■ »ll- 

clouds by means of the firing of cannon, ^>ng 

to this article, the ex|)eriiiientM proved so niioceiuiful 
that now what he calls "cannon Htalions" have \nfn 
e>ilablislied in all those |Hirlioiis of the Continent whert< 

t lie agricull oral interest was com|M'lle«l. in tl Id daym 

t4> insure heavily ligaiiist the |Missible destructiuu by 
hail-storiuH of every kind of agricultural produce. 



NOrVEM.K UEVrK. 

M( AMIi.LE FLA.M.M.VUION, the gn-nl n>tniii(>- 
. m.' ■• • '• May 

niiiiilM-r of 1 1 'Ve 

that the terrestrnil gioln*. «•<■■ \u 

axis thniugh s|MU'e, never giH „ -lUie 

atmosphere, .\cconling to thU theor)', the world lunin 

on ]'• 

troll' 

genlous and plaunlble. 



Hi 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY A'/:77/://' 01' Rl-yiHlVS. 



CAN CATIIOLinSM BK 1.IIIKHAL ? 

M. I*ottlcr ontf iuon> innkos n lU'toriiiiiu-d c>(Ti)rt t«> 
pr ' U'siralnlityof H new Frt'iich iK)Iilical party 

\\\ 1 at once Ik' I'atlinlic nml LiluTal. IIi- has 

tnkoii thf tn>ul)l»' to st'curf a writtoii cxpri'ssion of 
opinion from woll-known iH)liticians, including those of 
Mich varying views lis M. Clt^inenceau, tlie Abl>6 Gay- 
raud. .Inles Ix-ntaitre. M. Hihot. and M. Trarieux. 
Tlie L'unite di- Hlui> is evidently very nincli discoura.ned. 
He says that, altlion^h the Catlmlic party are always 
willing to join themselves together to form .such valu- 
able institutions as that of the Catholic Workmen's 
Chilis, fi>ui)d(tl liy Comte Albert de Muu, he does not 
see them at all willinti to sink their various difrcrenios 
in onler to fonn a united Liberal party. M. Clenien- 
ci'au writes as might lie e.xpected, very bitterly. lie 
points out that numerous efTort.s to form a I^iberal 
jvirty have already taken place and that they have all 
failed. M. Cuneo d"Ornano, while full of faith and con- 
viction, thoroughly disjipproves of mixing up religion 
and jKditics. He declares that in France the religious 
I>olitician is invariably a royalist, and he points out 
that the Catholic Lil)eral party would inevitably work 
for the restoration of a Bonaparte or a Bourbon. The 
distinguished man of letters, M. Leniaitre, who has 
conu' prominently to the front in connection with the 
Nationalist i)arty, is evidently on the whole in favor of 
the formation of a Catholic Liberal party, but evidently 
simply iK'cause lie believes that such a party would 
work for the objects he himself has in view. M. Leroy- 
Beaulieu .sets forth at some length his reasons for op- 
posing the suggestion of such a party ; the majority, 
indeed, of the well-known people whose opinions are 
here set forth think the formation of a Catholic Liberal 
party neither desirable nor possible. M. Kibot recalls 
the fact that the ('omte de Mun tried to do .something 
of the kind some years ago, and that, so far from being 
encouraged, he was begged to desist from his efforts by 
the heads of the French episcopate. 

HIS FATHER'S SOX. 

M. Maudair gives in a few pages an interesting ac- 
count of M. L^on Daudet, the eldest son of the famous 
novelist, whose premature death was such a terrible 
loss to Frencli letters. Young Daudet has not cared to 
follow in his father's footsteps, and liis novels differ, as 
much as one form of fiction can difi'er from another, 
from tho.se of the writer who was justly styled "the 
?'rench Dickens.'' Alphonse Daudet delighted in .show- 
ing the world simple heroism, the pathos and the 
beauty of ordinary life ; his son is a philosopher, a cynic, 
a satirist, and up to the present time each of his novels 
has partjiken of the nature of a pamphlet. 

FRKSCH HOUSEWIVES. 

Mme. Schmahl, who is, we believe, an Engli.sh- 
woman, contributes an excellent little article entitled 
"Domestic Economy," which is, of course, entirely 
written from the French point of view. She points 
out that in our modern life woman, in her role of 
housewife, has the disposal of a considera])le portion of 
her husband's earnings or income. She also is an im- 
portant employer of labor, and to the mother of the 
family falls the important duty of looking after the 
physical as well as the moral welfare of the future citi- 
zens in every country. According to Mme. Schmahl, 
the modern housewife, for the most part, does not fitl- 
fill her duties at all competently. Many women allow 



thejuselves to be hopelessly cheated by their tradespeo- 
ple, even those who go to market Ihem.selves, for they 
iiave not tiie experience wliicli will save them from be- 
ing constantly outwitted in bargaining. Every house- 
hold is manageil upon a diflerent plan, each married 
woman buying her experience very bitterly. She 
toiu-hi's upon tiu^ servant (juestion, which is apparently 
as great a problem in France as in t liis country. She 
points out that work has no .sex, and would evidently 
like to see men taught to be as good housekeepers as 
are their wives ; that is, when they are so fortunate as 
to meet the ideal housewife who knows something of 
everything, and who can teach each of her servants 
how to do his or her work. 



REVUE DE PARIS. 

WE have noticed elsewhere Mr. Stead's article on 
" How Will King Edward VII. Govern ?" And 
apart from this article, there is a good deal of interest 
in the Revue de Paris for Maj'. A translation is given 
of Sir Robert Hart's article on " China, Reform, and the 
Power.s,"' which appeared in the Fortnightly and was 
noticed in the Review of Reviews for June. 

THE religion OF TOLSTOY. 

M. Strannick writes an interestiiig paper on "The 
Religion of Tolstoy," which naturally derives an added 
importance from the recent excomnnmication. The life 
of Tolstoy divides itself naturally into two parts — the 
first purely worldly, and the second his evangelizing 
life ; and Tolstoy himself admits this division. At a 
given moment he was "converted," but for a long time 
he sotight for the faith, and the history of his life bears 
witne.ss to the moral anguish which he constantly suf- 
fered. When he was at school he was troubled about 
the immortality of the soul, and a schoolfellow one day 
informed him that he had made a great discovery — 
namely, that God does not exist, and at that time it 
seemed to Tolstoy quite possible. Tolstoy's novels are 
like a diary of liis moral and religious uncertainties. 
The religion which he ultimately elaborated is a Chris- 
tianity of his own, independent of that of the Church ; 
it is more or less theoretical, but is framed for practice. 
He fought most earne.stly against the view that Chris- 
tianity is a very beautiful Utopia which cannot be real- 
ized in the world as it is at present constituted ; to his 
mind, Christianity is the rigorous and complete applica- 
tion of the commands of Jesus with all their logical 
con.sequences. It must be all or nothing — "He who is 
not with Me is against Me." 

RAILAVATS IN THE BALKANS. 

M. Loiseau calls attention in a short article to the 
imi)ortance of the railwaj' which Austria-Hungary is 
projecting, designed to connect Serajeva with Vienna, 
and ultimately with the important port of Salonika on 
the .a^gean Sea. The aspirations of Austria-Hungary 
toward Salonika date from the time of the Treaty of 
Berlin, and M. Loiseau explains very clearly the im- 
portance of these ambitions, and the extent to which 
they aflfect both France and Italy. 

COMMERCIAL EDUCATION IN GERMANY. 

M. Torau-Bayle contributes a stvidy of this important 
subject from the point of view of France. He says that 
France boasts an excellent system of higher commer- 
cial education, and the great French schools of com- 
merce need have no fear of the rivalry of A ix-la-Cha- 



THE PERIODICALS KEIIEU'EIX 



11.") 



pflle or I^ipsic. Hut that is not enough. In Kraru-f, 
he ><iys, tiny liavf Ir-ijiiii jit th«' wron^,' i-iiil : tlu-y haw 
iuvertod the (ieniiau proivdurt'. The hi^^her coiumer- 
cial .schools are the crown, so to s|K'ak, of tlie progress- 
ive system of commercial etlucatioii, and lie coinplains 
that in France they are isolatt-d from the rest of tiie 
educational establishments by the ditliculi entrance ex- 
aminations and by the high prices charged to pupils. 



THE ITALIAN KKVIEWS. 

EVEKYone anxious to follow the important e.\ca- 
vations that are being carried on in the Konian 
Forum should study the lavishly illustrated article 
in C'osniON C(it)n>1icus (.May 15) by l»rof. (). .Marucchi, 
the greatest of Koman arcluvologists t<Mlay. The de- 
struction of the church of Santa .Maria Liberatrice has 
fully justified the expectations of those who advocattnl 
it, and Professf)r Marucchi is now able to give a full 
description of the wonderful church of .Santa Maria 
-\ntiqini, with its frescoes and inscription.s, which has 
Ix'en l)rought to light l)eneath the more mo<lern edifiie. 
This newly discovered building is hehl to date from the 
fourth century, and i> probably the oldest church dedi- 
cated to the Virgin in Koine. 

English literature receives constant attention from 
the editor of the .Vhoivi Antolofjui. Among the books 
dealt with this month are Hall Caine's 'The Eternal 
City" and Roy Devereu.x's "Side Lights on S<jutli .\f- 
ricH," while .Miss Yonge and Kishop Stubbs are each 
treate<l to a friendly notice. A. Hildebrand (May If,) 
makes an energetic protest against the suggestion that 
a siM)t of such idyllic beauty as the Villa Horghes*' 
should be utilized as the site of a prosaic modern monu- 
ment to the late King Humbert. L. Hasi writes enthu- 
siastically of Eleonora Duse in an article with many 
interesting portraits, in which he attributes the greater 
tenderness anil j)urity of her later acting to the influ- 
ence of fjabriele d'.Vnnunzio. 

Both the Antiiloijin and the Ritsxrijuti Ntizinniilr 
(May 1) take Archbishoi) Ireland seriously to task for 
his recent pronouncements concerning the tennwral 
power. 

The French are said to Ijeca-sting envious eyes at Eng- 
land's public schools. Italy is now beginning to follow 
suit. In Flcijrcn (May 5) the Duca di (iualtieri gives a 
very g(M)d historical account of the great public scIkmjIs 
of Englanrl, jMiinting out that the aim of {{ritisii ednca- 
tiotial metlnxls is rather to develop character than to 
cram information. 



THE GERMAN MAGAZINES. 

IN an article iii>on the "Prerogatives of the Rritish 
Crown," contributefl \i> Mntuitusilirlfl Ulnr Stmlt 
HUfl Lnnil. .Mr. \V. (i. Skinner, of Editibnrgh, endeavors 
to explain how really insignilicant the jMjwers of the 
crown are in Knglainl as compared to t hos4< exercised by 
the Kai.ser and other European monarclis. 

Ulricli von Ha.ssell contributes an article U|Hin Tol- 
stoy's relation to Church and State. Hi- considers that 
the Holy Synod kept on liopint^ that ToNtoy w<inl<l 
change in bis views an<l return to the ('hurch. Kut <il 
last this hr)pe was evidently vain, and the count w<i.h ex- 
i'ommunicated. Von Ha.ssell also siipplieH his UNual 
article upon German colonial |M)liti('s, dealing chiefly 
with the development of southwest Africa. 

As usual, Uchcr Land nml Mitr is e.xcoedingly well 



'"" '<"l 'ontains many inferefitlngurticles. The 

^/"' l'l"te is a Very line >.{iccinien of e.il.,r prim- 

ing, and depictMH mene in the "Ohl Land "-Haiiovtr 
The other plates are : A ver- 
Hichter, of a duel on h<>i 

Dahls -On the Sunny W«ve ; ' Kembrandt'i. • .M«m 
with the Staff ;"and "The Ms«»pe<l Hull." by <;. Vu»- 
tagh, a very tine picture inde.-<| At the en«l of the 
magazine then- is a |h. rnouK others.. .f .Major- 

(Jeneral von (iroxs-.Sehu i. who wits lajruinl in the 

conflagration which dentruyed the Kni|ierur'M pnlac« nt 
Peking. .\ rather interesting ph.* 'of 

the sword of honor which the Ha .,|,« 

friends i>t the H<Krs havedeiided to pres4*ht to (feneml 
l)e Wet. The lost (iaiuslN)rough is repniductil. ami «c- 
ccmtinnies n short description of the DucheMi of Devon- 
shire. The lioers' camp in Ceylon is il. i \\. 
lustrated from s|iecial photographs by 1' . md 
Hiidolph Teichmann. The new extension of the rail- 
way in the southern pjirt of the HIack Forest in de- 
scrilje<l and illustrate<l with ntany inten-sting photo- 
graphs. 

Ernst Haeckel contributes to 7>«uf*c/u- UtiiulnrhoH 
a further installment descriptiveof his journey through 
the .Malay states. While at Hatavia he was very much 
struck with the fish market and the wonderful colors 
ami shapes of the fish eX|>os,-<l there. Carl Fren7.el 
writes at length concerning the stjige in lierlin. Some 
fifteen of Heine's letters, which have lieen hitherto un- 
published, form the subject of a contribution »>y Ernst 
Elster. Hndoliih Eucken writes U|Min the world-wide 
crisis in religion, and Ijidy HIennerhaft has an article 
U|Kjn " PauisiTi and Pessimism." 

H. Graf zu Dohna, writ ing in Sord uml SUil. dcscrilMti 
Crete under the banner of St. .Mark. iM-giniiing with a 
passing reference to (he pn-M-nt |Kisition »)f the islami 
under Prince George of Greece. His accHUint of the 
Phd'nician occu{>ation is very interi'sting. He con- 
cludes by saying that the pres«Mit condition of Crete 
can oidy Ik- tem|M>rary,— the nominal control <if the 
Porte will 1h' cast ofT. and the island will in* joiiie<i to 
Greece. Hugo Hiltfger wrileii at cunttiderable length 
upon iKjIittcal economy. 

The .May nnmU-rcif I He HcHfllHrhnft contains an in- 
terestiiiK accciunt of his interview with Count Tolstoy 
by Siegfried Hey. The meeting t«K>k place in Tolstoy's 
house in Moscow, and .Mr. Hey thuNde.<«cril)eM the work- 
room of the count : It is very plain, the i|uiet corner of 
a worker and thinker. White walls, bare of pieturtnt. 
A large writing-table covereil with numuscripts and 
b<M<ks in miscellaneous confusion. The ri>st of the fur- 
niture consists of a standing desk, a large leather wifa, 
and a few chairs. The four windows liMik into the uar- 
<len. As usual, Tolstoy wa.s dress,.*! in |M-a.Hiint's coh- 
tume. The count lM*gan by n-pnuiching his visitor for 
having U-en an ofTlcer, but the tjdk soon drift«il to the 
subject of jiatriolism, and later t4» literatun'. He con 
sidered the present C/.ech language troubles as absnni 
and unworthy of the present century. He diN-n not like 
H>s«Mi, and would mtt ditH-uitn him lieyiind snying thnt 
he could not endure him. and that Iti 'If did 

not know what he wanted .Mr He\ i uonlil 

Im' JMilHiHsible for To|s|m_\ ever to iM-|tle down outilde of 
Hussiii, jiH did TnrueniefT. The Interview biKltil clii«r 
on an hour, and wan clom-d by CimmiIi'mm ToUUiy en- 
tering to lal, I 

.\nother I conlrlbuteil u|iuu Itic 

German F^iMt African Km I way. 



Tlll^: NEW B()(M>:S. 

"TlIK CRISIS"— TJl 10 lU)Ulv OF THE MONTH.* 



TIIK hnphnzanl, purposeless writer would ni'ver Ix' 
ntiriK-te<l to a task of such proportions as Mr. 
riiurchill outlintnl for hiujself wlieu lie undertooiv wliat 
was to Ih' tlif first attempt of any writer to employ in a 
large way the causes the incidents, and the controlling 
personalities of the Civil War for purposes of fiction. 
To weigh the opiwsini; influences at work North and 
S<iuth. to measure the interests involved, to analyze the 
motives that contendeil for the mastery.— these were 
some of the obligations implied in the contract. 

There are many novels for which history serves as a 
kind of " background ;" in "Tlu» Crisis " it is the very 
fabric of the story itself. As the narrative proceeds, the 
rush of great events, the emerging of leaders, and the 
gradual revelation of a nation's destiny command more 
and more of the reader's attention, until the individual 
fortunes Of the hero and heroine seem subordinated — 
and pmperly so — to the fortunes of their country. 

In the choice of .scene and selection of materials for 
his story. Mr. Chtirchill has shown rare powers of di.s- 
cernment and discrimination, which cause us to wonder 
at times whether, after all, his true vocation is not tliat 
of hi.storian rather than of novelist. It was historical, 
more than literarj', insight that guided him unerringly 
to the real theater of the Civil War — the Missis.sippi 
Valley. The historical sense led him to see there sharply 
outlined the tinderlying cau.ses of the conflict standing 
forth in their nakedness. He saw the descendants of 
the Virginian Cavalier and the .son of New England 
Puritanism meeting on that ground and claiming it, 
the one for slavery, the other for free labor. He saw, 
too, te ".squatter-sovereignty" following of Douglas 
and that larger element which, when the shock of war 
came, stood first of all for the Union^the element 
"racy of the srjil" out of which grew Lowell's "first 
American." Nor did he overlook those foreign-born im- 
migrants in our central West and Southwest who, with 
rare devotion, gave all they had, even to life itself, 
for an a<lopted nationality. 

In the city of St. Louis, where all these currents of 
Americanism met in the decade before the war, lived 
Colonel Carvel and his daughter Virginia, and there 
they worthily sustained the traditions of a noble 
.'N^uthern ancestry. Thither came, a few years before 
the war, young Stephen Brice and his mother, repre- 
sentatives of New England conservatism and good 
breeding— for Stephen shattered all the preconceptions 
of the planter aristocracy by appearing as a Yankee 
gentleman, an anomalous character in those days in the 
.South ; and Mrs. Brice was every inch a lady. There 
is another type of Yankee in the story— Eliphalet Hop- 
I)er, the grasping, "cal'lating,' mercenary, soulless 
wretch, whom none of the Southerners depicted by Mr. 
Churchill approaches in despicable villainy ; and then 



*TheCri.sis. By Winston Churchill. With illustrations by 
Howard Chandler Christy. 8vo, pp 52,}. New York : The 
Macmillan Company. 11.50. 



tliore is .lodge Wl)ipi)le, the austere, reserved, higli- 
luinded fanatic,— men of his liber are calletl "cranks" 
today. The only close friend Judge Whipple had in 
St. Louis before Stephen Brice came was Colonel Car- 
vel—Colonel Carvel, who stood for everything that 
Judge Whipple opposed and detested, who gloried in 
the South and her institutions, and, when the time 
came, fought for them. Virginia Carvel is a true 
(laugliter of the South, and if there are difTiculties in 
the way of her marrying Stephen Brice, the reader is 
not dismayed. He knows tliat somehow the obstacles 
will be surmounted, that destiny will have her way. 
This is a matter quite beyond Mr. ChurchiU's control. 

Other characters come and go as the story proceeds, — 
the silent, diffident "Captain Grant" who sold firewood 
in St. Louis in those days before the war ; the "Major 
Sherman "' who was president of a St. I^ouis street-car 
line, and finally the uncouth figun; of the rail-splitter 
President, who.se homely political philo.sophy permeates 
the book and almost woos the reader away from the 
story itself. "Abraham Lincoln loved the South as 
well as the North." says Mr. Churchill; "The Crisis" 
makes us feel that this was so. It becomes quite evi- 
dent, as we read on, that Lincoln is the author's hero, 
whatever place we assign him in the story. The unique 
personality of the martyr President seems to dominate 
the book. At one time or another the leading characters 
come under its mysterious spell. It is from Lincoln 
that Stephen Brice, the cultured Bostonian, receives the 
new gospel of Western Americanism and democracy. 
To Virginia Carvel at last conies the revelation that 
this patient burden-bearer is laden with the .sorrows of 
her own people — the sous and daughters of the South- 
land. 

The strength of " The Crisis " is not in the spectacular 
element. It is a war story without very much war in 
it ; the tnelodramatic features are pleasantly absent. The 
account of the Lincoln-Douglas debate at Freeport is 
more actual and effective than a battle scene in the 
average war story — and that deliate meant vastly more 
than many a battle. So of the book as a whole It may 
be said that it deals with causes rather than with out- 
ward results. Mr. Churchill has taken his work seri- 
ously ; he has followed up a bold conception with a thor- 
ough and virile execution that commands our respect. 
There is not a dull or lifeless page in the book. The 
reader's interest is held by the theme itself, not by any 
artifice of plot or literary device of any .sort. The ques- 
tion how far the historian's materials may be legiti- 
mately employed by the novelist is a question for the 
critics to wrangle over. Whatever their deci.sion may 
be (if they ever reach .a decision), Mr. Cliurchill is to be 
congratulated on tlie achievement of his purpose. He 
liJis solved the problem in his own way, to the general 
satisfaction, we venture to say, of his readers. More 
clearly than any other story-writer of his day, he has 
pointed out to us what the fathers fought for and what 
the present generation is to live for, — the heritage of 
sound and true Americanism. 



THE hJFM' HOOKS. 



117 



RECENT AMERICAN AND KM.LlSll IT liLKAI'lUNS. 



BOOKS OF TRAVEL. DESCRIPTION. AND 
EXPLORATION. 

The Bolivian Aiuli-s. My Sir .M;irtiii ("<mwHy. 8vo, pp. 

403. New York : lliiipei A: lirollii-rs. ^. 

The famousmountaiiwliiubfr. Sir Mart ill Con wiiy.|{iv»-.s 
in tills volume a rtTord of his cliniliiiiK and exploration In 
the Cordillera in ti»e years 189S and 1H<«I. Apart from the 
new information furnished by the author eoiuernint; the 
unexplored heijlhts of the Amies, this hook jjives many facts 
«(f eommercial interest retfanlintr the rubl»er industry, the 
goldmines of the region, and other industrial matters. It 
is a IxKik to b« depended upon for the freshest and most 
readable aecount of the little-known country whirh has 
eome so late within the scope of this English explorer's 
efforts. 
The New Br.izil. Hy Marie Robinson Wright. Large 

4U», pp. 4ii0. Philadelphia : George Barrie «& Son. 

fio. 

Mrs. Marie Robinson Wright has written an encyclo- 
pedic account of the history and resources of Hrazil. The 
work gives special attention to the commercial and indus- 
trial features of the country, and is believed to be the first 
work on Krazil published in English since the transforma- 
tion from empire to republic. The author has made ex- 
tended journeys in Brazil, covering thousands ol miles and 
requiring nearly two years for completion. The book is pro- 
fusely illustrated with photographs. 
Compilation of Narratives of Explorations in Ahuska. 

4t«j, pp. S5(j. Washington : CJovernmeut Printing 

Office. 

This volume, compiled under the direction of tiie Senate 
Committee on Military Affairs, embraces in narrative form 
the records of various expeditions made to Alaska under the 
direction and control of the United States army, beginning 
with that of Lieutenant Kaymond in 18«i9, ami closing with 
those of Abercrombie, Glenn, and Ilichardson in IWKi. This 
report is the most comprehensive that has thus far been un- 
dertaken by the tioveriiment with reference to .Alaska, and 
for a long time to come it is likely to be the most useful ref- 
erence work dealing with this portion of our national do- 
main. Numerous maps and illustrations accompany the 
text. 
In TilK't and Chine.se Turkestan : Being the Record ut 

Three Years' Exploiation. By Captain H. H. P. 

Deasy. 8vo, pp. 420. New Y(jrk : Longnian.s Grcou 

&. Co. *5. 

An important addition to the recent literature of Orien- 
tal travel has lieen made by Captain Deasy. late of the 
Queen's Lancers, who presents the public with a record of 
his journeys and explorations in Tibet and Chinese Turkes. 
tan Other writers have acijuainted us with some of the 
difflVulties to be encountered by any one who ventures into 
this wild region, and Captain Deasy's tale of adventure i8 
noexceptlon to the experiences of all re.ent travelers In that 
IK.rtlon of the globe. What gives his bjM.k «{7«"'/" ";* »« 
he fact that his explorati-.ns were .-on.lucted In a nn-thodl- 
cat manner, and covered a periml of three years. .Xmong 
the illu.stratlons of the volume are numerous photo^raphsof 

the scenery and peoide. 

With the TiWtai.H in Tent and Temple. By Susie 

Carnon Rijt.hart, .MD. 12.no. pp. 4U.. New 'k «rk : 

Fleminn M. Revell Company. %\'*>- 

Mrs. Kljr.hart gives an accou.it In this b.H,k "f her four 
years- resl.lence ..« the Tllntan >-rder. and o '| J;"""^ . 
n.o the far interior of the country •""'••'••"^;","' ''^^.: ,,;;!, 
pathetic feature of this journey is the fact that of ,h e llttk 
purty that started Mrs. Klj.d.art hers^df is the "« l*-' Y"^- 
vlvor,her husband and Utile «,n having perUhod. Mn.. 



Kijnhurt hns iiicurporatc>d In her uarratlve many f«<-(a con- 
cerning lh«j cuatoms ajid micUI cuudltluiu of tlto Tlbetau 
people. 

Nigeria. By Charles Henry Uuhiiutuii. I'Jnio. jip -i^v 
New York : M. S. Mausfleld& C\>. 13. 

In this volume the Kev.C ' " '; ' im-. 

that ptirtion of Africa which I :•• a 

Itarl of the Hrltlsh empire. It i- iluui.llui 
signitlcuiicf of t he A iitflik-Fn-nch f r«-«iy n' 

(J r< ^ ,,ttr- 

ciai' ..mI- 

edgcK II iinlish prole«lor«te over ^ ^iry 

dominated by the great llaiisji-M|>< Ni|k. 

ulation of probably :i5,UIMl*>. of whom nbout l'> ' ak 

the Hausji language. Apart fr«in> the l«riii.l, ! , in 

Iiulia and Iturma, there Is no native the 

limits of the British empire which can ■.'■•■,...■. m i-oiiula- 

tion, size, and im|>ortance with this prottnltirate of Nigeria. 

Every-l)ay Life in Wa.shington. By Charles N. Pep- 
per. 8vo, pp. 41tJ. New York : The Christian Her- 
ald. »!. 

Mr. Charles M. I'epiK>r. the author of this work, who 
follows a method of his own, haui succeeileil In (ireparlng a 
readable and instructive defcriptlon of the fiHleral capital. 
Mr. I'epper'h text Isenllveneil by countless alluslonit to tho 
personalities of Washington's public men. while In the mat- 
ter of illustration ((Uite as nmch attention has been palil to 
people as to buildiiigs and natural s4-enery. Among the 
topics treated are many which are wholly outside t! 
of the ordinary Ruide-Usik. but which are not for t 
son less iH-rtiiieiit to the requireuienla of the Americiuj luur- 
1st ami sight-seer. 

The Tenth Island : Ik'ing Some Account of Newfound- 
land. By Beckle.s Willstiii. With an IntrtHltictiou 
by the Rt. Htm. Sir William Whiteway, K.C..M.G., 
and Some Reiiiarkson Newfoumlland and the Navy 
by I/onl Charles B«re>.foi.l. C.B. I'-'mo. pp. '215. 
New York : M. K. Maiisliel.l & C«.. tl.fiO. 
Americans desirous of informing thems«'lve» on the r«»- 
sources of Newfoundland will find an Interesting account of 
the jH'ople. jHilltics. problems, and |HH'ullnrllle» of that 
country In "The Tenth Island." by Mr. B<Hkles Wtllwin. 
It Is not always rememlnTed even by Kngll-'hiiien that New. 
founillantl was the fin-t of England's <oloii- 
reinlnde<l by Mr. Wlllsoii. lb if Ncwfoni, 
formed the foundation of K naval ►. lii 

recent years the rallroadbm I other <■ -In- 

Itlated hy Mr IlolM>rt Held hnveatin\ct»Ml world-wideatten- 
tlon. and the Island si-ems to !>«• Just enii rin.- on » mw i ra 
of commercial and Intlustrlal growth. 

Australasia, the Comiuonwealth. and .New /4-nland. 

(The Temple Primers.) By Arthur W. .hw. '.Mmo, 

pp. lT*i. New York : The Macmlllan l'«>m|MUiy. 

40 cent**. 

This comiwct II"''- 1 •■ '" •''•■ -■ ri. « of "Tempi* 

Primers" gives the ; >C ••> »hp hl»- 

tory. resounes, ami |ii..~i- ..-■■. i...^ "•■'' •'■ ■ ■•'■- 

nle«. The chapters on "The Political M- 

(},,, I)««vclopmei»l m- 1 -I"!! 1,111) 

SUK '"• 

The Niagara Book. By W. I). Howella, Mark Twain, 

Prof. Nathillliel S ■ pp. 

363. New York .1' 

In thia volume the Fall* of Niagara are 

W. n. n Mark Twain. I'nil. N"" '' 

filher " • u *« rlter^. each fr«»ni 1 

The book U not. •trirtly •|>raklng. a ifimn i.. i,,.- .1..1.. 



UK 



THF AMF.RICAN MONTHLY KI-.I^IH\V Of- Rl-yiF.WS. 



y iv.i) inuiiillnB visitor to tlii< ttn-iit 
'• I'mi-AintTli'iiii " m-iiHoii tJuTc arc 
1U<1> u» U' i««»rt> MU h vinlton* tliiiii rvcr iM-forc. 

NATUKE-STUDY. 
Flov ! K.THs in Thfir llimnts. My MaUl Os^'cxmI 

\ IJmn. pp. .H.VS. XfW York : The Miuiuil- 

liiti «. uiii|Miiiy. ^'i.V*. 

Tlioniinof thislHwik.ljoth in tost and in i Hum rat ion, is to 
prrMrnt tin- will! flower in its nativp environment,— in other 
wonls, the tlowrr with the landscape as a seltinn. The au- 
thor's treatment is fn>m the artistic rather than thestrictly 
soirntitle jMiint of view. The illustrations of the work con- 
sist of a s»'ries of photographs maih- hy tlie author and Mr. 
J. Horace M.Karland. Several of tlie full-pat:e pictures 
printeil with ilark hackiirounds are sinj;ularly elTective. 

liist^ct Life : An IiitrcMluction to Nature-Study. By 
John Henry Conistock. riino, pp. 349. New York : 
I). Appleton (.V: Co. ^l.To. 

In the new edition of Professor Comstock's manual of 
insect-study, several colored plates have been introduced. 
These, together with the many original illustrations en- 
grave<l hy Mrs. Comstock especially for the work, serve to 
convey a vivid notion of the various species described. Pro- 
fessor Comstock's book has loni: had a place of its own as an 
aid to teachers of nature-study in public schools, to students 
of higher schools, and to others interested in outdoor life. 

Moths and Butterflies. By .Mary C. Dicker.son. 8vo, 

pp. 344. Boston : Giuu & Uo. §2.50. 

This is an untechnicai work designed as a guide for the 
study of moths and butterflies during the summer months. 
It identifies by means of photographs from life forty common 
forms, in caterpillar, chrysalis or cocoon, and adult stages. 
The l)ook makes clear the external structure adapting the 
creature to its life, and describes and illustrates the changes 
in form from caterpillar to chrysalis and from cluysalis to 
butterfly. A child's observation of nature may be profitably 
directed by the judicious use of this very suggestive volume. 

Mo.squitoes : How They Live ; How They Carry Di.s- 
ea.se ; How They Are Classified ; How They May Be 
Destroyed. By L. O. Howard. 12ino, pp. 241. 
New York : McClure, Phillips & Co. $1.25. 

Recent endeavors to mitigate tlie mosquito scourge in 
certain parts of our country have met with more or less riili- 
cule in the newspapers. It is not generally understood that 
these crusjides have really been measurably successful, and 
that they are based upon purely practical and rational prin- 
ciples. It has been declared by one enthusiast, indeed, that 
there is no more reason for enduring the mosquito plague 
than for allowing the smallpo.x to ravage communities as it 
did before the discovery of vaccination. Dr. Howard in- 
forms us in the introduction to his valuable treatise that 
work against mosquitoes is being undertaken everywhere by 
individuals and communities. It is for this reason that Dr. 
Howard has written out in this volume what is known about 
mosquitoes from the biological point of view, from the medi- 
cal point of view, and from the practical side. Dr. Howard 
points out to physicians how the different kinds of mosqui- 
toes can be distinguished, indicating characteristic habits 
of the breeding-places of those forms which spread malaria 
and yellow fever. A full exposition is giv-en of tiie remedial 
measures to be employed in mosquito-ridden neighborhoods. 

SOCIOLOGY AND POLITICS. 
Social Control : A Survey of the Foundations of Order. 
By Edward Alsworlh Ross. 12ino, pp. 463. New 
Y'ork : The Macmillan Company. $1.25. 
In this work. Professor Ross seeks to determine how far 
the order that we see about us is due to social influences. 
This social order, however, cannot be explained without tak- 
ing into account the contribution of the individual, and it is 
therefore part of Professor Ross' task to distinguish the in- 



dividual's contribution from lliat of society. Having done 
this, lie iiroceeds to bring to light what is contained in this 
social conlribulion. Professor Hoss has been engaged in the 
studies i-esulting in this liook during the past six years, hav- 
ing made exieniled research both at. home and abroad. Por- 
tions of the studies have already been puhlislied in the 
AmiriMH .hiiiriidl «/ Sociolimil, atid have won the higliest, 
praise of .Vmerican specialists in the Held of social psychol- 
ogy, resulting in an invitation to Professor Hoss to deliver a 
series of lectures on the subject at Harvard University dur- 
ing the c(nning year. 

Governinent. or Human Kvolution : Individualism and 
Collectivism. Hy Edmoiid Kelly. 12iiio, [>\). xv - 
608. New York : Longmans, Green & Co. $2.50. 
^Ir. Kelly's second volume on government is devoted 
wholly to tlu! subjectsof " Individualism " and "■ Collectiv- 
ism," meaning by the latter term tlie method by which so- 
cial justice may bo promoted. Collectivism as an ideally 
perfect state of society forms no essential part of the collec- 
tivist programme as studied by Mr. Kelly, although in the 
explanation of what collectivism is he has found it neces- 
sary to explain the ideal collectivist state. Having started 
in his investigations with an admittedly strong bias in favor 
of individualism, Mr. Kelly has so far revised his opinionsas 
to discard much of Herbert Spencer's philosophy while still 
seeing in socialism not a few economic fallacies. In other 
words, his effort is " to preserve the care for the individual 
which distinguishes human from pre-humai evolution on 
the one hand, and to recover the care for the race— for the 
community^which man in departing from nature seems un- 
wisely to have neglected." 

A Treatise on the Rights and Privileges Guaranteed by 
the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution of 
the United States. By Henry Brannon (Judge of 
the Supreme Court of West Virginia). Svo, pp. 562. 
Cincinnati : VV. H. Anderson & Co. 

Treatises on the Constitution always find readers in this 
country within or without the legal profession. Judge 
Brannon, of the West Virginia Supreme Court, rightly re- 
garding the Fourteenth Amendment as the most important 
of all the additions to the American Constitution, has writ- 
ten a volume giving a detailed exposition of the personal 
rights guaranteed by this amendment, considering also its 
various bearings on State action and the relations of States 
to the federal government. The scope of Judge Brannon's 
discussion includes such topics as the restrictions that may 
be imposed upon monopolies and trusts, the power to re- 
strain by injunction, strikes and boycotts, the subject f ex- 
clusive charters and grants by States and municipalities as 
fostering monopolies, the rights of neutralization and expa- 
triation, the power of the United States to acquire, hold, 
and govern foreign territory, and many other incidental and 
cognate subjects. 

Introduction to the Study of the Dependent, Defective, 
and Delinquent Classes, and of their Social Treat- 
ment. By Charles Richmond Henderson. 12mo, 
pp. 397. Boston : D. C. Heath & Co. $1.50. 
Although this volume is nominally the second edition 
of a book some time out of print, it is almost entirely a new 
book. It is the result of more than a quarter-century of ex- 
perience and study of the classes of which it treats. Mr. 
Henderson has been a close observer of those classes, of so- 
ciety's methods of dealing with them, and of the organized 
work of European countries in their behalf. His book is a 
systematit^ study of the causes and consequences of insan- 
ity, pauperism, crime, and kindred evils. It contains the 
latest authoritative data concerning these problems. 

Substitutes for the Saloon. By Raymond Calkins. 
12mo, pp. 397. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
$1.30. 

This Is the third volume issued by direction of the 
Committee of Fifty for the Investigation of the Liquor Prob- 



THE NFM' HOOKS. 



11 •» 



lem. The pnrposo of this brxly hafi now lK>c<)int< so wt-ll 
known to the public tliiit it Itiinlly rctiiiircs <>xplitniition. It 
was orKi'niz«-«i in ISJB " to »«-fur«- ii ImmIj- i»f fm-ts wlii<-h iiiiiy 
otTve as II Imsis for int«'lli»;onI pnlilic ami jiriva'' > " 

It has pn>«Tf«h'<l to colU'ct an<l collalc >iu-h data, . .,-^ 

thf results of its worlv arc t wo voIiiuh-s t-iilitliMl. i»-.-|)«Mlive- 
ly. "Tlif Liquor I'roldoni in Its L.-kjislntive Asin-ris" and 
"Kfononiic AsjKTts of tin- Liiiuor l*roi>lcni." Tlx- pres<>nt 
%-oluine is issued under the dirt-rlion of a siM-eial foniinittee 
ap|M)inte<I from tlie Ethical Sub-l'oniniittee, whicli. asoritti- 
nally constituted, was made up of Prof. Francis (J. PeaUnly. 
Mr. C'liarU'S DudU'y Warner. Dr. K. K. L. (Jould. and I'rof. 
William .M. Sloane. (Mr. Warner's death cKcurriHl after 
the committee iM'tran Its lalK>rs.) The problem appriMichetl 
by Mr. Calliins is ihat of the Sjiloon ; and the single aspe<-t of 
tliat problem which is consideretl is the contribution of the 
sal<M)n tosiH-iability. In this connection there is a full dis- 
cussion of club life as related to the saloon as a social center, 
and f)f the various substitutes offered for the saliH>n. such as 
lunch-rooms and coffee-houses, social clubs and athletic as- 
sociations, settlements, reading-rooms, gymnasiums, etc. 
The cities selected for special study were San Francisco, 
Denver, St. Louis, Minneapolis. St. Paul, Chicago, Cincin- 
nati. Cleveland. Buffalo. New Haven. N'ew York, Boston, 
Philadelphia. Baltimore, Atlanta, New Orleans, and Mem- 
phis. The volume represents avast amount i>f iiifiuiry de- 
voted to this single asiwct of the problem of temperance 
reform. 

Tenement Conditions in Chicajjo. Hcport by the In- 
vestigating Committee of the City Homes As.socia- 
tion. Te.xt by Roljert Hunter. 8vo, pp. 208. Chi- 
cago : City Homes Association. 

TheCity Homes Association of Chicago is endeavoring 
to establish small parks and playgrounds, an<l one or more 
municipal lodging-houses on the model of tliose in New 
York and Boston, and to secure better tenement-houses. As 
a first step toward better housing conditions in ChicaRO, 
the a.ssociation has prosecuted an investigation of tenement 
conditions, and the results of this investigation are now 
given to the public in the form of a report by the associa- 
tion's committee. Districts were selected as showing the 
worst sanitary and housing evils, and these districts were 
thoroughly studied by the committee. In the work of enu- 
merating the tenement-house population of these districts. 
Dr. Frank A. Fetter, formerly of tlie Leland Stanford. .Jr., 
University, and now of Cornell, served as director, and fur- 
nished the committee with a statement of the actual con- 
ditions found, together with maps, diagrams, and statistical 
tables. The report as now submitted not only shows the 
result of the inquiry, but also cumpares the conditions in 
Chicago with those elsewhere. It is illustrated from phoU)- 
graphs. 

The Jew in London : A Study of Hueial Character and 

Prest-nt-Day Conditions. IJy C. Utissel! and H. S. 

Lewis. l2mo, pp. x.xxi— 'jas. New York : T. Y. 

Crowell&Co. $1.50. 

These studies of "The .lew in London " wereandertaken 
atth<^ suggestion of the Toynbee Trustees. The writer of 
the first essay. ••The .lewlsli yinstinn In the East End." 
is Mr. Russell, an Oxford graduate, who siM-nt a year In 
and alK.ut Whitechapel visiting the homes and clubs and 
meeting-places of the Jews. .Mr. Lewis, who presents an- 
other view of the same subject. Is himself a .Jew. a Cam- 
bridge graduate, and an Oriental s<holar. In s«'veral ofTlclal 
capacllieM he has come into dose and various contact with 
the .I.ws of the Whitechapel illstrlct. Tlo> problems dis- 
cussed in this volume are ••The Social ' ..""Theln- 
dustrlal guestloii."and "The Kellgjoii m." I'niler 
the first head, the mingling of the .N wi-li n !'• |xi|iu- 
latlon Is (••insldered ; uniler the se<ond, f In- •. > ofiMiv 
nonilc conditions In maintaining or dlmlnltblng the un- 
pf»p<llarlty of the Jews; and under the llilnl. t hi- part of the 
Jewish religion In exercising an Inflm-nce towanl malntnln- 
Ingthe tribal and exclusive c-haracl.r of Judaism. Thoiw 



arvnll vital problems in thegrr«tcltlMinf tli« rnitc«l8ta(«i 
•M u " . anil tlir book has* (ll*tliu-t valiM for 

An. 

Our l^iJind and Iwmd I'ulicy. S|Nt%li<^ lA*ctunrm itnd 

Miscelliineoiis Writings. Hy Meiiry c;»H>rge. New 
Y'ork : IVmlileday i& .MeCliiri' Coiniuiny $: '*> 

This vidunie is made up of ix 
written and i>|H>ken utterances o! .: -.., • ._ 
wIm> ap|M-aring In iMMik form. Th« eitsny on " Uur I. 

Land I'l.liiy" was i--. ■•• •" >'■-':«! In I«T1. ^• 

author was only lo(\i Kmnclaco a- 

pap«'r writer. P ' " 

and Poverty." < ' 

edition 

on'^Th. 

public," "The I lime of I 'ok t- 1 I ) ," " l^tlxl atid 1'.. 

"•Thou Shalt Not St.nl,'" •"To Wi.rkitr.:iii.ri. T 

dom Come,' " '" 
"Causes of the 1 : 
Ing Army." 

Monoi)olies Past ami PreMMit : .An IntnMluctory Study. 

Hy James l->hvard i>e Itussignul. I'iiuu, pp. '^i. 

New York : Tliomas Y. Crowell & Co. $\..i&. 

In this volume. Professor Le 1; 
of mono|Kdies back to aluient tir 
exnmiiles tli;- hard Imrgain tirlven l>y .1 

Esauand thecorner in fiMxl prcKlucts O: • . - 

wily s«)n Joseph during the famine In Egypt. The author 
alsjj states the pn>blemsconiiecte<l wit'' i>..-i. t-i) iii(iiiopi>ltr«. 
and encourages the reader to work o\. ih of his own 

iMised on a study of past and present conmi lonr.. 

Talk on Civics. Hy Henry Holt. I'-'mo, pp. xxvi— <I(B. 
New York : The Maciuiilan ComjMiny. ♦I/iV 
In this volume. .Mr. ilidt has niiule a unique coii' 
to our p<dltlco-«'conomic llteralun-. While the il. 
covers the whtde tleld of civic relations. Mr. Holt's treat- 
nu'iit of the subject deals with economic considpratioiiM far 
more than Iscusttauary in the ordinary text-l><>«»k on "civ- 
ics." .Mr. Holt tlevotesa large projMirtlon of Ids l¥K>k to a 
discussion of proin-rty rights. This Is followetl by chnpters 
on money, public works, chariti- - 
and taxation, material inider all i 
in the form of qui-stlon and an-.w.r. 1 
followed »>y Mr. H«dt In this treatis.- 1. 
in the discussion and treatment of llie various ; 
considere*!, ami his novel methiMl hasenabbsl hint • 
a great liody of fresh and lmpi>rtnnt data. 

Taxation of Cor|K)rat ions in New York. M > 

Pennsylvania, ami New .Jersey. Hy Hi 

Wliitten. (New Y'ork State Library Hiilletln «!.> 
8vo. pp. r.M. AUMiny : CniveiT^lty of the Slate of 
New York. Pa|H'r. 'Jo cents. 
Dr. R*>ls«rt H. Whitten. of the New York Slate Lll 

who«e bulletins of comparative Irglslnit -■ •■ 

ns«-d.lias made a coiii|>arallve stmly of ih 

tlonofiori In the. "^ ' Ne« i . 

setts. Penii omI Ne This ►' i 

published III li 

will Is- foiiml i V ■> 

Interested In revising Stale lawn deaUng *»lili .^.rtM.r«»ltui«». 

Hv Lncy May 
New York : 1 



Domestic - 

pp. x.\ 

pany. tH. 

A ■ tItlonnfP 

on <loi' ^ Ici' lins ' 

el 
Ih 
ri' 
ol 
ni 
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.1.1. f ......t 1^. 



u 



KM> 



THt AMERICAN MONTHLY KEyiEiy Oh REl/lEli/S. 



I 
I 
I' 



•-,.ti •■- - .-1 our rp«i»l«'n* tliat tlu> in format Ion 

l^ls of I'rofoRHor Salmon's Inwik was 

. ?» of lilnnk^Hcnt out ilurinK the years 

. ,H woro prrimrotl. -one for einploy- 

.nil one a.skinit for misrellaneous iii- 

: In- Woman's Kxclianifo, tlu" toarliin>; 

-. anil kindri'il subjects. Tliese 

iy of informal ion sucli as had 

vu urtihenti in this rountry by any agency, 

..ito. 



Municipal Accounting: A Comprehensive Treatise on 
the Subject of Municipiil Accounts. Illustrated by 
S|H'einiens of Improved Forms of Books and Reports. 
By F. n. Miuphersoii. 8vo, pp. 4(5. Detroit: The 
Book-KeejMjr Publishing Company. $3. 

A »MM>k wliicli shoulil prove helpful to liiianrial offlcer.s 
of munieipalitics has Ih-iii compilid by Mr. K. II. .Macplier- 
8on, B member of the Ontario Institute of Chartered Ac- 
countants. Mr. Macpherson treats the whole question of 
municipal accounts in a concise but comprehensive numner, 
illustrating his points by specimen forms. The book in- 
cludes also tabular computations showing the interest-earn- 
ing power of stocks and bonds. 

BIOGRAPHY. 

The Story of My Life. By Augustus J. C. Hare. Vols. 

III. and IV. Svo, pp. GT'i— 611. New York : Dodd, 

Mead & Co. $T.50. 

Mr. AugustusJohnCuthbert Hare, throughout the sixty- 
seven years of his life, has had acquaintance with a remark- 
ably large number of interesting and gifted people,— not 
merely people of title and social position, but the class of 
people who write entertaining letters, tell good stories, and 
have seen the world. Mr. Hare himself is best known in the 
United States as the autlior of "Walks in Rome," "Cities 
of Northern and Central Italy," "Venice and Florence," 
and other books of Italian travel and description. In all the 
1.300 pages of the two volumes before us, covering the last 
thirty years of Mr. Hare's life, comparatively little of the 
author's personality is revealed. The volumes derive their 
chief interest from the correspondence of the author's nota- 
ble friends. 

The Hall of Fame. 'By Henry Mitcliell MacCracken. 

r2mo, pp. 292. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

$1.75. 

Chancellor Henry M. MacCracken, who, it will be re- 
membered, contributed to the Review ok Reviews for 
November of last year the first authorized account of the se- 
lection of names tor the Hall of Fame of the New York Uni- 
versity, has prepared, with the authorization of the Univer- 
sity Senate, an official book as a statement of the origin and 
constitution of the Hall of Fame and of its history up to the 
close of the vear 1900. Popular interest has demanded such 
a work as this, and Chancellor MacCracken has wisely ap- 
pended brief biographical sketches of the twenty-nine per- 
sonages selected in 1900 by the electors. An appendix con- 
tains judgments of the Hall of Fame by editors of important 
journals and magazines. 

Ulysses S. Grant. By Walter Allen. (River.side Bio- 
graphical Series.) 16mo, pp. 153. Boston : Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co. 75 cents. 

A good V)rief biography of General Grant has been con- 
tributed by Mr. Walter Allen to the " Riverside Biographical 
Series." Like most of the biographers of the great com- 
mander—and their name is legion— Mr. Allen Is chiefly con- 
cerned with his hero's military career, giving comparatively 
little space to General Grant's record in civil life subsequent 
to the close of the Civil War. In his view, the acceptance 
of the Presidency was a mistake • Grant's place was never 
in politics. 



Steven.Honiana : Being a lieprini of Various Literary 
and Pictorial Miscellany A.ssociated with Robert 
Louis Stevenson, the Man and His Work. 12nio, 
pp. !»4. New York : M. F. Mansfiehl. ^l.no. 
Under this title niiicli interesting material associated in 
one way and another with Koberl, Louis Stevenson has been 
collected. An essay by Stevenson on " Hooks ^Vlli(•l^ Have 
Influeiu-ed Me" is a charatderislic personal revelation. 
Several critical essays are reprinted from the English liter- 
ary journals. 

Remembrances of Emerson. By Jolui Albee. 12mo, 
pp. 154. New York : Robert G. Cooke. $1.35. 
While IMr. Albee makes no claim to long or intimate 
personal ac(iuaintance with Kmerson.his " KenKijnbrances" 
are interesting as revealing Kmerson's influence on the 
young men of his time. It was as a student and disciple 
that Mr. Albee first canu> in contact with the Concord phi- 
lo.sopher. 

The Passing of the Great Queen : A Tribute to the 
Noble Life of Victoria Regina. By Marie Corelli. 
lOmo, pp. 89. New York : Dodd, Mead & Co. 

50 cents. 

Victoria: Maid, Matron, Monarch. By "Grapho" (J. 
A. Adams). 12mo, pp. 2.52. Cliicago : Advance 
Publishing Company. 50 cents. 

SOME NEW HISTORICAL WORKS. 

Civil History of tlie Government of the Confederate 
States. By J. L. M. Curry. 12mo, pp. 318. Rich- 
mond, Va. : B. F. Johnson Publishing Company. 
§1.25. 

Dr. Curry's exposition of the character and motives of 
the secession of the Southern States forty years ago is of the 
highest importance as testimony and as history. The only 
fault to be found with his latest book is its brevity. Dr. 
Curry was himself a member of the first Congress of the 
seceding States, whieli, acting as a constitutional conven- 
tion, prepared the organic law of the Confederacy, organized 
the new government, and set its wheels in motion. This 
little volume,— in which he tells us of the causes of secession, 
tlie organization of the Confederate government, its financial 
and diplomatic operations, and its foremost men,— while 
very informal in Its method and arrangement, shows no 
marks of carelessness or inaccuracy. Dr. Curry's accept- 
ance of the results of the war have been as complete as if he 
had legislated and fouglit on tlie Northern side instead of 
the Southern. With the new order of things he holds that a 
fundamental revolution lias come about in the nature of our 
government. Under tlie Constitution as it originally was he 
defends without a single misgiving both tlie logic and the 
statesmanship of the secession movement. It is to be lioped 
Dr. Curry may give the country his personal memoirs in 
great detail. His recollections of men and events are of sur- 
passing interest, and ought not to be lost. 

The Diplomatic History of the Southern Confederacy. 
By James Morton Callahan. 12mo, pp. 304. Balti- 
more : The Johns Hopkins Press. $1.50. 

Dr. Callahan, whose previous studies in American diplo- 
matic history liave appeared in several volumes, — one or two 
of which have first taken form in lectures at the Jolms Hop- 
kins University in an annual course known as the Albert 
Shaw Lectures on Diplomatic History,— now gives us a sys- 
tematic and valuable statement of the attempts of the South- 
ern Confederacy to gain European support, tliis volume also 
being the outcome of another course of lectures at Balti- 
more. Dr. Callahan's studies have been thorough and im- 
partial, and have omitted no available sources of informa- 
tion, while large use has been made of the United States 
Government's accumulation of Confederate diplomatic cor- 
respondence. 



run NF.ir books. 



121 



The May- Flower ami Her Iajh. July 15, Ki-io-May iV, 
1621, Chiefly from Urigiiial Sources. Hy Azel 
Allies. 4to, pp. .x.xii— 375. Boston : Houghton, 
Millliti & Co. sf«;. 

By an uiifortunato err«r of the prt'.s.s, the i-x|>ret)t<iiin 
"L«>K of thf .W«i|/.>f<nc<r " has In-fii applitMl to the riH-overed 
orit/riiial manuseript of Bradfortl'H "History of I'Uinoth 
Plantation." As a matter i>f fact, the real lojj of the^Mi/- 
tlmrtr's Voyane, if it ever existetl, lia.s In-en luiiK-les>ly lost. 
The tlaily hapiK'nimrs of the vnyatje, however, wi-re recorcle«l 
hy the parlitipants in one way and another, ami have iH-en 
handed down tlirout;h all the years, nntil at last it has In-en 
thought liest to collect them and present a true Journal of 
the exiK-rieiicesof tlie l*il^;riin Fatliers. This labor has been 
patiently performed hy I)r. Azel Ames, and the results are 
presented in the volume before us. As antecedent t«» tin- 
story of the voyajje. Dr. Ames tjives a full account of the 
ship itself and of her consort, t he .S'i«rdirfH; of the difficulties 
attendant on securing them, of the preparations for the 
voyajfe. of theso-<'alled " men'hant adventurers" who had a 
large share in sending them to .sea. of their officers and 
crews, and of the various incidents tliat letl to the final con- 
s<ilidation of the passengers and lading on the Ma i/ tin in r for 
the belated ocean voyage. Dr. .\mes has succeeded in un- 
earthing many important facts regariling tlie equijjinetit of 
the ilaytlincir, the accommodations enjoyed by her passen- 
gers, and various details relating to both passengers and 
crew. The list of Mayttoiccr voyagers has la-en prepared 
by Dr. .\me8 with great care and by consultation with many 
original authorities. Members of the Pilgrim ."Society and 
other descendants of the Muiittmcer company will tind Dr. 
Ames' l>ook a rejiository of virtually all that is known con- 
cerning their ancestors. The volume is the result of fifteen 
years of painstaking study, and embodies the ripest results 
of modern historical investigation on an important ei)ir>ude 
in Colonial history. 

China and the Allies. By A. Henry Savage Landor. 
Twovol.s. 8vo, pp. .x.wi — ;3«2. xxv— 44tj. New York : 
Charles Scribner's Sons. $7.50. 

The fullest account that has yet appeared of the dis- 
turbances in China, from the outl)reak of the Boxer insur- 
rection to the arrival of Count von Waldersee. has con>e 
from the pen of the famous Oriental traveler. Mr. A. Henry 
Savage Landor. Mr. Landor's narrative of the horrible out- 
rages perpetrated on the missionaries and other foreigners 
in the summer of I'.KK) is perhaps all the more vivid and sym- 
pathetic because of the author's own experiences in years 
past among the Bud<lhist Lamas of Tibet. No traveler from 
the Occident has a la-tter comprehension of the .\siatir atti- 
tude toward foreigners than lias Mr. Landor. His study of 
Chinese conditions is intelligent and convincing; and while 
he lx;lieves that mistakes have been committed on t he part of 
some of the American and Kuropean missionaries, be in- 
dulges in no wholesale condemnation of their methods, and 
is far from attributing the Boxer uprising to any special an- 
tipathy tcjward missionaries. It was. in his view, an anti- 
foreign rather than an anti-missionary movement. Most of 
the pictures accompanying Mr. Landor's narrative are from 
plujtographs, several of which were taken during the active 
hostilities. 

Ili.story and General Description of New France. By 
Rev. P. F. X. De Charlevoix, S..T. Translated from 
the Original Kdition and Kdited, with Notes, liy Dr. 
John (iilinaiy Siiea. With a .New .Memoir and Bil>- 
lioKi-aphy of the Translator, by Noah Farnhain 
Morrison. .Six volumes. Vol. I., 4to, pp. xiv '>^''• 
New York : Francis I'. HariMT. >:» a volume. 
Dr. Jobn (Jilmary Shea's traii^lalion of t'harh-voixn 
history of New France appciired in 1>«1«''. and as only l.'iO nets 
were ever sold, the work Is now very rare. For that reason, 
the new edition, of which the first volume has Just come to 
hanil, will Ix- eagerly welcomed by historical HtndentH. Be- 
sides giving a full history of Canada <lown to ITlO.CIi/irlevoIx 
gives in detail the early history of .Maine, Vermont, Now 



lIaui|Mhlre, New York, and tl- «•-• - ,»•',.•.. ••■ , 

and LouUiunn, ArknniMUL, ail' 

lT40,Hfter h , 

the Hurvlvt' 

des«-riln-d. 11. 

and Purls. Th. 

sup«-rlorlty over uny eonu-iii|MirMry **urk. 

The Old 1" .., : Mow NV«. Liv.-d in (iiciit lluu-a- 

"ud C.i .re the War. Hy .lani.in lliittle A\ i- 

rett. I'imo, pp. JK. New York : F. Tennysuu Nwly 
Comiiany. il.SO. 

Tlio author of thU work l« a «•>« «»f oof of th«- Inrifr^t 
planters ate! 
the war. II 
defens.- of t rn planter ii .( to pic 

tare iliat li!. iw It. .-inch j it|„ri life 

from the .Soiitlii-rn jodnt of view are not many, and they 
should he welcomed by the younger generation. North and 
South. 

The F^jirly Kmpire Builders of the (ireat \Ve?.t. By 
.Moses K. -Vrnist renin. ISvo, pp. 4."i«'. Si Paul, .Miuu : 
E. W. Porter. ll.'iS. 

The author of this wfirk ' - frontier life weal of 

the MUsissippi at the age of . >e:ir-. marly half a 

century ago. .\s early as WW. In • Knrly HU- 

tory of Dakota Territory." The pi •' Is a reprint 

of that work, tog.-ther with otber pioneer sketches of early 
adventures. Indian wars, overland Journeys, and other Inrl- 
dents of the early history of Minnesota and North and South 
Dakota. 

STUDIES IN RELIGION AND THEOLOGY. 
The Life and Literature ()f the Ancient Hebrews. By 
Lyiiiati .\blH)tt. 8vo, pp. 40H. BomUhi : Houghton, 
Milllin Ac Co. $2. 

In the preface to this volume. Dr. .\bbotf ,)<MorKM..i fbe 
new school of biblical Interpretittion ' 
Ix-longs as "scientific. lH-«iiu.-*e in the - 

assunns nothing res|K'cting the origin, dmracter. ami au- 
thority of the Bible, but exjH-its toiletermine by such ntudy 
what are its origin, character, and authority; literary, Imv 
cause It applies to the study of Hebrew literature the same 
canons of literary criticism which are applietl by studentnof 
other world-literature ; evolutionary. lM><-ause it aiwumea 
that the laws. Institutions, and literature of the ancient 
Hebrews w»-re a gradual ■! ■ ■ ' u.'nl in the life of the na- 
tion, not all iiiKtaiitJitieou I nor a M-rit-H of |!i..inntn- 
m-oiis creations." Dr. .\tilii.tt IcIIn us that h.- 
thisbiHik for t« double j)iir[H.-..> • •• |i')r«'. tti j, ' 
what is the .-ral 
i-oticlusloii« . . (ind. 
to show that these do not imiM-rll spiritual faith, that, on 
the contrary, they enhani-e the Bible for the cultivation of 
the spiritual faith." Studnnta of liternture will find Dr. 
Ahtsitt's «hapfers on " Hebr««wf Fiction," "A Drama of 
Love," "A Spiritual Trag'Hly." and ".\ (\>llertlon of Lyrics" 
esjwclally suggestive. Inotlu' ' .- • ■ » 
theological as|H-cts of the si. 

th<- law . ,41,. 

dent H. 

TheSo<ial Life of the Hebrews. By Fxlwanl Day (The 
."^-11 ;■!>. 'i'hV New York : Charlea 

.S;ii 

In the "Hemltic Hrrlea." edited by Prof. Jamea A.Cralc, 

of the rnl\. - ,. . . 

Life of the II 

Day. The 1 

tiers and <'. 

literature n- 

ilnvelo|H-d, :> 

to the clan ami ' 

and to tlm imrt , ...^ . ., ., 

from the Mtllemont of Canaan to th* luonarrhjr. 



•>•> 



rtIF /IMFRICAN MONTHl.y RF.yiFM' OF RFIIFIVS. 



A Shurt Introilurtitiji to tin- Lii<nUiir«' of tin- l{il)lf. 

Uv Hirhjinl (J. .Moultoii. r^mo, pp. :(T4. Ucwioii : 

D.'r. Ht-nth&C'i.. 11.35. 

ll shoulii Ih< fxpliiiiiril I lint tills lit (If Ihiok l.s mil. an 
nbri'ipT'tn-tit f<f I'r-ofcs-jir Moullon'.s work (.ii"'riu' Lilrrary 
s :"tlu' iniriiO!*!';* cif till' I wo Ixiiiks iin> vn- 

: larjjiT work bcint; iiiti'ii(l«-il for MludtMits 

of llt«'n»tiirv, wliili- the prrscnt hliorliT work Is addrcs.scil to 
tlM> Bi-mTul roHiIor. N« tlu'oloi;ical position wlialrvi-r is 
tjtkrn by tlie author: tluMoiitent of tlir Hililo from tin- lit- 
i>n»ry «l«leonly it* cmphanizi'd. Profossor IVIoultoii pn-si'Uts 
its lyrics, ethics, ilrainiis, it.-* histories, pliilosoi)hles, and 
rhetoric. 111 a vivid and attractive manner. Appendices 
contain material adapted to the needs of teachers and ad- 
vaiice<l students, hui the lM)dy of the work, as we have said, 
is n purely jxipular exposition. 

The Keligiou.s Spirit in the Poets. By W. Boj'd Car- 
penter. Viino, pp. 347. New York : T. Y. Crowell 
&Co. $1.5(). 
Religion in Literature and Religion in Life. By Stop- 
fonl A. Brooke. Vhwo, pp. 59. New York : T. Y. 
Crowell & Co. (30 cents. 

The Bishop of RIpon gives concrete examples of the in- 
terrelation of religion and poetry, taking especially the 
"Vision of Piers Plowman." Spenser's " Fagrie Queene," 
.Marlowe's "Dr. Faustus," Shakespeare's "Tempest," Mil- 
ton's " Comus." and Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner." Dr.Stop- 
ford A. Brooke delivered, in 1S99, two lectures in the three 
chief university cities of Scotland; they attracted wide at- 
tention, and have been revised by the lecturer for publica- 
tion in book form. In a more summary way he covers much 
of the same ground as the Bishop of Ripen. 

The Book of Genesis in the Light of Modern Knowl- 
edge. By Elwood Worce.ster. 8vo, pp. 572. New 
York : McClure, Phillip.s & Co. $3. 
Dr. Worcester hopes that his book will find a place with 
the reading public "between technical handbooks which 
are instructive, but which nobody reads, and mere popular 
eflfusions which are read, but which do not instruct." Dr. 
Worcester has devoted a large part of his book to a discus- 
sion of the various flood traditions. He holds that the flood 
myths of mankind are the product of many factors, and that 
among these were mythical and naturalistic elements. 

The First Interpreters of Jesus. By George Holley 
Gilliert. l'2mo, pp. 429. New York : The Macmil- 
lan Company. $1.25. 

Under this title. Professor Gilbert analyzes the teaching 
of Paul, the teaching of the minor writers, and the teaching 
of John. It is Professor Gilbert's aim to set forth the moral 
and religious views which these ancient Greek writings con- 
tained. " It is not to defend these views. It is not to show 
their harmony or lack of harmony with the revelation of 
Jesus or with the teachings of the Church in subsequent 
ages. The solitary question with which we here approach 
these documents is the question of fact— What do they 
teach ? " 

The New Epoch for Faith. By George A. Gordon. 
12mo, pp. xvii— 412. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin 
&Co. iX.hO. 

Dr. Gordon's book is an optimistic interpretation of mod- 
em religious conditions from the point of view of progress- 
ive theology. The doctrine of evolution and the movement 
in the direction of higher criticism, so far from being a bug- 
bear to Dr. Gordon's faith, are regarded by him as most 
hopeful signs of religious development. The chapter-head- 
ings indicate the scope and character of the Vjook : " Things 
Assumed." " The Advent of Humanity," "The New Appli- 
cation of Christianity," "The Discipline of Doubt," "The 
Return of Faith," "The New Help from History," and 
"Things Expected." 



'I'licnlogy at the Dawn of the Twentieth Century. F]s- 
.says on the I'rcscnt Status of ("liristiaiiity audits 
Doctrines. Edited, with an Introduction, by J. 
\'yiuwy Morgan. Hvo, pp. xliv — r)44. Boston; Small, 
Maynanl vV- Co. $;ir)(). 

In this volume the p''esent status of (Miristianity and its 
doctrines are di.scussed by men ol' all creeds and of no creeds. 
Following the int roductJiry chapter by the editor there is an 
essay on " Christianity at the End of the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury." by Mr. Frederic Harrison. The distinct coiicei)tions 
of .sovereignty and love as the fundamental idea in Chri.s- 
tianity are set forth by Dr. Henry A. Slinison, of New York, 
and Dr. Frank ('rane.of (;iii(!ago. Two chapters on " Evolu- 
tion and Its Relation to Man and Religion " are contributed 
by the Very l!ev. II. Martyn Hart and Rabbi Emil G. Ilirsch. 
"Scrijjture Inspiration and Authority" are discussed by Dr. 
A. C. Dixon and Dr. S. D. Mc('onii(>ll. Prof. Henry Preserved 
Smith a!id Prof. Meredith (). Smith write on "Tlie Old 
TestaTnent in the Light of Higher Criticism." Such topics 
as " Divorce and Remarriage," "Christian Science," "The 
Place of the Church in Modern Civilization," and "The Re- 
ligious Condition of the Anglo-Saxon Race" are treated by 
eminent authorities. 

The Evolution of Iininortality. By S. D. McConnell. 
13ino, pp. 204. New York : The MacnuUan Com- 
pany. §1.25. 

Dr. McConnell's book is chiefly a development of the ar- 
gument for a conditional immortality — i.e., an Immortality 
not natural to man, but achieved througli good conduct in 
this life. The immortality tiius attained is not understood 
by Dr. McConnell as eternal life, but as the power to exist 
for a longer or shorter period after death. In support of his 
main thesis. Dr. McConnell has written an interesting and 
suggestive book, which will doubtless stimulate discussion. 

The Church (Ecclesia). By George Dana Boardman. 

8vo, pp. 221. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

$1..50. 

Dr. Boardman presents the subject of "The Church " in 
three chief topics : First, " The Church as a Primitive Soci- 
ety ; " second, " The Church as a Modern Problem ; " third, 
" The Church as a Divine Ideal." Under the second of these 
heads Dr. Boardman discusses " The Mission of the Church," 
"The Modern Problem in Church Membership." "The Mod- 
ern Problem of Baptism," " The Modern Problem of the 
Lord's Supper," "Church Creeds," "Church Worship," 
"Church Polity," " Church Unification," and other topics of 
practical interest to the modern church. 

What Is the Matter with the Church ? By Frederick 
Stanley Root. 12mo, pp. 188. New York : The Abbey 
Press. $1. 

The Rev. Frederick Stanley Root's criticisms of the 
church of to-day are roughly indicated by some of the chap- 
ter-heads in the book: "Wanted: A Society for the Decrease 
of the Ministry ; " " The Capture of the Church by Commer- 
cialism ; " " The Obtuseness of the Church to Changed Con- 
ditions ;"" The Responsibility of Divinity Schools for Ex- 
isting Church Conditions;" "The Wage-Earner's Opinion 
of Existing Church Conditions ; " " Christianity in Relation 
to the Idle Rich and the Idle Poor," and " Practical Chris- 
tianity." In the concluding chapter are reprinted the opin- 
ions on the subject-matter of the book contributed by well- 
known clergymen to the New York Sunday World. These 
opinions have reference chiefly to the question of the over- 
crowding of the ministry. Mr. Root's own conclusions are, 
on the whole, optimistic, although he is frank in stating the 
dark side of present-day conditions. 

EDUCATION AND TEXT-BOOKS. 
A History of the United States. By Allen C. Thomas. 

12mo, pp. .590. Boston : D. C. Heath & Co. $1. 

Professor Thomas has enlarged and to a great extent 
rewritten his history of the United States for higher grades. 
The new edition is printed entirely from new plates, has 



THU NFM HOOKS. 



Vi'^ 



beon newly ami fully illiistniteil, and rni)t(iiii>. many n.-w 
maps. The nutlior dtvotcs nitnh tlif crt-atrr part of the 
lMM>k to rvt'iit-s tliiit liavf iH< iirrtnl sin»t> tlio iiili>ption of the 
Cnn^titution in 1T«». Tin- |HTi<Ml of discovery iintUoUnilzji- 
tiiin is treuttMl wiih a.s much fullnrMS h.h in nt-iHltil to kIiow 
• U-arly the origins of tho pfopl«< anil of thi-lr institulions. 
Emphasis is pla«fd on the {loliiical. siH-ial, unil t<-iuionii< 
ili-Vflopment of tlio nation, ratlu-r than on th»> details of Imt- 
tli-saiid othiT siH'ftacular events, whirli formerly <K-cuphMl 
so much valuable simce in scluMd histories. The illust rations 
are realistic and numerous, and the iHirtraits are from au- 
thentic sources. The maps ari' i>articularly deuigneil to in- 
dicate territorial chan^jes and t;ro\vth. 

Ili.storical Jurispriuleuce. liy Guy Carleton Ix'e. Svo, 
pp.517. New York : Tlie .Macinillan Company. $3. 
Dr. Leehasreconnized the fact that thel'nitedStateshas 
been Ix'hind other countries in the study of jurisprudence, 
and has planned this treatise on the subject with reference 
to the needs of element;ir> students us well as of trained 
lawyers and publicists. It is a curious fact that the science 
has received more attention in South .Vnierica than on our 
own continent. Dr. Lee's treatise is, perhaps, the tlrst 
North American text-lxiok of the subject. While the work 
is based on ori(;inal research, the author has of course 
availed himself of the results that have been achieved by 
Europ»>an investigators. In successive chapters he treats of 
the law of Babylonia, of Egypt, of PhuMiieia, of Israel, of In- 
dia, of (ireece. an<l of Rome, while the concluding chapter is 
devoted to early English law. 

The New Basis of Geography : A Manual for the Prep- 
aration of the Teacher. Hy Jacques W. Kedway. 
I'inio, pp. 'i-jy. New York : The Macinillau Com- 
pany. %\. 

In the "Teachers* Professional Library." edited by 
Prof. Nicholas Murray Butler, Dr. J. \V. Redway contrib- 
utes a volume on "The New Basis of (Jeogruphy," designed 
as a manual for the preparation of the teacher. This volume 
interprets the mutual relation of geographical environment 
on the one hanil and economic d»-velopment on tlie other. 
Dr. Butler defines this conception of geography as "u bridge 
over whic-h to pass backward and forward from the study of 
man's habiuat to his activities and his limitations, and back 
again." 

Europe and Other Continents, with Review of North 
America. Hy Ralph S. Tarr ami Frank M. .Mc- 
Murry. l'2ino, pp. .\.\ — 574. New York: The -Mac- 
niillan Company. 75 cents. 

The third book of the "Tarr and Mc.Murry Oeogra- 
phie8"is devoted to "Europe and Other ('ontinents, with 
Review of North America." Recognizing the fact that 
what the pupil has learned about the United States often 
fafles from his nn-mory while other countries are IM-Iiig 
studie<l, the authors have endeavored, while studying thi« 
physiography, climate, anil industries of f(»reign lands, to 
keep alive the Interest of their readers in the corres|H*nding 
features of the I'nited States. Accordingly, in approach- 
ing the physiography of South America, the physiography 
ami (dimatc of Eurfipe. the subject of grazing in Argentitni, 
the sul(jec-t of mining in fJreat Britain, etc.. the corre- 
HiKmdlng situation in our own country Is repriwluced at Bome 
length. There are also incluiled In the text scores of brief 
comparisons with the I'idted States; ikiid the last welion of 
the work Is entitled "The United SUites la I'ompurisun 
with Other Countries." 

First Years in Handicraft. I'.v \V.iii<r .1. Kcnyon. 

I'imo, pp. ViA. New York : The Maker Si Taylor 

C'ompany. fl. 

This handlK)ok rontnlns n H<)rlos of exnrclmi! devlM*<I for 
the trairdngof pupils of from seven to eleven atid twelve 
years of age. who have outgrown the i'mploymeiit« <if the 
kindergarten but have yet to attain th growth ig 

them for forms of bunilicnift iiimnion in lli> 'ir 



grades. Thenuthor «Im> brllrrM that nuiny will find this 

biMiIc f nil ..f .11 • — t , .. .. ,1 . .. .1 



bo<ik i 
with u I UK 



T'... 



, [x-iii ii,.iiii| s. |<■Mlr■^.l'lUll'r at liumi- ur al at.huul. 

The Working I' ' ' ':' . ; > 

Literary 1; 

Ry .lohii Kmnklui denuiiK. l-'mo, pp. xlv— 07R. 
IkMtun : Ginu & Co. #1.55. 

This volume Is ImuhmI un I'rofmuMir (irnnnir'a " Pmetteal 
Elements of Rhetoric," ,. 
ago. whieli liiis )m'4-ii !tii 
le. 

in , . 
u lext-buuk and a tiook oi rcierence. 

Comrailes .Ml. Annual \uml>«-r 1, hiaster, imd. l-^i- 
ited by \V. T. Stead, .Mieille, aiul .Martin llnrtmann. 
Svo, pp. 70. Ix)ndon : Review of KevieWh. Pnjit- r, 
'25 centM. 

There are still many teachers of Krrnrh :\ui\ fjtrin.n 
who. though recognizing the value of f 

for their pupils, do not know how to , :. 

of interinitional corres|Mindence which has tM«<>n • 

by Mr. W. T. Stead In England. M. Mlellle In Fr^i . . . ,.- 

fessor Rartmann in (iermuny. and othem. From the letters 

received by us from time to tin. ^ for Inf. , 

upf)!! the system, we are Iwl to U j ■ Cnmrail. 

organ of tii< : 'ion. will ' 

i>f modern ; ~. This ; 

English, <ierni<tn, and Fn-ncli, t .. 

the management of scludars' cm 

can teachers who think of trying thii« exceilent u 

veloping an interest in the stuily of French and ' 

should priK-ure a copy. The annual conIm m eentn. ni 

published in London at the ofllce «>f the II"-- •• ■■' I:- 

the staff of w-hich will Im* glad to nH>>lst t 

the mimes and tuldresses of suitable Frrni n <'i < ■■ rni.m > or- 

resiMindeiits for their pujiils 

The Historical Development of Schotd Reader*, and 
of Method in Teaching Reading. Ry Rudidph R. 
Reeder. (Cidumhia University Cuntribut ions to 
Philosophy. Psychology, itml F^lucation ) Nvo, pp. 
yi. New York : The Macmillnii Com|>ni)y. 00 
cents. 
Noting th»> romparnt 

history o( educatiotntl lU' 

has s«de<-ted a single branch of (lie cointii' 

lum and attempted to trace It thn>ugh III)' ' . 

of Its development. The historical devrlnpmpnt • 

readers anil of i-arly ini'tlnHls In leachInK readlnir f.^m- <.<• 

Int«'resfing cliiipt«'r in American i>«lucat(onal history. Dr. 

Reeder fouiiil Ills chief ditnciilty In obtaining ' 

and editions of sclHxd readers. Taking such n 

was able to secure, he »ift«fl • 

which he deemed "original. ■ 

reaching In Its tendencies n! 

that the publication of Dr. I. 

may lead to the collection of tunny American ; 

historic Interest which if- .t.,,>i,il, ,, sf..rt, .1 .. 

rubbish of old houses i 

Ea.stern and middle Wext. m !-•. 

first part of Dr. Rc-eder's treatl-MMl 

the "Rorn-Book." Noah \Vel»ter - :«1 

• Render." nnd the schocd reader* of Ih- 

Tin- wcond i>art takes up early in. ' 

alphnlM.t methiMl. the word m.tt.rMl. . 

and phonetic meib<«l>« ■ 

Reedef'ii mon«»grnpb .>(T 

his preface, llnit "tl" 

without n pnrnllrl > 

other nation* iiml »■ 

certainly abundant nut. ..... .. . ,..,-.,... i. .,...* 

a* this. 



INDEX TO PF.RIODICALS. 

Unless otlnTwiso spofilUMl. all refiTi-iui-s an- to llu- June numbers of period icals. 
For talili- of abbreviutioiis, see lust page. 



A. ii.r-M.iiKii:. r- atul Their Work. II. \V> n<llmin, PMM. 
.1. .\ I'olitieal Meteor, KrL. 
, (1. rlwimite,Onj<M. 

. Proiiress in I., In Kranee, G. Caye ; II., 
~. «i. I{<.nx. UUP. .Inne 1. 
x... 1 i.a>i. Trade and Adniiiiistration in, E. J. 

M M..nl{. 

Air.' , -.d. K. Nels. Pear. 
Alaska, A loiieAeros.-*, H. Dunn, .\ins. 
Aiueriea. How toTravel in, I'. <;. lluberf, ,Ir., Grit. 
America. Impressions of, V. Harrison. NineC. 
Aiueriea. I*re-( 'oluinliian, \V. ."^. Merrill. ( iilh. 
Anilorra a Hidileti Uepublie, Lucia I'urdy, Harp. 
Animals at War. L. Uobinson, Pear. 
Animals: Love Stories of the Zoo, C. Howard, LHJ. 
Antieiiuitiuns: an Experiment in Prophecy— I., H.G.Wells, 

NAR. 
Archit«'<ture : Fartnliouse. Small, That Can be Enlarged, 

R. t". ."sjieneer, .Ir., LH.I. 
Arlington and lis .M< inories. Catherine F. Cavanagli, JunM. 
Arnolds, The, .\nna H. McGill, BB. 
Art: 
Antokolsky. Sculptor, Prince Karap;eorgevitch, MA. 
-•Vrtist anil His Model, li. lvol)l)e, Cos. 
Artists' .Studios: as They Were and as They Are, W. 

(i(MMlnian, M.\. 
Barnaril, Edward H.. A. Chamberlain, AT. 
Butterfly Land, In : a new Ballet, MA. 
Canadian .\rt, Deiade of. M. L. Fairbairn, Can. 
Chardin..Iean B. S., F. Wedmore, PMM. 
Children's Portraits by Great Masters, A. C. Fortaine, Int. 
I)ecorative Art, Two Works on, R. Sturgis, IntM. 
Duchesses of Devonshire, Two, I'ortraits of the, W. Rob- 
erts. MA. 
Eartlieiiware, American Historical, Katherine L. Smith, 

XatM. 
Engstrom. .\lbert. B. Karageorgcvitch, RRP, .Tune 1. 
Evolution of a Picture— a Chapter on Studies, E. Cam- 
eron, BP. 
Fountains. Designing of, H. F. Stratton, AD, May. 
Frames. Picture, Art in, A. Vallance, Art. 
Furniture. French. Museum of, E. Molinier, RPar, Mayl5. 
Furniture, Veriiis Martin Finish for, Al. 
German Arts and Crafts, W. Fred, Art. 
German Emperor. Portrait in Enamel of the. Professor 

von Herkomer, MA. 
Greek Masterpieces, Recently Discovered, C. Waldstein, 

Mon R. 
Greek Statues, Lately Recovered, W. Huyshe, Art. 
Greek Women in Modern Literature and Art, H. A. Har- 

ing. Chaut. 
Hassam, Childe, Impressionist, F. W. Morton, BP. 
Industrial .\rt in America, G. H. Shorey, AD, May. 
Japanese Color Prints, F. Weitenkampf. BB. 
>Iayer, Hy., Humorou.s Caricaturist, D. C. Preyer, BP. 
Pan-.\merican Exposition, Art at tlic, C. Brintoii, Crit. 
Pan-American E^xposition, Color Schemeat the, Katherine 

V. McHenry, BP. 
Pan-American Exposition, Notable Paintings at the, 

Grace W. Curran, Mod. 
Pan-.\merican Exposition, Sculpture at the, Regina Arm- 
strong, Bkman. 
Pictorial Composition— V., Circular Observation, H. R. 

Poo re. AI. 
Pictures. How to Study, J. P. Haney, AD, May. 
Rookwood Ware, Jane L. Boulden, AL. 
Royal Academy of 1!W1, AJ ; M. H. Spielmann, MA. 
Rf>usseau, Jean Jacques, Women of, H. Buffenoir, RRP, 

.May 15. 
Salon and the Royal Academy, H. H. Statham, Fort. 
Salons of 1901, H. Frantz, MA ; R. de.la Sizeranne, RDM, 
June 1; K. Rolland, RPar, June 1; C. Mauclair, RRP, 
May 15. 
.Sargent, Mr., at the Royal Academy. H. H. Fyfe, NineC. 
Tolstoy's Moral Theory of Art, J. A. Macy, Cent. 
Woodbury, Charles IL, A. Chamberlain, A I. 
Asia : Governing the Orient on Western Principles, P. S. 

Reinsch, Forum. 
Asiatic Policv, Focus of, XatR. 

Astronomical Investigations, .Scientific Value of Photog- 
raphy for, G. CMark, PopA. 
Astronomv, Modern, Problems of. Dr. Bruhns, Deut. 
Athletic Giants of the Past, J. S. Mitchel, O. 
Atlantic Ocean, Record Trips Across the, J. A. Manson, Cass. 
Australasia, Labor Parties in, A. Metin, RPP, May. 



Australia, ?\Mleral Constitution of. H. M. Posnett, Fort. 
Australia. Federated, Greetings from Many Lands to, RRM, 

April. 
Australian Commonwealth, Finance of the, F. Battley, 

BankL. 
Australian Federation. P. K. Rowland. Muc. 
Austrian Parliament and Italian I)ei)ulies, NA. !May 1. 
Authors. Foreign, in Aniei'ica — V"., H. R. Wilson, Bkinan. 
Banking in Great Britain and Ireland During liMK)- V., 

BankL. 
Bees. N. H/ Moore. Chaut. 

Beethoven Fetes at .Mayence, R. Rolland, RPar, May 15. 
Biblical Law: The Case of Boaz and Ruth, D. W. Amram, 

GBag. 
Bird Life in South Africa, W. Greswell, LeisH. 
Bird Ways, Cham. 

Bird, Wild, at Arm's Length, F. H. Herrick, PopS. 
Birds of the Beach, O. G. Pike. Pear. 
Birmingham, England, New Water-Supply of, H. G. Archer, 

Cass., W. H. Y. Webber, PiMM. 
Boat Race, Inter-Collegiate. J. F. Dorrance. FrL. 
Bonaparte, Conquest of Paris by, A. Vandal, RDM. .Tune 1. 
Booth, General William, Sketch of, W. T. Stead, YM. 
Boston—" A Plain-Clothes Man's Town." J. Flynt, McCl. 
Boston Public (iarden, C. W. Stevens, NEng. 
Bridges and Bridge Building, G. Napier, Mun. 
Bronte, Charlotte, Storv of— II., YW. 
Buffaloes in Africa, Tracking, F. R. N. Findlay. O. 
Bunker Hill, Jabez Hamlen at, C. W. Hall. NatM. 
Butterflies. How to Collect, E. H. Baynes, JunM. 
Cambridge, England, F. Carr, Cass. 

Canada, Maritime Provinces of, W. A. Hickman, AngA. 
Canadian Art, Decade of, M. L. Fairbairn. Can. 
Canadian Magazines, Century of, A. H. U. Colquhoun, Can. 
Canadian Poetry. Decade of, D. C. Scott. Can. 
Canadian Prose, Decade of, L. E. Horning. ( !an. 
Canal, Isthmian, from a Military Point of View, P. C. Hains, 

Annals, May. 
Canal, Suez, Neutralization of the, W. B. Munro, Annals, 

May. 
Canals: Interoceanic Waterways, G. B. Waldron, Chaut. 
Carnegie, Andrew, as Economist and Social Reformer, F. A. 

Cleveland, Annals, May. 
Cavalry, Evolution of, F. N. Maude, USM. 
Charities and Correction, National Conference of Char. 
Charity Legislation of 1900-1901. Char. 

Charity: Preventive Work for Grown People, J. Lee, Char. 
Chase, Kate, and Her Great Ambition, W. Perrine, LHJ. 
Chicago Building Trades Conflict of 1900, J. E. George, 

QJEcon, May. 
Chickens, Pigs, and People, B. T. Washington. Out. 
Children .^Esthetic Sense in, G. Chialvo, RPL, May. 
Children, Reading for, H. V. Weisse, Contem. 
Chili, Presidential Election in, EM, May. 
Chillicothe, the Cradle of a Commonwealth— II., Jane W. 

Guthrie, Mod. 
China : 

Canadian in China During the Late War, H. B. Manley, 
Can. 

China in Arms: A Standing Army of 10,000,000, C. D. 
Bruce, USM. 

Future in China, E. H. Conger. NatM. 

Hart, Sir Robert, and the Boxer Movement, C. A. Stanley, 
MisH. 

History and Development of China, J. Barrett, NatGM. 

Jurisprudence, Chinese, Wu Ting-Fang, ALR. 

Mentality, Chinese, C. Letourneau, RRP, May 15 and 
June 1. 

Missionaries and the Chinese Troubles. C. Piton, BU. 

Missionaries, China and Our, M. D. Conway, OC. 

Missionary in China, H. C. Thomson, Contem. 

Poetry of the Chinese, W. A. P. Martin, NAR. 

Reform. Chinese People and. A. T. Piry, RDM, June 1. 
Christ and Modern Criticism, W. T. Davison, MRN. 
Ciiristian Experience, Evidential Value of, T. H. Haden, 

MRN. 
Christian Science : Its Premise and Conclusions, A. Farlow, 

Arena. 
Christian Science: Its Relation to Some Present-Day Re- 
ligious Problems, J. B. Willis, Arena. 
Christianity, Outlook for, W. Gladden, NAR. 
Church, Children of the. D. Atkins, MRN. 
Cities, Great, Probable Diffusion of, H. G. Wells, NAR. 
Coal Mine, Fighting Fires in a, P. Ridsdale, FrL. 
Collectivism in Classic Antiquity, H. Francotte, RGen,May. 



INDEX TO PERIODICALS. 



125 



CollefTP Life. Oirl's. Liivinia Hart. ros. 

t«>ll«i:i' .•^ruilfiiis. Alh^'iil Luxury Among. A. T. Hailley and 

y ' . I'. HarriMiti, ('i-iit. 
C'ollfirr Triiitiiiic-THl)les, \V. Camp, Cent. 
ColU'tj.", Workiiijc Ono's Way Tlirough. Aliro K. Fallows, 

Cent. 
Colorado, Story of. E. Mavo. l»ear. 
Comet, New. K. A. Kath. I'opA. 

Comttsm Htiil Marxism, C. «1«' Cell^»-Krauz, RSo<', May. 
1 ■! I>ilirar\ , Mary Svwfll, Kos. 

' . Wiuiiirit; War Avraiiist. S. Baxti-r, A.MRK. 

I ...IN.-. » i).".ks. My, Kli/.Hl>etli H. I'eiiiiell, Atlant. 
Cornwall and York, Duke and l)uolies.s of, Marie A. Belloe, 

Cass. 
Country Club and Its Influence Upon American Social Life. 

ti. Kob»)e, Out. 
Country Hume in a Flat, F. .T. N'asli. JuneM. 
Crubbe, (Jcorni-, .<ome MfUinries of. \V. H. Hutton, Com. 
Cranes. Cioliatli. .1. Hnrni-r. CasM. 
Creation. Aorount of. W. \V. Man in, MUN. 
Cruket: the Lost An of Cat( liiiii;, H. Maifarlane. MonR. 
Criticism and .I'lstlietics. Etlul 1). I'ufft-r. Atlant. 
Critii-ism. (Jernian— II.. W. M. Mey<T. IiitM. 
CriM-ixlile's First Cousins. J. Isabel!, Leisll. 
Cronjwell, Oliver. R. T. Kerlin, MRN. 

Cuban I'oiivention, Work of the, A. (i. Robinson, Forum. 
Currency Legislation, Recent, in the United States, IJ. M. 

Mason, HankNY, May. 
Daudet, Leon, C. Mau<-lair, Xou, May 1. 
Daughters of the American Revolution : Annual ReiK)rts «if 

State Retjents, AMonM. 
Daughters of the American Revolution, Tenth Continental 

Congress of the, AMonM. May. 
Death, Babylonian and Hebrew Views of, P. Carus, DC, 
Declaration of Rijihtsof 1T«<, A. Lebon. IntM. 
Delsartian IMiilosopliy : The Body Beautiful, Mrs. L. D. 

Ballief, Wern. 
Deluge, (i.ology and the, (J. F. Wright. McCl. 
Diaries, M. Dumouliii, Rl'ar. Ma.\ l.j. 

l)irteti<s. Mo<lern. Principles of— II.. C. vr)n N(M)rden. IntM. 
Dikes of Holland, (i. H. .Mafthes. Nutti.M. 
D.>g. Care of the. .-Xdele W. Lee. O. 
I»"i\v. Lorenzo, in .Mis.sissipi)!. C. B. (Jalloway, MRX. 
Dreyfus Case. Bert illon's Testimony in the. F. 1'. Blair. ALR. 
Du-e. Eleanora. Youth of. L. Rasi. S'.A. May 1. 
Karth. Twelve Movements of the, ('. Klamtnarion, Nou, 

May 1. 
Eclipses of the Sun : What They Teach Us, D. P. To<ld. PopA. 
Edu<-ation : 

College-Entrance Requirements In Englisli. F. N. Scott, 
.School. 

College. Small, ()p|)orturiitv of the. H. W. Horwill, Atlant. 

Colonial School Wood Tax. W. H. Small. Ed. 

Course of Study, Situation as Regards the, .1. Dewey, Edit. 

Degree of Ph.D.. Examination for the, W. F. Magic', EdR. 

flcnle Lilircin Paris, L. .Mead, Hunt. 

Education, The New, E. Lavisse. RPar, .lune 1. 

English as the Vehicle <>{ Expression. E. D. Wartleld, Ed. 

English in Se<-onilary Scho<ds. A. .Abbott. ."School. 

Foreign Schools. Notes on - II. . W. S. .lackman. EdR. 

Gardens, ScluKd. H. L. Claitp. Ed. 

firammar in the Elementary Schools. L. Owen, Ed. 

High S<'hool. Obligations and Limitations of the. C. F. 
Tliwing. .*^chool. 

Ideals of the American Scliool-Girl, Catherine I. I)<Mld, 
NatR. 

Indian Education, Evolution of, R. L. Mi-Cormlck. Nal.M. 

Sleanings, Science of. ,\. .1. Bell. School. 

>Icdical Education, New Era in. Eil. 

Aloral Selfhood. Develoiiinent of. W. I. Crane. SchiMil. 

Music Teaching, Place ot Imitation in, Helen Place, Mus, 
May. 

Philosophy Amonir Yale Graduates II., E. F. Buchner. 
E<1. 

Primary Education, Plea.sant, .1. Baker, LeisH. 

.SchoolhouM', Jrieal. W. II. Biirnhani. WW. 

.Science of Ediieattoii. F. W. Parker. Kind. 

SuiKTintemlelit. .Modern ( Ml V School, < '. S. MiKire, Ed. 

Techid<-nl Education. E. A. Fuhr, Cham. 

Tests on School Children, Suggestions for, C. K. Seanhore. 
Ed R. 

University, Encroachment of College on, S. E. Baldwin. 
IntM. 

Yale < 'id lege Curriculum. .1. C. Schwab. V.i\H. 
E.lward VII.. King: How Will Hetioverny W.T Sie.i.I. 

RPar. .May l.V 
Egaii. Maurice Francis. Teresa Beatrice O'Hari*. Ro- 
Kle.tric Tr(dle> TransiM.rtatiop, II. Davis. .Jun.M. 
Ele< trical Invention. Latest Triumphsof..!. S. Ames. AM RR. 
Eleclriilly : Mow Niagara has Im-cu " HarneHwil," W. < '. 

Andrew-.. .\.MRB. 
Electriilty in the Mom-.... E. de fih/dln. ROen. May. 
Ele'trlilty. New Tliiuu"* in. '1. C. Miiriln. .IniiM. 
Elliot. Hugh, the Soldier DiplomiitJ^I.Georglaiia Hill. (tent. 
Encyclical on Chrl-tlan Dernocrncy Aiiuly/.<'d, (nth. 
England : scv Great Brilnin. 



England: An Old C»«chhiK RomI from HnalbMinptan to 

I...T,.|..:.. \V H ,1. {) 



. Mun. 
in. W. T. 

and lU AaaoclAtlonii, W. Andrrr-, UenU 

. E. P.Watjnn.Knc. 

■ rli. 

li.i.M. 



.\ I i>n rnlion 



h 
h 

t M. Earn. PL. 

h.i.MM. I, ,,,.ri.i. .Mi.i^ai.. . ni.ji ui til.. \V. R. LawMtn. 
Nat R. 

Fi-1. I...!.- n ,ii..,r . r Fi.,, 1. <.. ,,, 

K 

I 

l-i,!, -!. I . p. W . , . ■ 

F"ie..tiy, rinl. A. . . Pear. 

tosier. .lonii, ii. U . .Mabie, Bkniaii. 
France : 

AsscM'iali'"- ' ■" ■■'' "•• '• '••■ 1'. ...t ... \ . .,^„^ Onll- 

nary I 

Cath«di. 

English View ..I ; e. HD.\i, JUDr 1. 

Kros in h reneh V 

Foi. ■ ' , ]-, 

For 

iire.i. ;..ii.i. ..i.ii.i.ii 111.11% 

Between, I it. 

Imiiresslons . ■ ilanotaux. RD.M. M«y 15. 

Pedagogy in the .Arinv 1L..A. VeUgUire. BU. 
Franchise Legislation In Missouri, F. L. i'aXMtn. Attnalk, 

.May. 
<Janie ('reserves, .American, >L Foster. Mun. 
(iardening. R. V. Rogers. GBag. 
Gardens. |{e\eneof. 1,. II. Baiby.Out. 
Gardiner, Samuel Ruw.son : An A|ipre«-lAtion. (J. L. Beer 

Crit. 
Genius. British, Study of- III., H. Ellis. Pop-S. 
(Jerniany : 
Agrarians In Mo<lern Germany. T. Burth. RPar. June I. 
Education, Commercial, in Germany, X, Tomu-Batlc 

RPar, .May l.V 
tierman Kinpii • V.« .1 I' ■'• i Ju/iiiin, KM. May. 
Kaiser's S|M. K. Blind, Forum. 

Relations wii i ' iit. 

Gillespie. Mrs. K. D.. " li<M>k *>l lUiuiiiibrance" by. Jean- 

nefte L. Gihler. Crit. 
Girl. .Viiierican .^< h<Md-, Ideals of the. Catherine I. Dodd. 

NalR. 
Glasgow International Exhibition. A. G. Mrtiibbon. AJ. 
liold .Mining in Western Austrulin V.. A. «•. Charleion, 

Eng. 
(Jolf. Game of. Wern. 

(iidf in Thiile. .\. E. Gatborne-Hnrdy, Bud. 
Gorky. Maxiini'. Uusslai N' " ider. BU. 

(iould. Helen Miller. . I. < 

(Joyeriiineiit, Free. .Xnii , C. C. lionnry. (H'. 

(ireat Britain: see also 1 1. 

.Africa. British East. I iid Admtnlntmtion In. R. J. 

Mardon. MonR. 
Ai my .M. -.Ileal R.fnrm. W. Hlll-Cltmo. USM. 
Army omcers.Ti . P.MM. 

.Army Reform. Sr n. W. E. CnlrniMi. Conlrm. 

Army, .'^lanilanl i«i >irt nu-ih for the, R. GlfTeii. NinrC. 
Capital. National. .'^Ir RolM-rt tiirfi'n on the Kxprmlltun- 

of, BaiikL. 
Church and Creed In Scotland. Futun- of, W. WnlUcr, 

Fort. 
Coal Duly. D. A.I 

Ciinsi-rlpllon, l{a<. r, NalR 

Coronation, Ni-xt. I. irt. Nin.i . 

Coronntioii iif an En. ii,.oi<inie Curionn Ka«-la 

V I. ..Ill t I.. I I I. \l. 

I 

I "1. Brown*. 

I olileMl. 

Kdne.itl. Ill Bill. K L Hianley. C«»nt««m ; K. fJray. Fort; T. 
I .1 SheDo toUcHavwlr W.J.Corhrt, 

I Uriieral Trraly of ArMtralloit 

'iihrrtln. Fort. 



W.W.dlT. 

U 
w of the. J P. 

I . (prtiprlatlonnf the, |l. H. A.<Vwby. Wmi. 

Ju.lt. .»iiir». Li.tillnli. Ccniury of IV.. Van V. v«<«««lrf. 
GBiiK. 



l-,Mi 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REllEW OF REi^/ElVS. 



~h. J. II. SrliiHilitii:. Kort 
i._ i. 1. 1.. .1. . ii*^ f 



tr. ill thr. U 
• Wl'lMI. K 

•. MiuC. 
ri'i HiHT. F. W. Tucnmii, West 



Vr|-|i;T, I"'orl. 
nilUliTN MoiiU. 



\. H. Iat. NiiK'C . 
, ,,, . .,iv»'rj.ity I'roliK'iii, T. K. Niiunliten, 

K ' imntion. Mr. Rider lIiiKgiird and, H. K.C.Groi;- 

S4iiith .Vfritii. EnKland"»NfXt Blunder in. S. Brooks, Nat H. 
South .\friti« ."^oine False .Aiiiiloiries. E. B. l.Mllller, Fori, 
S«>utli .\lrii an War, Astouiitlliin Kevelation.s Aliout the, 
\\ , . f 

.. l)utl<M)k for -II., II. K. Uosioe, MonR. 
i ' - iiiileiit.l'auses of. Nat U. 

U 111 \»n.i lira. l*re«6ing Need for More, E. H. f>tnrling, 

Ninel'. 
Voluiii.er Force. R. F. .>^orshie. USM. 
War OrtUe. Field (iuii> Onlenil by the. MoiiH. 
Grveci-: .\ I'aravan Tour of the Peloponnesus. ,J. I. Manatt, 

(.'liaut. 
Ureek Women in Modern Literature and Art, H. A. Haring, 

Chant. 
Ouahi, Mi!«sionHry Work in, MisH. 

(iuiiiev. Uiuise Iiiioneii. Work of. Helen T. Porter, PL. 
llaKue't'onferenee, Second Anniversary of the, W. T. Stead, 

KRL. 
Hail. Count de Saporta, RDM. May 1.5. 
Halihurton, Unhirt Grant. (J. T. Denison, Can. 
Harnaek's"\\hat Is Christianity ■'"T. L. Healy, Oath. 
Harvard-Yale Regatta, First (1S">2). J. M. Wliiton. Out. 
Health Conditions in .Scandinavia, V. L. Oswald, San. 
Heultli. Noise and, J. H. Girdiier, Mun. 
Hesketh. Lady. ;ind "Johnny of Norfolk," Catharine H. 

Jolinsoii, >lonU. 
Higginsoii, Thomas Wentworth, T. Bentzon, RDM, June 1. 
HoUand, Dikes ot, (i. H. Matthes, NatGM. 
Homestead Law, H. Teichmueller, ALR. 
Horse- Racing: The English Turf, W. H. Rowe, O. 
Horse.s. Wild. Breaking. Str. 

House of Commons, L. A. Atherley-Jones, NineC. 
Hypnotism, Reciprocal Influence in, J. D. Quackeubos, Harp. 
Ice I'arnival of Caranac, F. A. Talbot, Str. 
Immortality and Reason, A. E. Gibson, Mind. 
Imperialism, S. C. Parks, Arena. 

India : Old anil New Times on the Borderlatid, Black. 
Indian Education, Evolution of, R. L.McCormick, NatM. 
industrial Betterment. H. F. J. Porter, CasM. 
Influenza as a Factor of Recent ^lortality in Chicago, San. 
Insurance Bank, Belgium's Government, C. L. Roth, Annals, 

.May. 
Interest, Historic Change in the Character of, G. Gunton, 

Gunt. 
Inventors, American Women as, Elizabeth L. Banks, Cass. 
Inv«-rtebrates, North-American— XI V.. C. W. Hargitt, ANat, 

May. 
Investment, Trade, and Gambling. MonR. 
Irish Question, (i. Smith, NAR. 

Iron and Steel Making, Competition in, E. Phillips, Eng. 
Irrigation, Early, I.\. .May. 
Irrigation in I'eru. lA, May. 

Isthmian Canal. Population and the, L. M. Haupt, Lipp. 
Italian Literature and the Soul of the Nation, G. Barzellotti, 

NA, May lb. 
Italy : (irobcrti and Crispi, C. Gioda, NA, May 10. 
Italv: Humbert, King, Monument to, A. Hildebrand, NA, 

May IB. 
Jesus and the Rabbinical Teachers, W. J. Beecher, Horn. 
Jesus' Teaching, Idealism, and Opportunism in, D. A. 

Walker. Bib. 
Jockey. Making of a, A. Sangree, Ains. 
Kindergarten: Does the Critic ^lisinterpret Froebel? F. 

Eby, Kind. 
Kindergarten, Some Misconceptions of the, Laura Fisher, 

KindR. 
Kindergartners. Colored, Call from the South for. Kind. 
Knox, Attorney-Genera'. Philander C GBag. 
Korea and tlie Koreans, R. E. Speer, FrL. 
Labor. British Organized, Experience of, F. Brocklehurst, 

Eng. 
Labor Coalitions of ISJtUHlS, H. Hauser. RSoc, May. 
Labor Legislation in France, \V. F. Willoughby, QJEcon, 

May. 
Law, Rewards of the, W. O. Inglis, Mun. 
Literary Address. H. W. Mabie, Mod. 

Literature, Comparative, Science of, H. M. Posnett, Contem. 
Literature, Tendencies in. Dial, May 16. 
Literature: Use of the Ugly in Art, Katherine Merrill, PL. 
Locomotion in the Twentieth Century, H. (r. Wells, NAR. 
London, American .Society in, R. N. Crane, AngA. 
London : British Museum, F. M. Kettenus, AngA. 
London, Disappearing. W. Sidebolham. LcisH. 
London, Society of American Women in, Mrs. H. Alexander, 

Sir. 
London : Will It Be Suffocated ? H. W, Wilson, NatR. 



Luiiiberiiig : Fnnii Forest to Saw Mill. S. E. White. JunM. 
.Machine Designing, Discrepaniies of Precept in, L. Allen, 

McKeiizie, Rev. John W. P., G. C. Rankin, MRN. 
Mal.iria-tieini, (>. S. Calkins, I'opS. 
Alailbnidiigb. .loliri, Duke of, W. F. Fauley. Bkiiiaii. 
Alarsliall, Chief .luslice. and Judge Story, Friciulship Be- 
tween, A. Moses, ALR. 
JIarshfleld, Massachu.setts, and Its Historic Houses, Ruth 

A. HnidfonI, NEng. 
Ma.xim. Sir lliiam, C. Roberts, WW. 
^leclianical Engineering, Progress and Tendency of— II., 

R. II. Thursloii, Poi)S. 
^Medical .Science. Liinits of, A. W^eichselbaum, Dout. 
Menard, Louis, P. Berthelol. RPar, June 1. 
Mexico of To-Day- 11., J. N. Navarro. NatGM. 
.Alilitarism, Curse of,— a Symposium, YM. 
Missions : 
Carey, William, Metropolitan of India on, R. Rhindhir, 

Horn. 
Cesarea, Turkey, Hospital at, MisH. 
China and Our Missionaries, I\I. D. C()nway, OC. 
Cliiiui, Outlook in, W. S. Anient, Misli. 
Guam, Ojioning of, MisH. 
!Moody. William Vaughn, Poetry of, W. M. Payne, Dial, 

June 1. 
Moonshiners. Raiding, S. G. Blvfhe, Mun. 
Morgan, .1. Pierpont. and His Work, E. C. Machen, Cos. 
Mouiul-Opeiiing, Romance of , J. P. Gann, Ohara. 
MUller, Max, at Oxford, Atlant. 
Municipal Ownership, J. Martin, AVW. 
Municipal Programme, H. E. Deining, Annals, May. 
Municipal Trading in Great Britain, P. xVshley, QJEcon, 

May. 
Municipalities in Rhode Island, S. A. Sherman, Annals, 

May. 
Music : Commodious Conservatory Buildings, Mus, May. 
Music, Programme, Development of, E. B. Hill, Mus, May. 
Musical Memories of Imperial Paris, H. B. Fabiani, >Iod. 
Mutiny, Great, Tale of— VI., ^V. H. Fitchett, Corn. 
Nation, Blood of the-II., In War, D. S. Jordan. PopS. 
National Preservation, Elements of, C. W. Super, MRN. 
Nations, Rivalry of — XXXIII. - XXXVI., E. A. Start, 

Chaut. 
Negro as He Really Is, W. E. B. DuBois, WW. 
Negro, W^est Indian. II. L. Nevill, Cham. 
New England W^eather, E. T. Brewster, NEng. 
Newfoundland : St. Pierre, the Remnant of an Empire, P. T. 

McGrath, PMM. 
New Testament, Twentieth Century, E. A. Allen, MRN. 
New York, Girl Colonies in, Alice K. Fallows, Ains. 
New York, Housing Question in, P. Escard, RefS, May 1. 
New York, Restaurants for Women in, Anna S. Richardson, 

Home. 
New York's Horticultural Garden, D. R. Campbell. Home. 
New York's Law Dispensary, G. Richardson, JunM. 
Niagara Falls, Development of the Water-Power of, W. C. 

Andrews, AMRR. 
Norseman, Ancient, Phvsique of the, Krin, May 15. 
Northwest, Wonderful, H. A. Stanley, WW. 
Noses, Minds and, L. Robinson, Black. 
Nurseries in City Stores, Rheta C. Dorr, JunM. 
Oratory, G. F. Hoar, Scrib. 
Ohio Canal, With Bicycle and Camera on the, H. M. Al- 

baugh, Mod. 
Oil-Fields, New, of the United States, D. T. Day, AMRR. 
Old Testament Interpretation, Outlook tor, W. G. Jordan, 

Bib. 
Original Package Doctrine, Latest Phases of the, S. Miller, 

ALR. 
Owens, John E., Recollections of, Clara Morris, McCl. 
Pacific, Passages from a Diary in the, J. La Farge, Scrib. 
Pater, W^alter, W. Mountain, PL. 
Palestine, Modern, Food and Its Preparation in, E. W. G. 

Masterman, Bib. 
Paraclete and the Human Soul, W. Elliott, Cath. 
Pan-American Exposition: 
Art at the Exposition, C. Brinton, Crit. 
Artistic Effects of the Exposition, E. Knauflft, AMRR. 
Color Scheme at the Exposition, Katherine V. McHenry, 

BP. 
Midway of the Exposition, W. M. Lewis, Home. 
Paintings at the Fixposition. Grace W. Curran, Mod. 
Pan-American on Dedication Day, W. H. Hotchkiss, 

AMRR. 
Sculpture, Story of the, Regina Armstrong, Bkman. 
Triumphs of the Exposition, M. Mannering, NatM. 
Pennsylvania and South Africa, H. Hodgkin. West. 
Periodic Law, J. L. Howe, PopS. 
Petty, Sir William, the Father of English Economics, W. H. 

Mallock, NatR. 
Philanthropy, Prescient, Dial, June 1. 
Pliilip II., Secret Service of, A. Upward, Pear. 
Phillips, Stephen, Conversation with, W. Archer, Crit; 

PMM. 
Philippines: The Manila Censorship, H. Martin, Forum, 



IXDEX TO PEKIOniCAIS. 



vz\ 



Plu)t<>j;ra|>liy : 

Atcfa-lttailriT. ('. H. Ki)tliiiinli>y. PhoT. 

Hii(ki:ri>umU. I)ark. iiiul Simplicity. NVI'M. 

DfVtloiKTM. SoiiH' <if tin- Mixl.rn, V. ('. l^iiiilM-rt. AI'H. 

Haiulvvritiiik; Kxpert, l'hi)tiini-ui>li\ ".•, Ai<l to the. W. J. 
Kinslt-y. I'l.oT. 

Huiit«T. C'Hiiu'ra, F. M. CliApniaii. (>. 

Hunting Wild Bc-as«ts with tlie (.iinu'ra, A. (i. Wtillihuii. 
FrL. 

Kixlak, Liiiiit«Ml. and the Entrli^h Tra.Ic. A PH. 

Likclit ami Sliailc in l'lniti>>;ra|iliy. llarrut Sariain, Wl'M. 

LiKhtnint;. P^l<.t<l^;ra|lhin^', 1!. l!. .si^;l,r, I'lioT. 

Pallailiiini Tniiinj;. J. Jot-, .\ PM. 

Panorauiir l'li<>l«>v;raplis, T. Valdint;. WPM. 

Ph<>ti>-T«-ltnrapliv. PiioT. 

Pictorial Pliot..t;raphy. A. H. Wall, WPM. 

Pii-tnrial Plii>ti>i;rapliy, Anu-riian, at (ilasi^ow, A. C. 
Mai-Konzif. HP. 

Portiaitun-. Nt-w Li^'ht fur. WI»M. 

Portraiturt'. PU-n^iiij; in. K. K. Hi>u;:li. PhoT. 

Sun as a Painter in Wator-t'olorh, Oliani. 

Sun's Corona. Methods of Photograpltint; tlie, II. \V. 
DuBois. APH. 

Sunset Plioti«t:raphy. W. E. Bertlinj;, PIioT. 
Piano. Syinjiatlietic Ke.soiiaace of the, ^^■. S. H. Mathews, 

Mus, May. 
Pijjeon. Homing, as Letter Carriers, Kathleen li. Nelson, 

JunM. 
Plant Life Underjjrouiid. T. Dreiser. Pear. 
Plants and Animals, Introduced, St)read of, Cham. 
Plutarch. Inner Life ol, 11. N. Fowler. Chant. 
Poe, Kdttar Allan. Fifty Years After. E. W. Bowen. Fornin. 
Poetry: Place It Ought to Have in Life, P. StaptVr, UUP, 

June 1. 
PnUir-Sfii. Voyage of the. Duke of tile Ahru/zi. PMM. 
Polish .Martyrs in Prussia, A. Potocki, UUP, June 1. 
Politics. Komance and Kealism in. C. Hcnoist, KD.M,May 15. 
Pony, Child's, How to Choose a, F. Trevelyan. Cos. 
Pope and the Temixiral Power, R. de Cesare, NAK. 
Porto Kico, Financial Problems of, T. S. Adams, Annals, 

May. 
Possum a Wicked Brother to the Pig, Martlia McC. Wil- 

liains, O. 
Preachers. Education of, S. D. McConnell, WW. 
I'resbyterian (ieneral .Assenihlv. Out. 
Prices. HowTrusts AtTect. J. W. Jenks.XAH. 
I'rinte<l Page. Ps>cliology ot the. H. T. Peek. Cos. 
Printing of SjK)ken Words. F. Irland, AM KH. 
Protestantism of Chi-ist, .MonK. 
Protestantism, iiomanism and. Comparative (irowth of, in 

the Nineteenth Centurv, I). Dorcliestcr. Horn. 
Prude, Psychology of the. C. Meliiiaiid. Kltl\ May 1'.. 
Pulpit, Preparation for the, J. Parker, lloni. 
Ka< e Prohlem in the I'niteil States, li. Nestler-Tricoc he.HU. 
Railway Alliance. C. H. Hull. Int.M. 
Railway Rates, Reasonable. L. Vann. .\LR. 
Recamier. Madame. S. <;. Tallentjre, Long. 
iiecreatioii. Communal, C. Charringlon, Conti-m. 
Religion of aCollege Stuilent, F. (». Peahody. Forum. 
Religion Without Dogma, E. Naville. HU. 
Religious liights of Mini. L. Abbott, Out. 
Rent Concept. I'a.ssing of the Ohl. F. A. Fetter. QJEcon. May. 
Ridiculous. I'opular Obbervations Concerning the, J. C. 

Meredith. West. 
Riis. Jacr»b A.. Autobiography of— VIL. Out. 
Rolling .Mill Practice, American and British, W. Garrett, 

Cas.M. 
Roman Question and Mgr. In-land. RasN, May 1. 
Romanism and Protestantism. ( omnarativi- (Jrowth of, in 

th(! Nineteenth Century. D. Dorche.>»ter. liom. 
Ri>ok-Sliootitig. C. J. t'ornish. Corn. 
Roosevelt. Theodore: The Sportsman and the .Man. O. Wi»- 

ter. O. 
Rostand. .M.. Plays of, Eveline C. (Jmlley, NatR. 
Rowing: Racing Eights. E. Warre, Bad. 
Rowland. Prof. Henry A., the (ireaf Physicist. .\MRR. 
Russia atid Her Internal Problem, Fort. 
Itussia in the East, A. N. Benjamin, .Mun. 
Russia of TiMlay VI., Finland. H. Norman. >. rib. 
RuH.^ia Fair at Nijiii Novgorod, F. J. /eijjb r, Lljip. 
Russian Nihilivm of TtMlay, A. Cahan, torum. 
.s^and. <iiMirge, F. .M. Warren, ( haul. 
Saving. Funi lion of. E. Brdim-Hawerk, Aninils, May. 
.■Scales. Short Weight. F. Foulsham. LeisH. 
Scandliuivia, Health Conditions In. F. L. Oswald, San. 
.S< ience. Pure. Pli-a for, H. A. l!o« land. Pni S 
.Scotland, .Student Life in. II. .\. K'-nni'l). I.« i"II. 
.Sfotlaml: The Passitik' of Ibe ( Ian?*. J. F. Fra.~. i . Jun.M. 
.Scottl-b Cniversity..!. a. Illbben. S< rib 
.-iiii Depili?,. Lowest, Lile in ilo', F. i'.allard. Y.M. 
Sea. Fornoiitn lleriM-s of the. J. R. .S|>«>arn. Jun.M. 

Seals, .Masnjore of the, F. Chester, .luilM. 

Senate In Our Oovernmeiil, Place of the, H. L. We-t. horuni. 

.Servant Question In .S(m lal Evolution, Anne L. \ riMimun, 

Arena. , , ,-^. 

Seven, CurloUB Facts Kegnrdlng the Kuinlxr, P. < urun, 0< . 



re ami the FUrlof PFrabroke- IL, Mist 



Fit Ion. 



^ . J H. Mllr«.Ein:. 

[; ..Cm..M. 

'^'^ - inml. K. I'omrmr, 

Ar»Min. 
S.M-lnl Kl»-me»tt«. T»eve!(.p!i,ir. H, »'. Well*, XAR 
S T W 

MUN 

S(>ain. N< ■ 

Spain. Tr.L :. ,, ,.,, 

the. S. Webster. .NAH. 
Splrffvili-m. Religion and. H F KltMl. . Mind. 
S' niihh w|i ■ • 

S Its Dl- -tr. 

Si f.m, »> : . i i.i III T. : ,\ 

Meals. B. t). Fhiwei 

st.-.M, I,, ,,, , .r,,.i, \.. ,,. , In, .\. B«-menl. Knit. 

>■ M. 



* UK i. I till 



M, \M'.ii twenty Crntary 



lit. 

T in the Life 

'An Earlier AmFricati," W. D. 



s . I ..i il.i- World. 

S! . Ro)M-rt Louis, I 

• I. n. W. Bell. PM.M. 
Stillman. William Jam 

Hi.".ii~ V V 1- 
Stock HankNV.Ma.x. 

^"■ikt - isory lA-gislallon, J. Jnu.'^ RSnr, Mn\. 

Strikes, .\rbiirniion, ttn<i Syndie»t««, A. de )Jun, UeiS 

May lU. 
Suns|M.ts anil Rainfall. N. I. V \ T: 

Surnames. Engll>li. K. Wbr 
Susiiuehanna r'nuitii-r. .\. < . ■.... n. t<i>. 
Swamp Notes. H. W. .Morrow. <). 
Ta( iius: How He Became an Hltttorian, U. BoUider. Kll^L 

Ma\ 15. 
Taninian.\ 's Success, Seorets of. G. Myen«. Kontrr. 
Tariff and the Trusts, C. Beanlsley. QJF.. 
Taxation. I'tilitarian Princijib- of. R. .■> ■ .San. 

Telephoning Through the Earth. F. ."*. l.n int^ionn and C. 

Mi(io\ern. Pear. 
Terrariuni. Story of a. .\lice I. Kent. Kinil. 
Thoreau. Hermit's Noten on. P. E. More. .Xtlaiit. 
Thought. Training of. an a Lite Force ill.. R. H. Newton. 

-Mind. 
Tolstoy. Count Leo, in Thought and Action- IL, K. E. C. 

Long. RRL. 
Tolstoy, 'riie Wrong, ti. L. Caldenin. MonK. 
Tolstoy's .Moral Theorv of Art. J. .\. Mac), Cent. 
Toronto. Educalioiial Problems in. J. C. naniiltoli. AngA 
Torpedo Boat. Life on a. I'.l'.ir. .lune 1. 
Trades Routes and Civi .1, W. Ke<lway. Uunt. 

Transvaal: see also (iri i. 

.Army. British. HumaniiN m me, P. Young. I'SM. 
England's ( 'rime in South .\frli a. W. T ,*»ieiid. .Vn<iia. 
Guerrilla Warfare in South Africa. I'.s.M. 
Li'sttoiis of the Triinsvaul War for lieriiiMiiy. J. v. Blorh, 

Deut. 
I'ennsylvania anil South Africa. IL HiMlgkln. Went. 
Religion of the Boers. Dr. Wirgmaii, NiiieC. 
South .African War, Astounding Kevelatlotm About Uie, 

West. 
Vaal Krant/, Battle of ("Cliarlty "> " ■■ i^ 
Youngest .*«oldiers in the World. A 
Traveling in .Viinrica. i*. •!. Hiilwrt. ' 
Traveling in Europe. W. J. Ridfe. Cm. 
Treits<-hke. Ih-lMrii-li von. M Tixllninier. W»^t. 
Triple Alii 
Trust Coll, 

Trusts aiiil 1 ■, ■.:■ 1 •■! • 

Trusts: How Tb. \ .\|T. \ It. 

Trusts; Will the .Sew \\ . T. Sl.nd. 

RRL. 
Tschaikowsky.Tlie Eiutentinl. E. Newman. Conlrm. 
TulM-ri'Ulosis, American CoiiKrtraa of. Procemllnga of tlie, 

San. 

Til' ' '■- • ' ^ "'^^ " " *'an. 

1 d. Entf. 

T. 

\ VI . WWIImmi, Harp. 

I n.WW. 

\ . r. Int. 

\ of. E. It. A.S<•ll|cnull^ 

\ .r) Coninivemy.d. ClrvelNnd.Crnt. 

\ ../ji. Delll. 

\ '/lie* II. itiiil Her Two I'rrdef^eaMirm J. I» ItnlkMi. 

\ i^iie4-n, .Menmrlnl Hall In lii<lla, lA>n\ Curmn, 

\\ •■ ■■•'••■ 

W il 

W,.... . ...oH.Calh. 

Warfari'. (iuerrllla ur Partisan 11., T. M. .Matfuirr, I HM. 



I in 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REyiEU' OF RE^IEIVS. 



V 

\- 
y 

\- 

\: 

\\ 



R. (}. Hutlor. Homo. 



i:. . . ii^tnuilon. S. W. M( rail, Atlant. 
t, K. H. Low, I'liuiii. 
li. H. WuUlroii. riiiiiit. 
1". A. I'liniiiii. WW. 
r. HnwsttT. NKtiii. 
>' .Mastor. Vv\\\. 
Vtliint. 
> <>I -1 1.. A. Oiites, Ro8. 
..•ttfrMiili Dent. 
. .1. Horner. ("a;«M. 
••U..r..i l'..li;i. -. 1 ruiissor lU'liisjli's. tJ. H. Chandler.AngA. 
Woiuiiii. Anu-ricnn. U. .MUnslorbi-rg, IiitM. 



Woiufii, K. S. Martin. MrCl. 

Wnnicn in All Vocalioiis, l{)ith Evorett, Home. 

Wu Tiiik'-lann. Ij. A. (nolidgc, Aiiis. 

Yi-llow Fi'vcr. Ktif)l<)(jry of, W. Uci-ii, J. Carroll and A. Agra- 

nioiitc, San. 
YonK«'. Cliarlottc, as a Clironiclor, Edith Sichcl. MonU. 
Yoimti Men's ("liristian Association, International Jubileo 

ol the. K. M. Camp, CMiaut. ; K. \,. Do^Kett, NAR. 
Yountr Men's Christian Association in America, Fitly Years 

of the,. I. n. Ross, NKnu. 
YoiuiK Men's Clirislian Association in Europe, W. S. Har- 

wood. Cent. 
Zoo, Feeding Time at the, F. E. Beddard, PMM. 



Abbreviations of Magazine Titles used in the Index. 
[All the articles in the leading reviews are indexed, but only the more important articles in the other magazines.] 



.\lns. Ainslee's Magazine. N. Y. 

ACQR. American Catholic Quarterly 
Review. Phila. 

AHR. American Historical Review, 
N. Y. 

AJS. American .lournal of Soci- 
ology. Chicago. 

A.IT. American .Tournal of The- 
•ilogy. Chicago. 

ALR. American Law Review, St. 
Louis. 

AMonM.American Monthly Magazine, 
Washington, I). C. 

AMRR. American Monthly Review of 
Reviews, N. V. 

.\N'nt. American Naturalist. Boston. 

AnirA. Anglo - .\merican Magazine, 
N. Y. 

Annals. Annals of the American Acad- 
eniv of I'ol. and .Soc. Science, 
Phila. 

APH. Anthonv's Photographic Bul- 
letin. S'. Y. 

Arch. Architectural Record, N. Y. 

Arena. Arena. N. Y. 

AA. Art Amateur, X. Y. 

AD. Art and Decoration, X. Y. 

AI. Art Interchange. N. Y. 

AJ. Art .Tournal. London. 

Art. Artist. London. 

.\tlant. Atlantic Monthly, Boston. 

Bad. Barlminton, London. 

BankL. Bankers' .Magazine, London. 

BankNYBankers' Magazine, X. Y. 

Bib. Biblical World, Chicago. 

BSac. Bibliotheca Sacra, Oberlin, O. 

BU. Bibliothfeque Universelle, Lau- 

sanne. 

Black. Blackwood's Magazine, Edin- 
burgh. 

BB. Book Buyer, X. Y. 

Bkman. Bookman. X. Y. 

BP. Brush and Pencil. Chicago. 

Can. Canadian Magazine, Toronto. 

Ca.s.s. C.issell's Mauazine, London. 

CasM. Cassier's Magazine, X. Y. 

Cath. Catholic World. X. Y. 

Cent. Century Magazine, X. Y. 

(;ham. Chambers's Journal, Edin- 
burgh. 

Char. Charities Review, X. Y. 

Chaut. (,'bautauquan. Cleveland, O. 

Cons. Conservative Review, VVash- 
ington. 

Contem. Contemporary Review, Lon- 
don. 

Corn. Cornhill. London. 

Cos. Cosmopolitan, X. Y. 

Crit. Critic, X. Y. 

Deut. Deutsche Revue, Stuttgart. 

Dial. Dial, Chicago. 

Dub. Du))lin Review, Dtiblin. 

Edin. Edinburgh Review, London. 



Ed. 

EdR. 

Eng. 

EM. 

Fort. 

Forum. 

FrL. 

Gent. 

GBag. 
(iunt. 
Harp. 
Hart. 

Home. 

Horn. 

HumX. 

Int. 

LIE. 

IntM. 

IntS. 

lA. 

JMSL 



JPEcon, 

,Iun:\I. 
Kind. 

KindR. 

Krin. 

LH.I. 

LeisH. 

Lipp. 

LQ. 

Long. 
Luth. 

McCl. 
Mac. 

MA. 

MRX. 

MRXY. 

.Mind. 

MisH. 

MisR. 

Mod. 

Mon. 

:MonR. 

MunA. 

Mun. 

Mus. 

XatGM. 

XatM. 
XatR. 
XC. 



Education, Boston. 

Educational Review, X. Y. 

Engineering Magazine, X. Y. 

Espafia Moderna, Madrid. 

Fortnightly Review, London. 

Forum, X. Y. 

Frank Leslie's :\Ionthly, X. Y. 

Gentleman's Magazine, Lon- 
don. 

Green Bag, Boston. 

Gunton's iMagazinc, X. Y. 

Harper's Magazine, X. Y. 

Hartford Seminary Record, 

Hartford, Conn. 
Home Magazine, X. Y. 
Homiletic lieview, X. Y. 

Humanite Xouvelle. I^aris. 

International, Chicago. 

International .lournal of 
Ethics, Pliila. 

International Monthly, Bur- 
lington, Vt. 

International Studio, X. Y. 

Irrigation Age, Chicago. 

Journal of the Military Serv- 
ice Institution, Governor's 
Island, X. Y. II. 

Journal of Political Economy, 
Chicago. 

Junior Munsey, N. Y. 

Kindergarten Magazine, Chi- 
cago. 

Kindergarten Review, Spring- 
field. Mass. 

Kringsjaa, Christiania. 

Ladies' Home Journal, Phila. 

L(!isure Hour, London. 

Lippincott's Magazine, Phila. 

London Quarterly Review, 
London. 

Longman's Magazine, London. 

Lutheran Quarterly, Gettys- 
burg, Pa. 

Mc;(Jlure's ;\Iagazine, X. Y. 

Macmillan's Magazine, Lon- 
don. 

Magiizine of Art, London. 

Methodist Review, Xashville. 

Methodist Review, X. Y. 

Mind, X. Y. 

Missioiuiry Herald, Boston. 

Missionary Review, X. Y. 

Modern Culture, Cleveland, O. 

Monist, Chicago. 

Monthly Review, N. Y. 

Municipal Affairs, X. Y. 

Munsey's Magazine, X. Y. 

Music, (Chicago. 
. Xatioiial Geographic Maga- 
zine. Washington, D. C. 

Xational Magazine, Boston. 

Xational Review. London. 

New-Church Review, Boston. 



NEng. 

XineC. 

XAR. 

Xou. 

XA. 

OC. 

(). 

Out. 

Over. 

PMM. 

Pear. 

Phil. 

PhoT. 

PL. 

PSQ. 

Pop A. 

Pops. 
PRR. 

PQ. 

QJEcon 

QR. 

RasX. 

RefS. 

RRL. 

RRM. 

RDM. 

RDP. 
IKxen. 
RPar. 
RPP. 

RRP. 
RSoc. 
RPL. 

Ros. 

San. 

School. 

Scrib. 

SR. 

Str. 

Temp. 

USM. 

West. 
Wern. 
WWM. 

WPM. 

WW. 
Yale. 
YM. 
YW. 



New England Magazine, Bos- 
ton. 

Xineteenth Century, London. 

North American Review, N.Y. 

Nouvellf! Revue, Paris. 

Nuova Aiitologia, Rome. 

Open Court, Chicago. 

Outing, N. Y. 

Outlook. N. Y. 

Overland Monthly, San Fran- 
cisco. 

Pall Mall Magazine, London. 

Pearson's Magazine, N. Y. 

Philosophical Review, N. Y. 

l'liotograi)hic, Timeb, X. Y. 

Poet-Lore, Boston. 

Political Science Quarterly 
Boston. 

Popular Astronomy, North- 
field, Minn. 

Popular Science Monthly, N.Y. 

Presbyterian and Reformed 
Review, Phila. 

Presbyterian Quarterly, Char- 
lotte, N. C. 
. Quarterly Journal of Econom- 
ics, Boston. 

Quarterly Review, London. 

Rassegna Nazionale, Florence. 

Reforme Sociale, Paris. 

Review of Reviews, London. 

Review of Reviews, Mel- 
bourne. 

Revue des Deux Mondes, 
Paris. 

Revue du Droit Public, Paris. 

Revue Generale, Brussels. 

Revue de Paris, Paris. 

Revue Politique et Parlemen- 
taire, Paris. 

Revue des Revues, Paris. 

Revue Socialiste, Paris. 

Rivista I^olitica e Letteraria, 
Rome. 

Rosary, Somerset, Ohio. 

Sanitarian, N. Y. 

School Review, Chicago. 

Scribner's Magazine, N. Y. 

Scwanee Review, N. Y. 

Strand Magazine, London. 

Temple Bar, London. 

United Service Magazine, 
London. 

Westminster Review.London. 

Werner's Magazine, N. Y. 

Wide World Magazine, Lon- 
don. 

Wilson's Photographic Maga- 
zine, N. Y. 

World's Work. X. Y. 

Yale Review, New Haven. 

Young Man, London. 

Young Woman, London. 



THt American Monthly Krvihw of Reviews. 

KDI I KD liV AI.iU-.Rr SHAW. 

CONTENTS FOR AUGUST. 1901. 



President Kriiger and the late Mrs. Kriiger at 

Pretoria Fn>iitiHi(if«c- 

The Progress of the World— 

riic Nfw Kt-iiiiiii- .It .Manila VM 

lliiv Hiiii's It«-altli Hiul t'liha > Futui-f i:ti 

Kiul i>f the Porto Kico Tariff \»i 

'Vh<- Oiiio « 'ampai«ii i:« 

Nf \v York's Muiiicinal Issues VM 

Great (iifts to tile C ity \:u 

IJoer Kxtreiiiities Revealed j:C> 

The Paralyzetl Li»>eial Party W, 

A Great Topic in France 137 

Freiuli Kxpansioii I(lea> 137 

At the .<trail of Gibraltar \as 

The Relative Future of Nations 138 

Some Population Data 139 

Reassurance of Smaller Powers 139 

S>me Results of the Boer War !•«• 

.M. (le Hloch's Views HO 

The (irowth of Nationality Sentiment I'liiler 

the British Flay ". 141 

A VoluiitHry Empire 141 

Oriianizini; an lmp«rial Court of .\p|)eHls I4"i 

The liest Kind of Fitjhtitiu .Man 142 

(Jur ProiMjsed " .Vldershot"'.' 14*i 

Arbitration the Only True Solution 14:{ 

.\rbitration and the Pan-.Vmerican Conference. 143 
The 'i'rotible Between Chile and Her Neighljors. 14;i 

The Conference at Me.xico 144 

Our .-^upply of Horses for South .Africa 144 

Autoinol)ile> and the Horse .Market 14.") 

A ."Successful .\ir>hi[) 145 

\ Fair Bargain Between Labor and Capital 14<; 

The Men .\re Keeping Their Baruain 144S 

The Steel Trust and Its Laljor Policy 146 

The Issue in tlie Steel Strike " 147 

The •• Half-and-half " Policv 147 

.\n rniu>tilial)le Strike 14X 

What Is to Be the Trusts Permanent .Attitude? 148 

Capital. Not Lalx)r. Is Chiefly on Trial 149 

The Polit ic.il .\spects ." 149 

( 'rops and Weat her 150 

Enclof the .Vortiiern Paciflc StruKule 150 

Affairs at Peking 150 

Russia's Po>iiion 151 

.America's Oi'iental Friends 151 

III Ka.-?t«*rn Kurope 151 

K<'ucational Notes 153 

( >bit uary Notes 15li 

Witli iMirtriiitsof Arthur Mnc.Vrthiir. .Iiinn-s Kilboiiriie. 
the s«'ViMi \niitiner miiis of Serretiirv Iti-llz. Lord 
RoHeN-ry, the I)iii-|h-hs of AUiaiix. with hei son, thv 
yoiliiK I'uki- of .Mbiiiiy. jirul lier <luiit;liter. the I'riii- 
<-n»!i .Aliff, Premier \V)il(lei-k-I{oii?.?<eaii. .leiiTi de 
Bl«J<-h, Theo(li.r<> .1. Shaffer. Paul L.--.jir. Wii TitiK 
Flint;, the liitf Jo-<'|)h (dok, uiid the late .Seinitor 
Kyle, cartoons, and other illustrationH. 

Record of Current Events l"i:{ 

Witli |iortrail8 of the late Daniil Huttertbhl. tlie Inle 

.Viblbert .*<. Hay, the liiti- I'rilire voii HolieldoJie, 

uiid the late I'rof. ,b>M-ph Le Conte. 

Current Topics in Cartoons 1*)7 

With r<iiro<lurtiiiiiri lima .Viinrii iili uild fureJKii Joiir- 
naU. 



The Recent Great Railway Combinations \Ki 

H) II. I'. Ne*»i«>iiih. 
With iNtrtrnltn of \Vi;;i.ri, K V ,i,.:. ■ '.:• \ ,T . 

SHtt, J. I'KTIMMII ' 

<"o\Vrll, K. II. Illlt 

llliipi ••how ilig rBllvv.i> Sistiiua. 

JohnPiske 175 

hy .loliii (Jra k*. 

With i-.rtrnltsof 1 Mr. Ki-k. 

Governor Taft and Our Philippine Policy 179 

H\ Ua\lii>>li<l I'nl tit ■uiii. 

With |H'.rtn»it«of Wlllliiiii H. Tmtt. 
A Great Citizen, James E Yeatman l**n 

With iM.i tniit of Mr. Ytat 111. o.. 

The Gaelic Revival in Ireland Ihh 

H.V Tliolliii' ()'l»oIiIiell. 
With poflrHil of Tlioiiiio< Olloiun-ll. 

Mosquitoes as Transmitters of Disease . . I9*J 

b> I.. »». Ili.wiinl. 

Cuba's Industrial Possibilities IWl 

lU V Uicrt < i. Ko)iiii<M>ii. 
With illiintrntloiis. 

The Exposition and the Artist Colony in 

Darmstadt 2oi 

Hy .1. Q. .vaum«. 
With illii-lriitioii-. 

Leading Articles of the Month 

.\ Sket. Ii of Tom L. .luhiix.n 2(0 

Dr. Klv's .\nalvsis of the St«Hd "TniMt" a05 

Will l-!urope Fi«lit the riiit*-*! Stat*** HM 

Kn^land's Commercial Rivalry with AnitrUn.. 307 

The .American L<H-omotive J08 

The I'Kanda Railway. Fast .Africa SIO 

The Rejuvenation ot Kuypt 211 

The Slave Trade in Northern Niu'eria S19 

The Sultan of .Morocco and Hitt GuvvrniUfllf 'i\^ 

Manners for .Men '.'.'< 

.An .Australian .Malfia ."'• 

The Study of .Man . : 

The .S-arcii for the .MissInK Link... 

Timers Killeil to Order .Is 

Indian Itasketry in the Far West... . '• 

A Kiii^f NNlio Can Write 

Behind the .Senes of the Fn-tich Th«al. 

The Children'H Kxhibition .il Paris. . 

The S<K-ial. Political, and Ridi^ioun Teuih-tKn— 

of Yoiiiik; Fraiue 4ia 

(iermaii S«h<Mil.>. '.T' 

The Thret'-^'ear ColU'Hf CoiinM- 'i-'- 

.s^avimr tlie Children 

The Pn-veiition of TulH>n*iiliiMiH. . . 

Yellow Fe\eraiid MoH4|n||«iev '.•>• 

How to FIkIiI the .Mo-^|iiilo '.'•• 

The Problem of Government In Pi>ri<i Km> ■."• 

The Similaritii-s of the Polar Faunwv . '"' 

Camiioamor. Spain's Grealent p. « t .'.i.' 

The KeNival of the Irish |jiimii.'i.> :X\ 

M<il.<l AImIuI 

I 



With iMirintltn of Tom L. .1' 
.\7.l/, ciirtiMiiiii, mill olhiT 

The Periodicals Reviewed 

The New Books 

Index to PeriodtcAls 



•,'i: 



TKK.MS :*•.'. Ill II year ill adviiiire: a'l ■ 
li) po^l olllci- or ex|>re»s Iuolii-\ 

risk. UiMirw ji^ fiirh ' 
Ni-WHilriili-r" n-' i-i\ •• ■• 1 

.Mr. W. T. .st.-a.l III 1,..!.,. , 

for the yearly mihmTHil ion. iniluUlliK p<ml«K<'. or Hit rvulm for ■liiKb- n>|»i«-< 
13 .Vnlor l'lu< e. Sew \ ork City. 



NIK KKVU.W U» UKVlK\\f» I U„ 




PRESIDENT KRUGER AND THE LATE MRS. KRUGER AT PRETORIA. 



(Mr. KriiKer has been in Europe for some months, but !Mrs. Kini^er remained in the well-known presiden- 
tial cottage at Pretoria, wliere slie died suddenly of pneumonia on July 20, at the age of sixty-seven, 
with many relatives surrounding her. She was the mother of sixteen children, and it is said that 
more than thirty of her sons and grandsons are still fighting in the Boer cause.) 



The AMERICAN Monthly 

RcT/ezv of Rcviczis, 



Vol. XXIV 



Ni:\v ^■()Ui\. .\1(;l\st, looi. 



No. 2. 



Tin-: pro(;ri:ss oI' tiii<: world. 



The Neu! 



July I. lIHil. must always Ik'si iiotaMe 
Rigime at diilv ill the history of the rhilippine 
*"'""'■ Islainls. for oji that dav Jmlu'e Wil 



ige 

liain II. Taft was inaugurated as the first Ameri- 
can civil governor. This was in accordance 
with an executive order issued by Tresident Mc- 
Kinley on June 21. The Philippine (.'ommission 
is not supersedeil. and Judge Taft remains its 
president. Its functions will be those of a legis- 
lative and a-lvisory council. We publish else- 
where a valuable article by Mr. Raymond Pat- 
terson, of AVashington. wlio. by the wav, was a 
Yale cla>ssinate of Judge Taft, ami whose infor 
niation, not merely as to the man liimself but 
also as to tiie policy of the United States Gov- 
ernment that Judge Taft is to carry out. mav 
l)e wholly relied upon. In his inaugural address. 
Judge Taft was able to make a good report of 



l(S TNI 

JULY- 4. 

n- ■•.y.-,- 





A UKAI. rOIKTtI or .HIV AT I.AMT. 

From t\if Jiiui iittl i .MiiiiHiiipolin). 



I.K.\. AKTIUIt MAi XKllllK. 

(WIki siiil.il nil .Inl) 4. lia\lTij{ tuntvd over LIm authnrlly t« 
.hKliri-Tiift.) 

progress toward pacification. He saiii tiiat of 
tw«'nty-8even provinces tliat had lK?en organiziMi, 
five were to remain for the prewent under tho 
control of their n •- "ve military govern- 'm on 
account of tlie r .• in th«'m of u ciTt«in 

measure of insurrectionary activity. Theru wore 
Hi.xteen other provinci-s «'iiliri'Iy (nf from in- 
surrection, in which tlie comml.H^ion had not vet 
found till* limo toorgnnixe a civil Kdmlnl^(^alu>n. 
Tht! situation as a whole M><>mB to Iw well in liami, 
and it is tu Ih> work**d out in di'tail provinct* by 
province. .Iiidg** Tnfi !«Hys I hat iln* niosi lii>|Nv 
fill sign is the universal di>sir« for (HiiiraiHin. 
.Meanwhile, some liuiidriMiH of .Xni' <t|- 

muMtfrs are on their way to aid in t;,. .<. ,,^ It 
has Immmi decidtnl tugivv the KiigliMli and .'^imiiiimIi 



l:ii 



THE AMFRICAN MONTHLY REriFM' 01- RF.l'IFM'S. 



- Ill I 111' «v>iiit procci'iliii^s, 
...:.iulitMl in nn aiiuMuiiiuMil to 
!('. Imporlnnt iinpi'ovejn«*iits liHV«' 
I ma»l«' in the govoniiiiont of Mnnila. nml .-i 
■ wWY similar to that of Washinj^ton. D. C"., 
. n providod. Tlie policy of oxtreiin' 
k'tnoiu'y antl conciliation continues to be followcHl 
ill the I" K's, even in the face of eonsidera- 

I'le pro. - :i to greater seventy. It is the 
liesii-e of Jutige Taft and his colleagues to allay 
suspicion and hatred, and to make the Filii)inos 
feel that the American adiniiiistratioii isdeslined 
to bea salutary one. General Helarmino. who com- 
manded in Alliay province, surrendex-ed with about 
■J.">0 men «-arly in July, following the action of 
(leneral failles, who, on June "-'4, had surrendered 
with about 600 men. General Chaffee is now in 
military command of the rhili})i)ines, General 
Mac.Vrthur having sailed for home after the cere- 
nioiues on July 4. 

l-\>r the fir.^t time since 17S1, a period 

Havana s . , ,„ , ^i r i 

Health and ot UO years, the month ol June 
Cubas Future, pj^gg^j ^way without a single death 
from yellow fever in the city of Havana. This 
item of news illustrates perfectly the serious 
grounds upon which we have constantly insisted 
that the United States could not be allowed to 
sacrifice the substance of tilings to the shadow. 
It would be sheer folly to withdraw from Cuba 
without making sure that the new sanitary regime 
will be maintained. What the intelligent people 
of Cuija really want is stable and efficient institu- 
tions ; and most of them know very well thai 
their only chance to have these blessings lies in the 
close oversight of the United States. Thus, the 
conditions imposed by the Piatt amendment are 
now looked upon in Cuba with general satisfac- 
tion, and most of the extremists have already 
become reconciled. General Gomez, on the oc- 
casion of his visit to the United States in July, 
told President McKinley of his satisfaction in 
the acceptance of the Piatt amendment, and 
did not disguise his belief that annexation must 
be the ultimate destiny of Cuba. Everybody, 
however, has accepted the view that Cuba 
must first assume the i-esponsibility of self-gov- 
ernment. The convention at Havana, mean- 
while, has been finding it very difficult to agree 
upon the details of an election law. The Con- 
servatives are afraid of unqualified uiiiver.sal 
suffrage, under existing conditions of nationality 
and race. Our navv has been giving theoretical 

•■ 

and jiractical study to the question of the l)est 
iocati<Jiis for United States naval stations on the 
Cuban coast. Toward the eastern end of Cuba 
it is understood that Guantanamo on the south 
side, and Nipe Bay on the north, have been 



cho.seii bv the Navy Department, while Havana 
has been selected at the Wfsteni end, and Cieii- 
fuegos o]\ lh(> .»<outh coast. ()ur navy depart- 
ment, by the way, has now puicliased the famous 
(loaling steel dry dock that Spain bought in 
Kngland. and that was towed to Havana three 
years ago. A])ropos of the present fortunate 
freedom of Havana from yellow fevi^r, it is to be 
noted that the greatest attention has been given 
by our medical authorities to the theory that yel- 
low fever is propagated by mosquitoes ; and a 
successful warfare agaiiist this j)estilent insect 
has been carried on, chiefly by means of petro- 
leum on pools of standing water. On the relation 
of the mosquito to disease, we present elsewhere 
a valual>le c()ntril)ution from a high scientific 
authority, Mr. L. (). Howard, of Washington. 
Havana has no smallpox at present, and is talk- 
ing of protecting itself against New York and 
New Orleans, where smallpox is persistent this 
year. General Wood has been ill with typhoid, 
but his convalescence was announced last month. 

n . ^ ... 'I'he special session of the Porto Rico 

End of the _ . f ^ ■ ^ 

Porto Rico Legislature which was called for 
^^'''ff- July 4 carried out the programme 
that had been anticipated. Governor Allen's 
message reviewing the revenue conditions was 
read, and a resolution was adopted to the effect 
that Porto Rico is now capable of self-support 
apart from the special tariff provisions, and ask- 
ing President McKinley, in pursuance of the 
terms of the Poraker act, to proclaim free trade. 







LETTING DOWN THE BAHS — From the JintmaJ (Minneapolis). 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



138 



It was pro[>osiMl that tliis sliuuUl take effect on 
July J.j, tliat bein^ a legal holiday in Porto 
Riiv> coininemorating the arrival of tlu* American 
exj)edition three years ago. The appropriations 
for Torto Hico for the coming year fall a little 
short of ^2,000,000, and the assured revenue 
will fully cover the expeiulitures. Professor 
Hollander, Treasurer of Porto Kico. arrived in 
New York on July 15 on vacation, and made a 
public statement that presented I'orto Hican 
conditions in a very favorable light. Governor 
Allen left San Juan on July I.i to place the 
Porto Ricaii resolution of July 4 officiallv W'- 
fore Mr. McKinley. (jovenu)r Allen f»'els that 
he has accomplished the mission that took him 
to Porto Rico, and he will not return. It is not 
known who will succeed him, although it has 
l>oen thought likely that the ap[)oiiitnient may 
fall to Mr William II. Hunt, who now holds the 
office of secretary of the i.sland government. It 
was also rumored last inoniii that Profes.sor Hol- 
lander, who has shown such aptitude in dealing 
with the finances of Porto Rico, would be invitetl 
to do some corresponding work in the Philip- 
l>ines. Governor Allen returns to an apprecia- 
tive commonwealth, and the Republicans of Mas- 
saciiusetts will pay him defeience and honor ; 
while the .\dmini.stration at Washington will also 
doubtless be glad to utilize his services if an im- 
jiortant occasion should offer. 



Taking the country at large, the 
The Ohio pi-eseiit is decidedlv an ofT vear in 

Campaign. ^ v . " i n i 

politics. Next year we sliall have 
the Congressional camj)aigns and many impor- 
tant State elections. This year only live States 
elect governors, these being Ma,<sachu.s(;tts, New 
Jersey, \'irginia, Ohio, and l(»\va. It is ex- 
jM'cted that the Republicans will carry four of 
these States, an<l that the Democrats will, a.s 
usual, carry N'irginia. As a rule, the conven- 
tions will l)e held late and the caiiii)aigns will be 
short. Hy far the inost interest will center in 
the Ohio contest, and there both parties have 
made their nominations and the canipaigti has 
begun. in the Republican convention, held late 
in June, Senators llaiuui and Koraker were the 
prominent figure-s, and harmony prevaile<l 
throughout. The convention unanimously re- 
nominated (Governor Na-sh. and imlorsed Mr. 
Foraker f«jr another term in the Senate. The 
administration of (iovernor Nash is generally 
commended, and the cuiitest will Im- waged uiM)n 
national rather than State or local <pn'slions. 
The ( )hit> Democratic convention was held on 
July 10, anil its principal business was the over- 
whelming repudiation of proposals to reaffirm the 
Kansas City platform and to expn-ss renewi-il 



conlitlence in William J. Hryan. IauH yi'ar 
tlu)se pro|H>«itions furnished the chief i 
yttt'ua of the Ohio democracy; iIiIh yi 
couhl secure onlv six vott-s in a ImkIv of "j 
gates. And this hap|H>ned in the face ot Htrptui* 
ous injunctions on the |»art of Mr. Rrynn that 
allegiance to the Kansas t 'ity platform sh- 'i 
continue to be tlio test of true denu)cracy. 
platform as adopted inak«>s no, refen«nce to the 
recent past of the party, and ■. - "' ' r 

question. Col. Jaiiu-s KillM.ii i 

for governor by acclamation. Me is a Columbus 
manufacturer, ami, like his neighl>or and ; ! 

friend. Governor Nash, is a man of high 

ter. The platform in several of its provisions 
bears marks of th«> strong miiui and radical opin- 
ions of Mayor Tom L. Johnson, of ' ' 
These provisions have to do with tlie ^ _ i" 
franchises in cities and the better public su{)cr- 
vision and more complete taxation of steam and 
electric railroads and •• pul»lics<'rvice " corpora- 
tions. Roth Ohio platforms are against s<»-called 
" trusts." The Democratic d«K-ument says : *• We 
demand the - -^ion of all ' - ' i 
to industrial 1 n." The R> , , a 
says: '•Combinations which create inono|X)lies 
and control prices or limit pro«lucfion are an evil 
which must be met by efft'ctivi- '• -• ':ition vi_''r 
ously enforced." The Repii howe.!. 
'* recognize tln' right of both lalntr and capital to 
coml'im^ when such combinations are wisely ad. 
ministen-d for the general gotnl." The Demo- 
cratic platform demands a thorough revision of 
the tariff, ami declares that the protective sys- 





Xc_^v/^^':^^5>^ 






Thk I)«>%Kr.r: " I'^o k<>( rlilcr himI •MiUllfoff at l««t.** 



1:^1 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REt^JEW OF REf^/ElVS. 




(Democratic Duminee' for Governor of OLio. ) 

t«n fosters trusts ; while the Republican plat- 
f < ■ - ^ - V tariff law and declares 

ll.j.- :- -- . - — ^ .-cy •• Las made the farmer 

and lalxtrer more prosperous than ever, and no 
1- _ "d be permitted which will im- 

j» .ii.-.t-5ts of either." The Republican 

p..„ . however, comes out stronglv in favor 

of reciprocity treaties. One platform expresses 
pride in our a^ ' -in tlie Tin. 

and tlie other i: - \iie Republican . ., ...... 

policy. The situation in Ohio is chiefly signifi- 
cant, not for the manner in which issues are 
drawn Wtween " " ' ■ - :r;d Democrats, but 
ratlit-r for tlie c ation of Br\'anisin 

from influence in Democratic councils. The 
s;i 'Mr. Bryan is visible in 

ti. - ....„, .".;.- in various other States, 
while the free-silver issue is apparently as dead 
in this country as it is in Europe. 

g^ r^rk'B ^'^^ important on many accounts 

wmmicipai than all the State elections to be held 

this yt-ar is the t: .us contest 

that will be waged for contro^ .. ..e municipal 

government of New York City. Whatever ex- 

c apologies for Tammany Hall a certain 



ea> _ class of respectable citizens was once 

• re are few - ' -.-§. 

-- ..- -.- - -- i;«s. The \^ .. ad- 

ministration is at low ebb in almost every branch 
of the rav. service, and the sense of the 

<•' v.vv:' '• - vDe of d^-L' -' and a'* ' *•'■' '^ee. 
"1 . ; . .. . ■ has so mji - a ram.: of 

power and influence that its opponents must lay 

---. ■■ - - ^ ^ ■- '■ ,^ 

— - - ^ny 

within the range of possibilities. The prosjtect 
for union is at present very favorable. A some- 
^liat absnixi incident of Tammany a"-- -"'-•— ':on 
Ui\> >;.iiiiijer has been the mysteric - .. za- 

tion granted to a private individual to occupy 
fav' - ' ■' ''ic parks ^p '■ " .irs 

for .... J -. - - :o pay a re:. .„. . c in 

place of the free benches which had lieen removed 
to less desirable locations. The protests of the 
M:l>lic took a form so ;—-'■' •'• -* -" ^ --Jj. 
,"-ijuv innovation had to - illv 

since the police department declined to incur 
CKlium by putting itself at the service of men 
trying to collect nickels from citizens who refused 
to pay money for occupying vacant chairs in 
public parks. A real principle was at stake. 

Necessary conditions having been 
^totheVnu complied with last month, the public- 
library system of New York City will 
l:»egin at an early day to realize the >.-^:.^^-^ of 
Mr. Carnegie's gift of more than $5,0' for 

sixty-five branch libraries. TTork is progressing 
"' ufKtn the great underground rfj: " 

:_.. -. . , and the contractors are soii., :„; 

ahead of schedule time with this stupendous un- 
dertaking. From the New York standpoint, one 
of the most important items of last month's news 
was the announcement that the late Mr. Jaeo'i. 
Rogers, the well-known locomotive manufacturer, 
■ died on July 2, had left ;^ -" entire 

..... <unt of his property to the Xc. , .....^.n Mu- 
seum of Art. 'While the value of his estate is 
not yet determined, it is supposed that the mu- 
seum will receive not less than -t" ■■■'■000. The 
Metropolitan Museum contains ;. . _>5t impor- 
tant art collections to be found in this country ; 
but when compared with the great Euro}:»ean col- 
lections its inadequacy is f>ainfully apparent. 
However useful the establishment of sixty-five 
branch liliraries may l»e to the plain people of the 
city of New York, this j>;. : r gift of Mr. 

Caniegie's has not much co:- .- i.r the Ameri- 
can people as a whole ; but Mr. Rogers' bequest 
has the highest national significance. New York 
has become the American center of ar: - ^'' nee 
and study, and the whole country is u. in- 

terested in the upbuilding of the Metropolitan 



THE PRCKjRESS OF THE H'ORl.D. 



135 



M .- • "- in =ma 

f.^ - "A ^ L-onif«r-. 

'.. ^ >- A moner valae of 



teo 



at h 



ran t*iiv of favorable opportu: 

in a systetckaiic Ias^^oq. ^v 

a: 
Tbe l*>ni**nrT nf the Amerir^n p^-lMrr t\ 



r ID >i 



-a for treas-^n in Cat' 



rope. N 



iaed 



ana 



o' 



amon^ 

the reoonoentrado camps Las been at ii ~s- the var vith desperate eoer^nr e\ 

^ rate. Bat iliat the - -t- (ran. 

. the Boers defies all cal r n-r ■ . - . . 

' -r duraticm of the var voold se^-tn almost K . not pretend to have anr 



4e. On J u:j 11 . ' V - 
• Reitz, T ^'^ • - 

-.dent ."• 
. :: his eff«rcLs r.-eiiinl him. was : 

ai C'jrr*^'.' I. l'-Z.:'e. L->ri K:u:i.ei.cr Uij»- war, ol a poaerlui 



«-<e4i 



e the • V o{ the 

f u: hn gland's 




rnc-v^ica •o*» or •*cb«tabt aam: rora ococa 



« •■iH fwu« VATaca. 



VM 



THE AMF.RICAS MONTHLY REVIEW OF REyiEU'S. 



r. ail Airu'Hii l>iitfh. Mr. Kfii/. 

l.x .. .,..,. .- ... ..itluT of H very largf family of 
!^\s. tlie four t*Kl«>st of \\\wm are with liiiu fi^j:lil- 
inji. wliilo seven younger ones are with tluir 
,1 ' :•- '■ 'v at rretoria. Tliis hit of in- 
I lilies the plioto^rai^h of the 

seven younger lieitz lx>ys. wliieli we reproduce 
at the i)OtU>m of the precedinj; page. 

In England, the principal topic, apart 
7" fn>ni tlie heat, wliich has been almost 
"' unprecedenteil there, has been the 
jvaralyzed condition of the Lilteral party. The 
Liberal leaders came together ratlier tamely on 
Julv !> in response to ."^ir Henry Campbell-Baii- 
nennan's denumd that they sliould either approve 
or repudiate liis further leadership of the party 
in the House of Commons. The result was that 
thev indors!-d his leadership, while virtually agree- 
ing to continue their disagreements as to matters 
of vital policy. Lord Rosebery ciitici.sed this 
actiou with great frankness. He holds that tlie 
South .Vfrican war once having bi-okeii out. there 
was nothing to do as loyal citizens but to support 
it until it had reached a successful coiiclu.sion. 
He would have had the Liberals take a large 
view of the duty and destiny of the British em- 
pire, and would have attacked the Conservative 
ministry on the ground of its bungling and in- 





LORD ROSEBEHy. 



THE DL'C'HESS OF ALBA.NV. 



(With her son. the young Duke of Albany, and her daughter. 
Princess Alice.) 



efficient methods, shown — first, in the bad diplo- 
macy that helped to bring on the war, and, sec- 
ond, in tlie bad management whicli had made tlie 
war so proti'actcd and costly'. The good-natured 
and much - esteemed Campbell - Bannerman has 
placed himself in a sort of neutral position re- 
specting the South African policy that is not 
well calculated to afford a rallying-point for a 
great party. The only formidable and efficient 
element of opposition to the Conservative party 
at the present inonient is iui'iiislied by the Irish 
Nationalists in Parliament, who are frankly pro- 
Boer. It is plain enough that there can be no 
effective revival of the Liberal party until the 
South African war is a thing of the past and a 
new set of issues can be taken up. Lord Rose- 
bery's private affairs as well as his political atti- 
tude have claimed their share of attention in the 
English newspapers during the past few weeks. 
It is reported that he is soon to marry the Duchess 
of Albany, the widow of Prince Leopold. Lord 
Rbsebery is fifty-tliree, and lias been a widower 
eleven years. His wife was the only child of 
Baron Meyer de Rothschild. Leopold, youngest 
son of Queen Victoria, married Princess Helena 
of Waldeck in 1882, and died in 1884, leaving 
two childi'en, a son and a daughter. 



TtlE HROGRF.SS OF THE IVORUX 



\M 



A Great 
Topic hi 
Fraitee. 



The presont French la'.'iiift. wiiun 
was ex|H'c'tt'<i to survive only tlirou^ii 
the Kx posit ion jH'riod last fall. 

has .lisappointed its eiuMiiifS and surpriseil its 

fnentis. It dates from June ■_'3, IS'J'J, and is. 

therefore, now well entered upon its third vear. 

The average life of a French ministry has l)een 




six months or less. ProbaMy the most impor- 
tant measure for which M. Waldeck-Housseau's 
ministry will be remembereil in the future is the 
so-called associations law. This enactnuMit is 
analo;xous in many respects to the laws of our 
.States whicli permit and regulate the establish- 
ment of religious, charitable, educational, and 
other non -commercial societies antl organizations, 
authorizing them t(; hold proj>eity, prescribing 
the general method of their administration, and 
setting limits upon the range of their activities. 
This Fn'uch act has generally \kh'u descrilied as 
a measure for the expulsiim of certain clerical 
orders of monks ami nuns and the confiscation of 
their great landed properties. In form, how- 
ever, the law merely sets forth the terms under 
which associations may lead a local existence 
in France. There are certain religious ordei-s 
which have always been within the pale of the 
law, ami there are certain others which, e»|)o- 
ciallv in the past twenty years, have >;rown very 
rapidly, but which have lacked I<i:al statiin. 
Among these, the most important are (he .Jesuits, 



I.;i' .\«<iu nipt Ion ikLs, the l)on: and th«) 

rarthu.>uins. The JeKuitx. p. a-'' ;.-... 

be<>n multiplying their e«lucational u 

and have now a largt* number of « 

iniliieiice < " •' '. , . . " 

of theuj, , . _ 

has been w> out of 8yni|Mitliy witli French n*piib- 

iicanism that it lias at ' li- 

cal plots in leagm* with I;.. ■•• 

reijhite. Henceforth, religious onlers 

by foreigners will not Ix* allowed to exercise the 

important functions of landhoM; ' 

in France. If there are any in. 

concern to the coinmunity at large which lie 

within the piojH'r sphere of the stale to su|ier- 

vise, one must surely include among them the 

holding of lands and the carrying on of e^luca- 

tional activities. The people of France have felt 

iliat the !• ' iers wt - 

dermine i • bv ii „ 

through the iiitluence of Bcliools, and that they 

were impruj^rly increasing their |)owtr by the 

accumulation of lands held i .^t..;'. '■<■ ..... 

nection with the monastic > 

associations hill as Hnally passed is not one of 

harsh conli.scation. and due ; " ' l.t- 

less Im' ma<K' Nr all lueml • ..'d 

associations. 

Through a statement of M. Uelca,-se. 

French , , • II 

Expansion tiie foreign minister, made in the 
iiieas. French Senate, the republic has 
■served notice, — not ruilely or in hi) 

way. but deftly, yet with frankness. 

republic is deeply concerned with the futun* of 
Morocco. The exact statement was that •• France 
watches with singular interest, which none can 
(lispute with jx-rfect legitimacy, all the |>as.>.es to 
.Morocco." Rightly or wrongly, the French hold 
fjist to the idea that territorial e^ m is a 

mark of progress, ami that France «.... .. y keep 

ii|) with the rest of the worhl hv extending her 
<intside burdens and resjxmsibi! It will l>e 

a v«'rv long time 1 " '" Mi"e p'.uii'. from lier 
almost morbid s< - on the loss of her 

prestige and status in Kgypt. ami it is the evi- 
dent determination of French ; 

parti«'s t«i pre?«erve the nominal j • 

.Moiono until such a time in the future hm may 
render it c»p|>orliini' for the Fn'iich. on le- 

text of ke> • der. |i' ^ . - ■ . 

lion. Ilo .rii an • , 

into a tein|H)rary oc<*U|>ation, and how to turn a 

teiii|iorary (M-ciipatii>n into a |m 

example of Kngland in Kgypt !..•- - >•• 

dicHted, an*l UuHsia in M>lting a like i in 

.Manchuria. There w»)uld m»cm no gotHt n*ajM»u 

whv France ah<uiUI not U* allowinl by the j^mj- 



I:jm 



THE AMFRir-iW MOMTHLY Klif/I-lV OF RHyiFM'S. 



••ml consent of Kuro|M» to oMvr upon larp" 

ililii'jil mill econuuiic dtnolopnu'iit 

of Africa. For this work tin* 

French have the requisite ainl)ition. an.l also 

the engineering and administrative talent. 



of 



Tlie future of Morocco is naturally 
associated in the minds of European 
statesmen and diplomatists with the 
control of the Strait of Gil)ialtar. By one of 
the ironies of history, tlie natural order of things 
is so reversed that tlie English own the mighty 
fortress on the Spanish side of the i)assage. while 
the Spanianls own the corresponding " Pillar of 
Hercules" on the African side, — that is to say, 
on the extreme northern tip of Morocco. And 
this .\frican fortress of Ceuta is the best-defended 
military stronghold in the possession of the Span- 
ish Government. Of late, the English have been 
constriK'ling ilocks and carrying out other great 
improvements at Gibraltar ; and the Spaniards 
have been inclined to take it rather amiss and to 
mount mo<lern l)atteriesat .A Igeciras which would 
command the English docks. All this has led 
to a revival in Spain of the talk of a cession of 
Gibraltar by the English to the Spanish in return 
for L'euta. .\ t pi'cscnt it is no.thing more than talk. 




1/ .li THK STHAIT l>K <i 1 BU A LTA !(. — AN ATTITUDE 
OK PAIXFCI- SCSPEXSE. 

From Klaihlna(lat!<ch (Berlin). 



The accompanying cartoon, which we reproduce 
from a very recent inunl)er of h'/iK/ilcrtnla/srli^ 
the foremost politico-humorous ])ap(^r of Ger- 
many, icpresents England in tin* act of st<'])ping 
across the strait from (Jibi-altar to ( 'cuta, where 
France and iiussia are lurking with a scheme 
for trapping Mr. Hull. llerr Brandt, the artist, 
does not make it quite clear what the scheme is ; 
but that, of course, may be supposed to be the 
.secret of the Fi-aru'o- Russian alliance. Both 
France and England have williiii the past few 
weeks been devoting an immense amount of dis- 
cussion to the question of naval strategy as re- 
lates to the Mediterranean. The French are con- 
cluding that it is a mistake to keep their fleet in two 
main divisions, and that their Channel Squadron 
might as well be consolidated with the ^lediter- 
ranean squadron, where their interests center. 
English experts, on the other hand, have raised 
an alarm over the defects of their own Mediter- 
ranean fleet as tested by rigid modern standards. 
Rightly considered, tliere is no possible reason 
why France and England sliould be continually 
discussing their naval armaments as it each were 
seriously intending to pounce upon the other. 
No two countries in the world ought to get 
along more amicably than England and France. 
But for permanent peace and good will, the Eng- 
lish must be a little more generous, and must 
allow France a larger sliare in the coveted task 
of exploiting and developing Africa. 

■r.. « , ..• As we have pointed out more than 

The ffelatiue . . ^ , -, -, ^ ■^ 

Future of once, nothing could be more lutile 
Nations. ^^^^^ misleading than the current Eng- 
lish talk of dying nations and living nations. 
The Engli.sh once had a rei)utation for steadiness 
of judgment ; but of late they have indulged in 
many wild generalizations from scanty data. A 
year or more ago, even the prime minister of 
England had the curiously bad taste to speak in 
public about dying nations with unmistakable 
I'cfei'cnce to France and Spain. Just now, be- 
cause American commerce has been attaining 
some of that development which it was perfectly 
obvious years ago to all well-informed observers 
that it must attain in due time, the English have 
been publishing almost countless articles fore- 
casting their own swift decline. The ti'uth. of 
course, is that there are no signs whatever that 
point to the decline either of England or of France. 
Neither country was ever before so prosperous 
or so well assured of a happy future as at the 
present time. If England's foreign trade should 
fall off somewhat relatively, there would be ample 
opportunity for all surplus population in the great 
English-speaking colonies of Canada, Australia, 
and South Africa. Moreover, England and 



THE PKOGRESS OF THE HORIA). 



\V.\) 



Iivlainl are not closely tille<l : and a jfiadiial re- 
arraii-rrnuMit of the lan.l syst«Mn, with tlue en- 
ci>uiagein«'iit uf agricultural .science, might within 
a single generation easily quailruple the agricul- 
ttiral otitput of the liritish islands. Nor is there 
any ground whatever to assume that the Kn-nch 
are upon the rapid road to extinction. It is 
true that of late their native population has Iuhmi 
at a standstill. — that is to say. ihr hirths and 
deaths in a given year are alxjut equal. The 
deaths, intieetl, have been a little more numerous 
than the Itirths. and the difference ha.s been 
made up by immigration from Italy and other 
neighboring countries. Hut it does not in the 
lea.st follow, as has b(,'en assumed, that some mys- 
terious cause wiiich has checketl the growth of 
french pt)pulation is to continue uninterrupted 
until the race disappears. 



Some 



Twenty years hence, totally new eco- 
Population nomic and social conditions may 
^'"''' prevail in France, ami the birth rale 
may once more begin to exceed the ileath rate bv 
a steadily increasing margin. This is mucli 
more likely to hajipen than the contrary. I'er- 
haps no population in the world is grcnving as 
rapidly as the Freii(li-( 'anadian pait of Canada, 
where families of from lifteen to twenty chihlren 
are not infrequent and the average woidd seem 
to be well above ten. Conditions are such in 
Canada that a large family is a benelit rather 
than a detriment to the parents. The lat<'st Kng- 
lisli statistics sliow that the relative decline of the 
birth rate in England is now at a higher rate 
than in France. The average yearly d«'ath rate 
throughout England has declined to IS per thou- 
sand of the population, while the birth rate has 
fallen to 'J!l. Some twenty-five years ago, the 
English death rate was 21, and th»' birth rale 
.'{."i. Some alarmists in England have jumped to 
the conclusion that the English birth rate will 
go on (leclining until fifty years hence it will be 
\n> greater than the death rate. liut such pre- 
dictions have no basis whatsoever. Conditions 
in the Cnited States are to .some extent disguise«l 
Ijy the greatness of the volume of imtnigration. 
if the old American stock of New England and 
the other F^asti'm States of the North had Immmi 
left without reinforcement froin Euro|M', a more 
alarming <lecline of population would In> shown 
than in PVance. if is very possil)le, liowever, 
that this generation may liave been working out 
<"onditions under which the world can make great- 
ly increa.sed populations weh-ome and comforta- 
ble a half -century hence. We have just l)egun 
to giie.ss at the possibilities of future iii;ricul' 
lure, 'i'he Italian population grows apa«-e, and 
the suq>lus is leaving Italy for the I'nited Slalen, 



not so much because Italy Is ovorcrowd«>iI as Ik»- 

ca«ise agricultural and in ,h in 

tile southern iiaif of the i>. i.wi-.i.. «/ - 'v 

are so unfavorable. In two of the i»! 
tries adjacent to France — namely, lU'igiiini ami 
SwitzerlantI — there is a iielter • m of 

ec(inoniic life, and an equable gr<- . , jaila- 

tion without any large overflow. The new |i.d- 
gian census sliows tiiat tliu [M>puiatiiin of that 

small country is now a little nior- •'■ '" "uu,. 

000. Twenty-live years ago, it w.. uo,. 

000. The rale of gain in the last decade has 
been a little higher than in ' ' ir four dee- 

aiies preceding. Belgian v. and immi- 
gration have lx«en almost exactly balancetl. 

- The Spaniards an> a liardv an«l :■'• s 

Reassuranc* ' , " , , 

0/ Smaller oi'ous rac«*, ami r ranee shouul < 
owera. ^.^^^ their friendsldp on all occasions. 
It wouhl 1h» the part of a I ■ 

France to encourage the ; , 

of Italy, Belgium, and Spain with a view to the 
future establishment of a close league, «>r Latin 
union, of the French. S|mnish, Italian. Swi>s, 
and Belgian rei)ublic8. Such a I«*ague would 
n)ake for safety, harmony, and jH'ace, and would 
.serve as a useful counterbalan<-e against the two 
aggressive empin'S of the present dav, lUvsc U'ing 
Eiiglaml and (Jermany. While profi»undly ab- 
horring Englantl's war of extinction against the 
two South African republics, tlu* small E n 

power>i like Belgium, Holland, Swit/.erhr i 

the Balkan states have. n«'verthele.«s, deriv»Hl for 
themselves great reassurance from the events of 
the South African war. Even Spain, — which, 
with its jMjpulation of only aliout l«,0(M».noo, 
must be ranked among the small count ri«>8, — 
has undoubtetily found ' deal of h. 

the future in the circun, ~ under wl. 

lost Cuba, a )io{>efidnes8 still further stiniul 
by the s|MX'taclo of the unexjKH-ted ?■ 
power of the Bo«'rs. The Cuban . ■■'. ,.,, ,., 
military side has Iwen brought l«» our 

minds by the visit to this country last month of 
(jeiieral fJoinez. With a simdl ar 
organi7,e<l, but acting chiefly uiH»n ti.- 
avoiding pitched battles, ami deliU«mlely play- 
ing the game of di>iay, (ienerai (i 

to produce a cr»mplet4? state «»f iieu ^ 

the Spanish army in Cuba of 'joo.noo 
soldiers, and it waa thta dea<IliM'k wliicti IimI 
i)roughl Spain to a i if niendy »• 

Am«'rican armed ii... ..-..:. ;» as a ma:. . 
form. No ndnistry or tiynasty in Spain could 
have surrendere«i Cul>a «iin««-tly to tlie iu>- 
without I ■ ' 
Tlius, the .- 
to accept a situatitm creatt^i I»y tlie {tatriota. 



140 



THE AMERICAS MOSTHLY REVIEW OF REk/ElVS. 



The BtH>rs. quite jvuanlloss ot what 
«./ <»» tlio «iuto>ine may w, arc andrdm;; an 
Bo«t Wmr. ^.y,.,, i,i,,re iiotalilo objcrt -K'ssoii in 
showing; how small jn'oplos, using modeiu rilli's 
ami ii>;lilin>r invjrularly from cover, may clierk- 
mate great Kuropean armies. Now the Sjian- 
ianls. rememU'riiijr thestubhoniiiessanil the valor 
shown bv them when their count rv was invaded 
in the Xa|H>leonic wars, reatliiy .mh' thnr they are 
at least secure in their own country. If Cubans, 
Boers, and Filipinos could nuike so niiuli trouble 
for invading armies, how impossible it would be 
for one i>f the great military powers to conquer 
the Spaniards on their own soil ! Thus, ihe 
greatest present value of the lioer war to the 
World at larixe is the way in which it serves as a 
warning against war, illustrating as it does the 
doctrines of M. de Bloch. who says that the old 
art of warfare has been rendered quite obsolete 
by the invention of the long-lire, repeating rifle 
and smokeless powder, by virtue of which a dozen 
farmer-boys behind a rock or a fallen tree may 
cut a battalion to pieces before their whereabouts 
can be located. The Swiss are no longer so 
much concerned as they were a few years ago 1)}' 
the general growth of militarism in the great 
countries around them. They are quite confi- 
dent that they can maintain their independence 
under almost any circumstances that could well 
arise. Belgium, Holland, and Deniiiaik. — each 
of which for reasons of its own has been appre- 
hensive ort account of the ambitions of gieater 
neighbors. — are all of them feeling that the inde- 
p?ndence and neutrality of small powers will be 
respected at least in the first half of the twentieth 
century. One of the immediate results of recent 
object - lessons, particularly the South African 
one, has been the reduction of the term of com- 
pulsory military service in France from three 
y^ars to two. This tendency to shorten the mili- 
tary term will, of course, become general thiougli- 
out Europe, with great economic advantage. 
One of the most important reasons for tlie large 
flow of European immigration to this country has 
been the desire to get away from the universal 
military system. In a very interesting lecture 
that M. de Bloch recently delivered in London 
on the lessons to be derived fi-om the Transvaal 
war with regard to militarism and aruiv reor- 
ganizations, it was declared that military service 
as required to-day is absurd, and that the sacri- 
fices made on the Continent to support conscrip- 
tion, into which it has even been pi-oposed to di-ag 
England, are unnecessary. It was also shown 
that the theatrical spectacles called maneuvers are 
in no way related to real warfare. We, of 
course, found this out in our Santiago expedition 
and have confirmed it in the Philippines. 



This distinguished Hussian autliority 

M. dc Blochs tl,.ehired that the results of the Tratis- 
Vieus. 1 1 f • 

vaal war wen* not due to defects in 
the British army. Tin- inosl icniaikable fcjitnii- 
of the war, lie ol)sei've(l, was the constant inqxjs- 
sibiiity of determining the enemy's position, lie 
further remarked that the boasted (jermaii meth- 
ods of attack, under similar ciicunistances, would 




M. JEAN DE BLOCH. 

(Russian imperial councilor and foremost autliority on 
modern warfare.) 

have broken down just as certainly as the English 
methods broke down at Modder River, at Magcrs- 
fontoin, and at Colenso, where massed frontal at- 
tacks in close formation were undertaken and failed 
utterly, although the British largely outnum- 
bered the Boers. M. de Bloch went on to say that 
the method which the British ultimately adopted 
uiidei' Lord Roberts in South Africa was wholly 
(liffei'ent from any that military authoi-ities had 
previously regarded as correct. To quote Lord 
Roberts himself, " When 1 went to South Africa 
I laid down the rule that the files were not to be 
closer than six paces when advancing to the at- 
tack. 'J'liat was veiy soon altered to ten, and 
then to twenty." 'SI. de Bloch continued to en- 
force the idea that the first lesson of the South 
African war was that the essential was invisibility. 
Guns, lances, and belts had been painted khaki, 
the British ti'oops had abandoned their showy 



THt. rROCKFSS Oh THE li'OKLD. 



HI 



uniforms, ami tlu* offu-tM-s had lai.l asi.ic tm-ir 
sv\i'i<ls and carried cailutH-s. M. dt- Hloch crit- 
icised the German army fur still ujaiutainiii^ 
g()r«rei»us uniforms, and iloclared that at (Jermaii 
maneuvci-s one was ama/eil at the prudij^ies per- 
formed by the military tailor with cloth, U'ather, 
an<l steel. M. de Hlochs purpose was to show 
that the English army is not necessarily to Ik* 
criticised in comparison with the foremost Conti 
nental armies, and, on the other hand, that thr 
Hoeis are not to be extravagantly praised for anv 
exceptional military or personal qualities. His 
point was that the results in South Africa an- 
wholly due to smokeless ptiwder and long-range, 
quick- tiring rifles, which involve dispersion and 
invisibility to a degree unlu-ard of formerly, ami 
to the possibility of putting a larger numlter of 
cartridges at the tlisposal of the riflemen. ^Vhat 
M. de Bloch umlerlook to prt)ve in general was 
thai piogress in the art of war, of late, has been 
so great that the new improvements "teiul to 
stultify themselves by producing a deadlock in 
the realization of the oVtjects of war." 

The Growth Everything that M. de Bloch said 

of Nationality - '^ i i • 

Sentiment Under \vi\s meant to point out the relative 
theBritish Flag. ^„p,.,.i,„.it y of the attitude of defense. 

lie noted the fact, evident just now in all parts 
of the world, that there is a great revival of the 
sentiment of nationality. Tiius, it is not alone 
th»' Dutch communities of South Africa tiuit ob- 
ject to being submerged in the sweeping tide of 
Aiiglo-Saxon«lom, l>ul eveiywhere. even within 
the lines of established empires, old race ele- 
ments are awakening to a new era of self-con- 
sciousness and self-assertion. The Welsh were 
never more ardently attached to their own lan- 
guage, literature, and traditions than they are 
just now : and there can be no doubt of the re- 
alization in the early future of their cherished 
pioject of a Welsh university. Especially r*-- 
markal»le is the movement in Ireland for the 
revival of the old national language, the Erse 
or <;a<;lic. There are a good many thousands of 
Irishmen, perhaps -several hundretl thousand, 
who can speak the old language, ami thousiyids 
are now studying it under the encouragement of 
the (Jaelic lii'ague. Sonif weeks ago. a new 
iiMMiiber of rarliamcnt, Mr Thomas ( »'l)..nnell, 
aro.se in his place in the House, and tried the 
experiment of making a sperch in (Jaelic. It 
was .iecideil l»y the Speaker, Mr. (Jully, that n«) 
othf-r language but English is now in order in 
th<- House of Commons. The inci«ient attracted 
much attention, howevt-r, and apropos of it w«' 
puiilish elsewhere this month a ph-a for tlie 
survival of the (Jaidic language from the j)en 
of Mr. O'Donnell himself. < »n this topic the 



rta-i.-r will find a very n 

twe.Mi Mr. William Arc;. . .i ...;..:. 

Mr. (ieorge Mo<jn', in the July number of tlie 
Cittie, Mr. Mo<irt» having become a moHt ar- 
dent convert to the itlea that llu" (Ja*' ' 
guage nuisl be n'vivi-U as a vehicle for 1 
erature. It will not Ije strange to find in the 
proposed lunv Catholic university of Ireland wtdl- 
established chairs of the (iaelic lai ■' • '•■ ■"..! 
literature. The old language of the 1 
not likely to \yc made the object of a puiilic cru- 
sade or propaganda: Imt ev»'n S "' ' ' _-.; 
tenaciously to national and racial 
very terms of Mr. Carnegie's great gift to the 
Scottish universities, with its pur|Mis«* to n-niove 
pecuniary obstacU-s from the pathway of aspiring 
youths seeking to carry on university hludit*8, 
were so framed as to ditTerentiate Scotland nharply 
from the lest of the islantl of (Jreat Britain. 

The Canadians and Australians show 
A voiuntiry m, i«.|idencv lo lose their ilistinctive. 

empire. 

ness, but. on the contrary, their dif- 
ferentiation is becoming more pronounctnl ; and 
within the Dominion itself the French -Cana«liau 
race clurishes moiv than fVcr its own la <• 

and customs. Tlu- British empire of tl.' 
cannot hoiK? to be held together by for<*e, in view 
of the military developments that an* now »o 
favorable to inde|X'ndent movements and tie- 
fensive operations. Thus, if Canada or Austra- 
lia ilesired to cut loose, it would never |>ay Eng- 
land to try, as Spain trie«I in Cuba, to hold an 
unwilling colony by force. By the new census, 
there are about five million Canadians and a)>out 
four million Australians. Since it is seriously 
taxing the resources of the British empiiv to 
sul)due a mere handful of Boers, it is not con- 
ceivable that any attempt wouhl ever l»e made to 
t)ppose bv force a < 'anadian t)r Australian a.*<*er- 
tion of indepeiuh'iice. Recognition of this fact 
does not, of course, weaken the British empiie. 
but (juite the contrary ; lj«'cau8e it makes it cer- 
tain enough that no British jnilicy will \)o pur- 
sued that could harm the great colonies or out- 
rage their sensibilities. N«'ver, indeetl, has the 
British empire U'eii so harmonious and happy in 
its interior relationships as it »4'em» to Ih« ust 
now ; and inasmuch as the colonial «»crei:i 
Mr. Chaml»erlain, has ha<l to en«lure much hantli 
crilii'ism. it is doing ' ' ' " 

admit that his comprc: 

lems in general has U>en almost unhvaUnl in 
inotlern English In I.a-Ht month, for in 

staiK-e. under his a .^, ■ -. a ■..'..'le gathering 
of British empire leath-rs a I at Lon- 

don itjx»n a matter of high inien«st and cunie- 
quence. ami in a spirit of entire harmony. 



14',> 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REl/IEW OF REVIEW'S. 



Offumitimf fjie crown is ohviouslv tlie contral 

am Impffial i i» • • i , . i 

Court of {xMiit lu the nrinsli t'liiimv. ( aiimla 
Apptait, j^,„| Australia do not admit that the 
Knj;lish Parliatiu'iit has the slightest authority 
over tlioiu directly or indirectly, but they ac- 
knowledge their allegiance to the British crown. 
.\l>}>eals from colonial courts have always been 
taken, not to the House of Lords, which is the 
high court of apjH'als for the United Kingdom, 
but to the sovereign direct, wlio refers them to 
the Judiciary Committee of the Privy Council. At 
the time of the discussion of the new constitution 
for the Australian Commonwealth, last year, the 
Australians objected to the judicial committee of 
the privy council as not constituting a tribunal 
of enough eSiciency and dignity to serve as the 
court for the final decision of questions arising 
uniler the interpretation of Australia's new fed- 
eral constitution. Mr. Chamberlain finally com- 
promised the matter with the Australians by 
promising to reorganize the judicial committee in 
such a way as to make it really a great imperial 
supreme court lor the adjudication of matters re- 
ferred from all the British colonies and depend- 
encies. The conference last month was called in 
pursuance of Mr. Chamberlain's promise, with 
representatives from the principal colonies. Thus, 
Mr. Mills, Canadian minister of justice, repre- 
sented the Dominion ; Justice Hodges was sent 
from Australia ; and Mr. Rose-Innes, attorney- 
general of Cape Colony, — the most popular 
public figure in South Africa, — appeared for that 
troubled portion of the empire, while India and 
various smaller countries were also represented. 
Doubtless a plan will have been devised to erect 
a really distinguished court of appeals, which, 
when properly housed at London, will Lave 
great prestige. It is announced that the King's 
coronation will occur in June of next year. It 
is further reported that the royal title is likely 
to Ite changed so as to recognize the sovereignty 
of King Edward over Canada, Australia, and 
the empire at large This would seem natural 
enough, in view of the fact that the Bi-itish sov- 
ereign, although commonly called King or 
Queen, has, in fact, a wider imperial sway than 
any other monarch. There are many reasons 
why Edwartl should be commonly called Emperor 
rather than King, and jjerhaps no very good 
reasons why he should not. 

The Best Kind ^^^^ enviable position assumed in the 
of Fighting South African war bv all the volun- 
teer colonial contingents, whether Ca- 
nadian, Australian, or South African, illustrated 
exceedingly well M. de Bloch's repeated state- 
ment that the old-fashioned European army train- 
ing does not make the most effective modern sol- 



di(>r. "What is needed under new conditions is a 
large measure of intlividual initiative ; and the 
colonial volunteers possessed this in a much 
higlu'r degree than some of the best tlrilled regi- 
ments of the British army. The regular army of 
the United States has a high merit by modern 
tests, largely because of the materia! from which 
it has been recruited, and also from the circum- 
stances under which it has been doing Irontier 
service in small and scattered detachments. Our 
])revailing conditions of life in this country de- 
velop an unusual degree of self-reliance in young 
men, and as a rule the young American learns to 
use firearms. M. de Bloch points out the fact 
that tlui modern rifle and smokeless powder give 
a wholly new importance and meaning to guerrilla 
warfare, and that on this account it will -be increas- 
ingly difficult to l)ring wars to a decisive conclu- 
sion. 'J'he natural capacit}' of Americans for this 
kind of warfare is so great that no conceivable 
combination of military powers could successfully 
invade the LTnited States. These principles, as 
they come to be generally perceived, must have 
the most profound bearing upon the early future 
of military organization and methods in Europe, 
and they must also be allowed to have their bear- 
ing upon our own methods. Mere drilling and 
old-fashioned tactics, while undoubtedly useful 
in themselves as a matter of training and disci- 
pline, are no longer the things by virtue of which 
a nation is going to win or lose battles. High 
spirit, intelligence, vigor, and adai)tability in the 
individual man will count for more than anything 
else ; and it is necessary, first of all, to maintain 
those ideals of American life and democracy ac- 
cording to which the great object of institutions 
like ours is to maintain equality of conditions and 
promote universal education and prosperity. This 
means true education as the national safeguard. 

Secretary Root, whose conduct of the 

^•7id7°Jh°oi'' ^^^^' Department has been so re- 
markably able and successful, went 
last month to Fort Riley and Fort Leavenworth, 
in Kansas, with some very interesting plans in 
view. He was to look over the grounds at Fort 
Riley in order to decide just wliat changes might be 
needed to establish there a great national camp- 
ing-ground, where the militia of the States could 
from time to time come into contact with regiments 
of the regular ai'my, and where drills and ma- 
neuvers on the large scale might be practised, and 
military education advanced. There is already 
at Fort Riley a cavalry school and an artillery 
school ; and at Fort Leavenworth, about a hun- 
dred miles distant, there is an infantry and cavalry 
school which has within the past twenty years 
developed into a large military institution, — a 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



sort of post-graduate srlKXtl for young officers 
wlio have left West Point. Mr. Ktx.t is plan- 
ning further developments which will be of almost 
incalculable value to the country. We do not 
need a large army, but rather a militia svstein 
capable of providing a large force on short notic 
in time of neeil. with officers thoroughly pre- 
pared for their work. Mr. Root's plans ar. 
making toward this end. (Jur militarv e.xj^K'r: 
ence of the past three years, while not requiring 
vast enlistments or armaments, has placed us in 
a position where the Government ami the armv 
feel themselves equal to almost anv possible 
emergency. Thus, we have not at any time in 
our history been in a inore secure position as re- 
S|)ects the prospect of continued peace with all 
nations. There is not a cloud on our horizon line. 

Artitrationthe ^^ ] *^'' ^^!*^^'^ P^'"^^'' «"t ^"^t he COn- 

Only True siders tile (lemoiist ral>le fact that 
Solution. Prance and Ku.«sia have prepared 
themselves invincibly for resistance on their own 
soil, and that logical attack would come from 
Germany and her allies on the supposition of a 
great Eurojiean war. He is by no means sure that 
feelings of prejudice, pa.ssion, and enmity mav 
not even yet precijiitate the European coiillict, 
although he does not see liow such a struggle 
between the great military powers could result 
decisively either way. He holds, in short, that 
war is Ijecoming more and more impossil)le, and 
that arbitration offers the only way out. The 
protracted iliscussion of indemnity details among 
the representatives of the powers at I'eking mav 
even yet throw certain phases of the Chinese 
question into the hands of the Hague tribunal for 
adjustment. It has l)een our view from the be- 
ginning that the whole ("liinese problem subse- 
quent to the necessary relief of the ministers at 
Peking should liave been turned ]>romptly over 
to the Hague tribunal. The powers have se- 
lected men of high standing to rejiresent them 
on that august board, and it is anqtly capable of 
dealing with a great jiroporlion of the questions 
now pen<ling between nations. The death of 
ex- {^resident Harrison left a vacancy which Mr. 
McKiniey must (ill by appointment, and it is re- 
I)orted that a State judge of high standing may 
\m; selected. M'-. Hojls, who was secn-tary of 
the American delegation at The Hague, lias in'en 
appointed by two Asiatic governments — ?■ 
Siam and Persia — as a member of the arb.. ... . .i 

triliunal. It has a gloriou.*? future l»ofore it. 

Arbitration 'J'he subject ol urr.it lal 1' iri ' niit 

and the •' 

Pan-American has iiecri Under greater di- i in 

Conference, j,,^ republics of Soutli Amorica in the 

past few weeks than in Kurojie or at IV-king. This 



r. 

One of th.. pr • „. 

'"''^■•' i 'ne lor that confervnce is ihearbi- 



I'an 



•r ex- 



iiul 
...y. 

<n 



by at least three South American {m.u-.- 
xactly 

inter-. Vmerican ai 

settlement of such Uitlerenres only «~ 

after the ir. ' ' 

Peru and !■ ^ _ 

thing to do with the disi^-ii&mon of an « 

1''^". "' 1»H to provHie means 

for the -.,.,.,!,.,,, ..I .A.-ut.^- - • - ' w. 

putes that might threaten j. as 

well as for the adjustment of future diflferenc**. 
All this, of counse. is n- .»- 

cussion on the part of our .- is. 

but a strictly practical aflfair. 

The Trouble T,, n„„t,. y[j. , •> 
Betueen Chile ' 

and H,r turn. •• It is a . 

eighbori. ^^^^^ cotjfronls these South American 
powers, anil it is one of primarv 
Chile has litn-n an aggressive and n....... .. - .. 

cessful {X)wer. She is the only South American 
country that has developed a strong naval force. 
It is now altou' •• en vear as a 

result <if a sih war ii^ i and 

Peru, depriveti Bolivia of her maritime provinces 
and thus cut her ofT wliolly from :i . the 

sea, whi'-- •*-■ t-.i;,,., from Peru l.< , ' -n- 

most v< t. When the t if 

|>eace were signed, however, there was no ali«n- 
liite ce.ssion of these provinc«»s. It wn . iv 

agreetl t;... ..;ie 

should liold them 
for ten y«'ars. — 
thnt i< ■ •• '-''I. 
— Hi ;,e 

the inhabitants of 
the pi - were 

to d« . i- by 

vote to which na- 
tion they should 
|»erm«netr ' 
lt»ng .\ 
Chile ban U<en n*- 
hi. e 

ri-"** . ^ , .<*• 

Miisiion : and tho 
vo|i« had never 
Imimi taken. Many 
C h 1 1 e a n » h a <l 
in o V e t) into th« 
province* in 




Nt 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REI^/EU' OhREFIElVS. 



lion. , lioiiviaiis aii-l r«M-uvians lit-lil that 

llif ( :^ weiv not ontitU'd to i)art)iMpalt' in 

tin- rl.ition. It is not necessniy t*^ go lurtlun- 
into tli»> »l«'tails «>f what lias U'coiin' a highly 
ft»iuplu'ateil iiialtt'i-. Tlic main situation is ck'ai- 
enougii. (.'hiU* is in possession, and has a sii- 
jH'rior arinv anti navy ; and sh»* ftvls that arbi- 
tration couUl liring her no gain and niiglit bring 
Iier some loss. The r»Miivians, on the other 
'liaiul, l)elieve tliat arliitration wouKl result in 
their getting bark the lost territory. Each side 
to this controvei-sy has tried to get the United 
States to adopt its view of the scope of tlie arbi- 
tration plan to be discussed at the City of Mex- 
ico. Our Government has declined to commit 
itself, and prefers to leave it to the confeience 
itself to deal with ihe question in its own way. 
At first it was announced that t'hile wouUl not 
under any circumstances attend the conference. 
Subsequently, however. Chile was reassured and 
tlecided to come ; whereupon Peru took offense 
and proposed to stay away and to keep as many 
of her neiglibors at home as possible. There is 
a good deal of rivalry between the Argentine 
Hepulilic and Chile. A long Andean frontier 
separates them, and they have had difficulties in 
deciding about tlie ownership of certain valleys. 
Chile is the most peculiarly shaped of all inde- 
pendent countries. The South American l)ound- 
ary lines, indeed, are far from being scientific, 
and are likely to undergo more than one read- 
justment in the future. Since the people of all 
these republics speak the Spanish language and 
are of a common origin, — excepting only Brazil, 
which is Portuguese. — it would seem probable 
tiiat the future tendency would bt5 toward feder- 
ation into larger states. 

The conference in Mexico next Octo- 
r/,e Con/e/-ence ijpj. (.o^i(j not well do anything tliat 

would have a direct bearing on the 
dispute between Chile and Peru, except by con- 
sent of both those powers. But there are sev- 
eral useful purpo.ses that this conference may 
serve, and all the American republics ought to be 
represented there. The people of the United 
States liave no selfish oVjjects to gain, and their 
principal desire must be to promote good rela- 
tions and a friendly feeling all around. It is 
especially important that the South American 
people should be under no misapprehension as to 
the great value to them of the Monroe Doctrine. 
They made heroic eflforts to achieve their inde- 
pendence seventy-five years ago ; and at a mo- 
ment tliat was very critical for them, the United 
States came forward and proclaimed itself their 
champion. Otherwise Spain would have had the 
cooperation of the great Continental powers in 



tlie attempt to rec('Ver control of South America. 
'I'iiese republics have everything to gain by cul- 
tivating close and fricmlly relations with the 
United States. .Vnd wc; must lose no chance to 
prove this. We hold that the European colonial 
system should not be reosta1)lished on this side 
of the Atlantic. But for this position as firmly 
maintained by the rniled States, the Euroj)ean 
powers would undoubtedly attempt to seize 
South America and cut it up among themselves. 
It is equally true tha.t the South American re- 
publics ought to sympathize wholly with the 
people of the United States in their desire to 
keep the proposed isthmian canal under exclu- 
sively American auspices and control. All the 
a.spirations of the United States are tlioroughly 
compatible with the best interests of the Latin - 
American re[)ublics, and our citizens should 
make good use of every opportunity to have the 
South Americans understand this trutli. One of 
the subjects to be discussed is the improvement 
of trade conditions in the western hemisphere. 
It is to be hoped that reciprocity treaties, steam- 
ship lines, ami all other means may be encour- 
aged for the radical increase of commerce be- 
tween the United States and South America. 

. . , ^As the South African war has ad- 

Our Supply of , . , ^ ■ ,. 

Horses for vanceu to its later stages, the iniantry 
South Africa, j-ggjij^e^jg have become comparatively 

useless, and the demand for well-mounted troop- 
ers has become imperative. Of the English sol- 
diers now in South Africa probably 75,000 out of 
about 200,000 are operating on horseback. This 
African campaigning is so hard upon the animals, 
whether used for mounting troops or for trans- 




LOADING MULES AND HORSES AT NEW ORLEANS FOR 
SOUTH AFRICA. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



u:. 




tiow goon the rmpidly in- 

of an* .-i 



VHAT AMLIUtA.N H<>U:-ts AUk, t A> l.Nt. .1 1 > 1 .StiW. I.N IIIK >i>l 

( Bi'iti!<li soldiers in tlie StrniiilH^r}; inountaiiis diiriii^; 

porting supplies, lliat it has been diflficult to sup- 
ply fresh horses and mules fast enough. The 
principal recruiting field has been the south- 
western jiart of the United States, and the chief 
point of shipment has been New ( )rleans. It 
was reported last month that the United .States 
had already supplied the British army in South 
Africa with 100,000 horses and mules, and that 
an adililional 50,000 wouhl n»»\v liave to be pur- 
chased. The price has steadily advanced, and 
England's purclia.sing agents find the supply 
scarcely equal U) the demand. 



A lew vears ago. 

Automobiles . • , . - 

and the Horse the general intr<>- 
»i''ri<et. ductionof theeh'c- 
tric trolley system in cities and 
the prevalent use of bicycles 
caused a large falling off in 
the market for horsrs, which 
a c c o r <1 i n g 1 y became very 
cheap. Witli one accord tiie 
Western stock-raisers dropped 
liorse-breeding a.s unprofital>if, 
with the con.se(pience that al- 
most b«*fore any one could 
realize it, the supply of good 
animal.s had fallen ])elow the 
demand This circiimstaniM-, 
together with such incidents 
as lh»? purchase of liorsrs on a 
large .•*<-ale for SouUi .Aliicji. 
lias made hor.se raising once 
vutrti u very ])rofitabh» indus 
try. Xoixjtly can saffly pre- 



I II Amu AN \\ IN 1 tit. 

ti blizzard.) 



the ho: njt 

the trollev car dul a few yearn 

d 
• ■•-" in the ut- 



ure. and 8(ioeit «t*eiua to Iw the 
. t. \Vorld-wi«lf in- 
V, .1- aitraci»d, for in- 
stance, by the n>cent automo- 
bile race from l'arin to lierbn. 
In tiiis countr- ' • -' • ' jg 
not 8o much ■ •• 

mobiles a8 8i>und and practical 
(pialities that will ' mc 

for steady use, w ..; .. . .. a 
family vcliicle, a public cab, or 
a delivery wagon. 



The French are giving more attention 
^ ^a"'"/"* ^''"" *"y other p««ople at present to 

variou.s kinds of new in ■;. 

Thus, they are developing submarine Ik... ...- .m 

adjunct of their navy with great zeal and with 
entire success ; and their latest achievement haa 
b«'en the construction of an airship tlint could 
be successfully controlled. M. Santos iMimont, 
a young man who was Uirn in Brazil, but who 
has been working in France for some years on 
the problem of aii'ships, is the envied inventor. 




il. rorilKIKII WI»KIN«» TIIK HRC-KMT ArT«>lln»ll.« K*«« rMn«| r*Nia TH RKRI.III, 



1415 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY KF.yiHiV OF REyiElVS. 



A voar ago n Froncli potroloum n'fuu'r uITitimI 
a jirizo i>f lUO.DOU francs to tlio lirst invoiitor 
who should be ul>lo to st^irt an airship in tlio St. 
(Mouil nt'ighhorhooil, circle it tliree times around 
the KifTel TowiM". ami then return to tlie startinu;- 
point, at an avnap- sj)eeil tif not less than thir- 
teen miles an hour. The balloon of Santos Du- 
mont is a long cylindrical affair, from which is 
susjxMuled a slight elongated car containing a 
four-cylin«ler uiotor of sixteen horsepower. In 
reluming from the Eiffel Tower, which be suc- 
cessfully circled on July 13, this inventor met 
with some mishaps. Doubtless many improve- 
ments will have to be made. Hut there seems no 
doubt that tiiere has now been inventetl a mechan- 
ism for propelling and steering a balloon irre- 
spective of the direction of the wind. 

, ^ . „ . When Mr. Joim Mitclioll, president 

A Fair Bargain . -,^ ■ i^r- -n' i 

Between Labor 01 the L nited .Mine Workers, came 
and Capital, j^ >;g^ y^j.]^ j^gj j^jarch Seeking to 

avert a threatened strike in the bituminous coal 
districts of I'ennsylvania, he was able to make at 
least a, prima facie showing of two things. First, 
that there were many vexatious anomalies and 
actual grievances among the Pennsylvania miners 
in respect to wages, hours, f requeue}' of payment.s. 
company stores, methods of weighing and screen- 
ing coal, etc. And, second, he was able to show 
that the miners were at last all organized, and 
that he couKl fairly claim to speak as their repre- 
sentative. He was not in a threatening mood, or 
in unseemly haste as to the remedying of tlie 
grievances of the, anthracite workers, palpable as 
they were. But he sought to obtain some recogni- 
tion of the union of the workers as the initial point 
for future amicable conferences, with a view to the 
gradual correction of unsuitable conditions and 
the ultimate establishment of the plan of yearly 
agreements on wage- scales, — a plan that had 
been successfully introduced in the principal bi- 
tuminous coal regions. If Mr. Mitchell had not 
been able to point confidently to the fact that for 
the first time m their history the anthracite-coal 
miners were thoroughly and completely organ- 
ized, it is hardly to be supposed that he could 
liave made much impression upon the financiers 
who now dominate the policy of the coal-carry- 
ing roads, and who through those roads are in 
control of the anthracite mines. 

The Men Are ^^^^ ^^^^^ understanding between Mr. 

Keeping Their Mitchell and the United Mine Work- 
Bargain. ^^.^ ^^^ ^.j^^ ^^^ liand and the capital- 
ists who control the anthracite business on the 
other was that wages should be maintained for 
a year by the employers, and peace should be 
kept and strikes averted by tlie union. Next 



spring, according to this undei-standing, a more 
open and direct method of negotiation iiiid con- 
ference may be adopted. Last monlii tlic fire- 
men employed in connection with the stationary 
engines at anthracite mines went out on a strike 
with a pretty ch-ar cast; of grievances, priiici- 
l)ally in the natures of excessive lioui's. They 
expected to siu'ceed in stopping the engines and 
thus in bringing mining operations to astandslill. 
For a few days the strike succeeded in closing 
many important mines. These firemen, as a 
rule, are not members of the United Mine Work- 
ers, but are a se})arate body. They had counted 
upon the passive, though not, of course, upon 
tiie active, aid of the United Mine Workers. 
'J'his, however, they failed to receive ; and the 
strike came to a quick conclusion through the 
firm opposition to it of Mr. Mitchell and the 
presidents of the district organizations of the 
mine workers, who were determined to show 
regard for the spirit as well as the letter of the 
understanding that they were to do their best to 
keep industrial strife out of the anthracite dis- 
tricts during the coming year. This, in our 
opinion, affords a good illustration of the modern 
and enlightened way of regulating the relations 
between labor and capital. 

When the great amalgamation of iron 
Trust and Its and Steel interests was brought about, 
Labor Policy. ^^^^^ ^j,g United States Steel Corpora- 
tion — commonly known as the "Steel Trust" — 
was formed some months ago, we pointed out in 
these pages that the general extension of the 
union principle among the workmen employed in 
the steel mills of this great corporation would be 
attempted by labor leaders. But the corpora- 
tion did not shape its labor policy in that fash- 
ion, and so it happens that the country was last 
month subjected to the disturbance of a great 
strike. For purposes of operating its works, the 
steel trust has kept distinct the organization of 
the chief constituent elements of which it was 
formed, as, for example, the American Sheet 
Steel Company, the American Steel Hoop Com- 
pany, and the American Tin Plate Company. 
These three great companies had themselves been 
formed only very recently through the amal- 
gamation of what had been a number of in- 
dependent companies and firms. Some of the 
mills belonging to these independent companies 
and firms had been so-called union mills, — that 
is to say, had employed and recognized men be- 
longing to the Amalgamated Association of Iron, 
Steel, and Tin Plate Workers, while others had 
been non-union mills. In many of the non-union 
mills, it is asserted, the employed men obtained 
their places only upon signing an agreement not 



THE PROUKESS OF THE U'OKLll 



147 



to join the union. When the great anialgania- 
tions were formed, such as the American Tin 
Plate Company, it seonis ti) liave l>een thought that 
labor conditions would be assimilated throughout 
the properties of each so-called "trust;" and 
where nearly all of the mills were on the union 
basis, it was expected that the others would be 
organized also. But the huge amalgamation of 
these companies into the existing United States 
Steel Corporation was brought about before most 
of them were old enough to have had a single 
year's experience in dealing with the laljor prob- 
lem. The strike ordered by President Shaffer 
of the Amalgamated Association to take effect on 
July 15 was confined at the beginning to those 
mills of the United States Steel Corporation that 
are included in tiiree of its subsidiary comjtanies 
— namely. Sheet Steel, v^teel Hoop, and Tin Plate. 
Tlie Amalgamated Association ofEcials hail met 
with representative officials of those three com- 
panies to agree upon wage-scales for the coming 
year. They found it possible to agree that the 
organized workers in the Tin Plate mills should 
be paid at such and such rates, and were also 
able to arrange the scales for Sheet Steel and 
Steel Hoop. President Shaffer and the associ- 
ation officials were, of course, directly represent- 
ing only those mills that were on the union basis. 
These, however, seem to have comprised a major- 
ity of the mills. AVhen the scales had been agreed 
upon the representatives of the workmen asked 
the representatives of the employers to agree that 
the same wage scales should ai)ply to tlie mills 
w^hich were not on the uiuon V»asis. This was 
refused Vjy the representatives of cajiital, and 
the conference l)roke up. Thereupon, President 
Shaffer ordered a strike of Amalgamated Asso- 
ciation men employed by the United States Steel 
Corporation in the three subordinate companies 
that were engaged in the conference. 

_^ . The extent of this strike antl its 

The Issue in 1,11 

the Steel outcomc couUl not be foretold as we 
Strike. T^ent, to press ; nor were the principles 
at stake entirely clear. The representatives of the 
employers proceeded to make their statements to 
the newspapers ; an<l those statements without 
exception, in so far as they came to our notice, 
declared tliat their refusal to accede to President 
ShatTer's demand was due to their obligation to 
protect the non- union men in their «Mnj»loy against 
the tyranny of the assocuition. The newspaper."*. 
also, as a general rule, declared thai Shaffer 
had demamled oi th(? steel tiust that it ilischarge 
its non-union workmen. It was «|uite generally 
asserted by the so-called conservative newspajnu-s 
of New York and other Ka.stern cities that the 
employers were asked to undertake a compulsory 



unionizing of certain mills against the wi 
the existing IkmIv of non union men. 
invariably these game new8pa(tt>r8 dwlared that 
the Ai: ' • • ly fn-e 

t^' K'* I- .:. . ...em. in 

so far as the employers were c I. Presi- 

dent Shaffer's explanations were somewhat dif- 




MK. TMKiilMIIIK J. 8MArrKH. 

(President of tlie Amalt; >>iiitt<<l AMWM-intliui of Iron. Steel, 

ninl Till I'liili- Wi.rki r». ) 

fereiit. He sougiit to convi-y tiie Mea that the 
non-union men were absolutely forbidden to 
join the union. What the employers had al- 
ready agnu'd to as a reasonable scale of prices 
for the iron and steel workers in the union 
mills ought, saiil Presiiient Shaffer and his col- 
leagues, to \m'- the standard of pay fur ulhers en- 
gaged in the same work. This, it wa.<« 1h'1h'v»»«I, 
Would pro<iuce a uniformity anil lmriii..i.v of 
comlitions that would make for the a\ ' of 

future trouble. Hut the really ini|xirtant thing 
that President Shaffer and his c»>llr:i - 
that they asketl "wus that th«> men i- 
from the contracts ni>w binding them to iN>iong 
to no lalxir o! i Ih« nllt>weil to j<»iu 

the associalioi. .■: ...g diHchargcd." 

„ „ It was tK'rfectIv obvious, ovon lt> the 

r*if "Hal/- III' 1 

and-hai/' ca.Hiuil looker ou, many w< iijo, 

''"'"'''■ that the .\malgamni«Hj ,\ ,tii 

was preparing to urge this puint upon the at- 

t«Mition of the Unil«M| .^lates ."<t«>e| CoqMiration. 

The |>oint was vital from the men's |Mitnl of 



148 



THE -iSIFRiCAS' MONTHLY REk'/HH' OF RHI^/HIVS. 



view, and sooner or Intor it was bouml to come 
--•loli questions liave to be dealt with as 
- of larjie policy. Tlie details of wage- 
senles ought, of course, to be left to the officials 
of the subordinate companies to work out with 
the representatives of labor ; but the funda- 
mental point* of principle must in due time be con- 
sidered by Mr. Morgan and the directors of the 
I'nited States Steel Corporation. Mr. Lincoln 
said of the United States that tliis country 
could not permanently live half slave and half 
free. And some men say that the Ignited States 
Steel Corporation cannot succeed pernuinently in 
its present policy of trying to carry on its mills 
on the plan of half union and half non-union. 
In the end, they say, it must be one tiling or the 
other, irrespective of the results of last month's 
strike. Some of the statements given to the 
press on the morning of the loth by the repre- 
sentatives of the companies to the effect that they 
had merely been protecting their non-union men 
from the tyranny of the Amalgamated Associa- 
tion were brought into question later in the day 
when it was discovered that cei'tain non-union 
men themselves were disposed to join the strik- 
ing union men and walk out of the mills. It 
seemed to be the fact — though the truth about 
such things is not always easy to obtain — that 
some, at least, of the non-union mills would have 
been unionized in very short order if the work- 
men had been allowed to have tlieir own way. 
Everything in the situation made it Iiard to be- 
lieve that there would have been any strike if 
Mr. Shaffer had allowed time for a more thorough 
investigation and discussion. 




.«SfSsj8a^KtD=„.Ir~. 



Disinterested Observer: "You fellows would make 
more headway if you pulled the same way." 
From the Leader (Des Moines). 



A strike is too e.xtreme a measure to 
^abie%"tHlw' '^^'' '"('Sorted to, e.xccpt after every other 

recourse has failed for the settleiucnit 
of a serious practical grievance. It is i)lain, 
llicrefon^. that Mr. Shaffer was wrong in pre- 
cipitating a strike. There was no j)raclical griev- 
ance; whatever. Mr. Shaffer's point was not 
properly before the conference. The strike was 
in anticipation of possible future grievances. It 
was as if one country shotdd make war on another 
in tiiiu' of jjrofound peace, on the ground that the 
otliei- country would not sign a pci-nianent ar- 
bitration treaty as anticipatory of possible future 
disputes. It may, however, turn out that this 
strike will bring the deeper point at issue sharply 
and clearly to the attention of the important men 
like Mr. Fierpont Morgan, who alone are compe- 
tent to adjust such issues. The strike that was 
about to be precipitated in the antliracite regions 
last spring was only averted, it is said, by the in- 
terposition of Mr. Morgan. The men were fully 
and responsibly organized. They had desired 
conferences with the presidents of the coal-carry- 
ing roads. They had sent respectful invitations, 
and they had not even been accorded the decent 
courtesy of an answer to their letters. Fortunate- 
ly, there was a higher court, to which appeal was 
made with better results. The conference that 
sat at Pittsburg was perfectly competent to decide 
upon scales for the organized mills. But the 
question whether or not those scales should be 
applicable to the non-union mills was one involv- 
ing a general policy, and its answer should have 
been postponed for at least a year. From all we 
can learn, Mr. Shaffer is a man whose principal 
fault would seem to be a lack of patience and a 
disposition to act arbitrarily and precipitately. 

What Is to Be There is not involved on either side 

ffiQ Tfu si s 

Permanent a question of strlct right or wrong, 
Altitude? ij^_^j^ solely a question of what is wise 
and farsighted in point of policy. In the long 
run, the United States Steel Corporation is going 
to deal with organized labor, or it is not. The 
officials of the Amalgamated Association think 
that President Schwab of the steel trust hopes and 
intends to reduce labor throughout all the prop- 
erties- of the corporation to the status of the Car- 
negie company's works, where, since the defeat 
of the Amalgamated Association in the memo- 
rable Homestead strike of 1892, labor organiza- 
tion has not been permitted. Mr. Schwab's 
recent testimony before the Industrial Com- 
mission at Washington was not reassuring to 
the unionists. After the struggle of 1 892 it would 
not have been feh,sible to permit unionism in some 
of the Carnegie mills and to forbid it in others. 
The question is, AVould it be found permanently 



THE PROGRFSS Oh THE ll'ORl.D. 



149 



feasible for the United States Steel Corporation 
to dral with a trade-union year by year in nego- 
tiation of wage-scales fur tlie majority .if its mills 
while sternly n-fusiiig tlie men the right to organ- 
ize in other mills, or to be brought under the 
terms of the general wage-agretMuent ? In short, 
the unionists hold that the present attitude of 
the capitalists is not one of stable equilibrium. 




A DOUBLE TIE-UP— From the Hercad (Boston). 

To the watchful and suspicious minds of the 
labor leaders it is settled that the policy of 
the steel corporation is to be hostile to labor or- 
ganization, and that unionism is to be crushed 
out when occasion offers. And certainly the 
labor organizations, one must admit, have some 
reason for this belief. It is not to be supposeil 
that the Amalgamated Association would sur- 
render and accept annihilation without making a 
stubborn fight for e.xistence ; and when the i.>*sue 
presents itself in that light the question arises 
which side is to choose the time for a fight. Mr. 
SlialTer has thought it Ijetter strategy to fight 
immediately, and we think him disastrously mis- 
taken. Whatever temporary truce may be palclnMl 
up, however, the lal)or leaders will declare that 
there can be only one of twf) permanent out- 
comes. Either labor organization must go to the 
wall complntely, while the country looks on at 
triumphant and unlimited organization ^t{ capi- 
tal, or else the principle must l)e recogniz<'(l that 
labor organization is not only j)ermis8il»le, but a 
good thing ; and that when* va.st productive (•ftj)i- 
tal comes under unified cdufrul, labor will have 
a coextensive organization. 

Capital. After all, theso men argue, it is not 

Not Labor, la . . , . . , 

Chiefly iatior organization that is on trial at 
on Trial. ^^^^ bar of pubMc Opinion in the United 
States at the present time. Tin- advantages and 
disadvantages of trade-unionism have 1 n i! 'r 



oughly dis4-u.s4kv| in all industrial co • - 

nearly a hundred years. Hut the n. 

<^"' ■""» of pnxlurtivH capital is a verv new 

P' ' I it was n' ' 

• 1 -! in the j 

In.th great parties alike in the Pr. 
paign of last year, but it is criticiiM^l and «ie. 
iioiinced also in the very latest Sia* ■' •• -^ 
as. for instance, th<»se atlopted in ( »; 
The only wonder was that the enormous steel 
corporation, with its alle^'ed over 
could have lx?en foriiie«l in an all;, 
much gotnl temper ami toleration a.s wn 

by public opinion throughout the country. It 
was believi-d by many onlookers that th. ' •' 
promoters of this great corporation wi.uld ■ . 
ly acquaint them8«*lves with the new ami inevita- 
ble tendencies in the IhIm.f situation. Thos*- men 
have had much to .say to the country aU.ul a 
piogressiv«> age and wholly new ideas and meth- 
ods in the organization of capital. They must 
not forget that in this country the tr: ' - - 
idea is much more familiar and much . 
than the trust idea ; and that everylKniy bad 
taken it f(M- grantevl that the big c< " " 'ed 
employers of lalxjr would have to nty. ... : on 
fairly equal terms with the }>ig unions. 

^^^ If, indeed, it must bo one thing ct me 
Political Other in the end, it is likelv to \h- 
»P't s. I. union." A localized employer may 
Im' able to fight down orgaiiiz«'d labor and put 
his shops or mills on the nonunion ba«is ; but it 
does not seem to us as if an employer on so vast 
a scale as the United States Steel rortxiralion 
could completely stamp out unionism, for the 
simple reast)n that the country it.x4'lf wouKI not 
i-ndure the stupendous conflict that must neces- 
.sarily Ite involvi'd. The men who are in a jKMii- 
tion to fix the {x)licy of the steel corj>oration aa 
resj)ect8 labor can al.'^o dictate that of a great 
part of the railway mileage of the country, and 
most of the coal-mining, not to ii ' ' 

industries. It is not. therefore, t- 
that tlie various railroad uniom* and other organ- 
izations Would look on an«l see the ^ ed 
Association of Iron, St»>««l. and Tin i ..... .. ..rk- 

ers defeated in a struggle that really meant life 
or death for oTganiz«Hl laUir in general When 
siriki's occur un n • ' ' ' -b- 

aiice into widely , _ , ti- 

cal a-siM'ct has to ht< taken into account. The 

party that hap|H!ns to Ik> in |»ower i; 'ra 

most from laljor troubles. It-''' ••• m 

this cotuitrv claim to In> the j of 

organize)! lalNtr. .Mr. .'-^hnfTer and tils coUeagtuv 
\vt?i' I ' ' ...<| ileal laai month 

III.' .11 f .1 



i:)0 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REklElV OF REVIEWS. 



It is wi'll witluii till* Itoumis of truth 
^^f**^* '^' ****>' '''"* tliioiigli tin* jrivater jiart 
of July there whs fjreatcr anxiety 
shown alxnit the weather antl its relation to the 
pn>\ving erops than about the theory or jiraetice 
of traile-unionisin and the possible damage to 
business interests of a protracted steel strike. 
K:i!lv in the season, the crop situation had ap- 
jH'ared to be very briglit ; and it seems that, 
taking the country at large, the wheat crop has 
been successfully harvested and is one of the 
best in our history. Hut a cold and wet spring 
had given the corn crop a late start, and its de- 
velopment was dependent upon a proper adjust- 
ment of rain and shine in July. Unfortunately, 
there extended across the country for many days 
a vast area of intense and persistent heat and 
drought. In New York and the P]ast, the ex- 
cessivelv hot spell l>egan late in June and lasted 
for about two weeks. Since weather records 
have been kept, no such spell of extremely hot 
and dry weather had been known in the early 
part of summer. The death rate in New York 
and many other cities was enormously increased 
by reason of the extreme heat. Tens of thou- 
sands of people from the tenement-houses slept 
night after night in the public parks, while other 
thousands slept on the Long Island beaches. 
In the "West, the hot spell was still more pro- 
tracted than in the East, and the thermometer 
was a good deal higher. While it was certain 
that the corn crop in Kansas and the Southwest 
at large had suffered greatly, no accurate esti- 
mate could be made of the extent of the damage. 
One of the most important functions of the agri- 
cultural colleges and experiinent stations in the 
"Western Slates has been to teach the fai'mers 
how to make the best of bad years. There are 
certain comparatively new crops, such as alfalfa, 
kafifir corn, field peas, and others, that are not so 
dependent as wheat and corn upon equable and 
normal conditions of heat and rainfall. The 
great agricultural "U'est has been so prosperous 
for some years past that it has accumulated, so 
to speak, an insurance fund against a bad season 
or two. It has learned by expei'ience that there 
must be lean years as well as fat years. It is 
not probable, therefore, that the. prospei'ity of 
the "West will be seriously affected by the partial 
failure of this year's crops. 

End of the ^"^ "^"^^^ ^^' ^^^ ' "^ ' Pi^'T^Dt Morgan 
yvort/ier/? Pac//c announced his plan for making a 
if^gg e. permanent peace of the armistice de- 
clared on May 31 between the two factions at- 
tempting to control the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road. The fight for control which had brought 
on the remarkable panic of May 9, and so uni- 



versally unsettletl the most important financial 
movements, had rested under the; terms of a 
memorandum in' which the Northern Tacific in- 
terests pledged themstilves not to take advantage 
of their new ownership of the Burlington road to 
the disadvantage of the Union Pacific until Mr. 
Morgan should have tried his hand at straighten- 
ing out the tangle. To do this. Mr. Morgan se- 
lected five new members for tlie Northern Pacific 
directorate, with a view to assuring all the rail- 
roads involved that the new owners of the Bur- 
lington would not use it to liurt the traffic of the 
Union Pacific and its allied roads, at the same 
time leaving sufficient strength in the board to 
Mr. Hill's (ireat Northern party to content them. 
Both sides expressed themselves as perfectly 
satisfied. In case there is a disagreement in the 
reconstituted board over matters that involve the 
conflicting interests of the Harriinan group of 
roads on the one side and the Morgan-Hill group 
on the other, Mr. W. K. Vanderbilt is named as 
referee, and in his absence Mr. A. J. Cassatt, 
president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, will act 
as substitute. This arrangement promises a true 
"community of interest" in the management of 
practically every railroad west of (Chicago, except 
the Atchison, Rock Island, and Missouri Pacific, 
and will carry an important step further the 
remarkal)le movement in concentrating the own- 
ership and management of our transportation 
routes so thoroughly discussed in this number of 
the Review of Reviews by Mr. H. T. Newcomb. 

Later information caused it to appear 
^Pek^no'^ tliat the indemnity question at Peking 

was by no means so near adjustment 
as the European and American public had been 
led to suppose a month or six weeks ago. It was 
not finally determined just how much China 
should pay, in what form she sliould make pay- 
ment, nor yet by what means she should raise 
the money. It turned out that the demands of 
the powers were in excess of the 450,000,000 
taels that China had accepted as the maximum. 
Presuinably, the plan of distributing 4-per-cent. 
bonds to the claimant governments will be adhered 
to, althougli there has been much friction over 
the guarantee question. Finally, it is not yet 
agreed precisely how" much China may increase 
her duties on foreign imports in order to obtain 
money with which to pay the foreign claimants. 
The whole business is a disgrace to Christendom. 
The final evacuation of Peking is announced for 
August 14, and extensive preparations have 
been making for the return of the Chinese im- 
perial government. Our minister, Mr. Conger, 
sailed from San Francisco for China on July 17, 
and Commissioner Rockhill is to sail from China 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



i:.l 



in the near future. It has lieen runjored that he 
woul<l return to his farmer work in «'<)nnet'tion 
with the Hureau of American Hepuhlirs, with 
special reference to the Pan-American Congress 
that will meet in October. 

Russia's influence in Chinese affairs 
Russia's seems to be steadily increasing- The 

Position. ,^ . . ^ " ^ Ti 1 • \f 1 

Russian minist»'r at ieking. M. ue 
Giers, has now been tiansferretl. and M. Taul 
Lessar has been appointed to take charge of 
Russian affairs in China. For the most of tlie 
time during the past lifteen y»>ars he has been 
counselor of the Russian embassy in London. 
He is a man of great talent and knowledge, and 
it is believed that his going to China helps to 
mark a new epoch in the history of Russia's 
domination in the far East. Everything in- 
dicates Russia's permanent occupation of Man- 
churia, and ot Mongolia also. 




If. PAUL, LE.XSAK. 



The relations of tlie Tnited States with 
^Orlenw Chiiui aie lik.'ly to be very friendly in 
Fritndi. ^i^p future, since the Chim'sc (Jovern- 
ment recogni/.es the great moderali-.n that the 
Cnited States has advocated in the treatment of 
( hina bv tlM- powers. The Cliinese minirter to 
thiscountrv.WuTing Fang, .lelivered the I'ou.t . 
of Julv orati.u. la.st month at Independence Hnll. 
in Philadelphia, and he .poke with much ability 




Courtesy olthc AVrM .Imm.j'i. I'lilli lt!i;"». 

MISISTKIt wr TIN*! FANO DKIIVKKINCJ ri»rKTH t>» JII.Y 
UHATION I.N HHII.AIiKI.I'IIIA. 



and show of friendly feeling. The Japanese 
have had an opportunity in the jiast month to 
e.xpress the peculiar friendliness they feel for the 
jHople of the United States, the occjwion being 
tlie unveiling at Kurihaina, on the Japanese 
coast, of a monument in menn»ry of the landing 
of Commodore Perry on July U. 1H53. Ad- 
miral Rodgers, commanding the United Stat<»8 
visiting squadron, was tin* guest • ' - ' ' r, 

an<l the \"i.scount Kalsura. pi.;.. of 

Japan, made a meinoral>le atUlress. S'veral 
other speoclies were made by Americans and 
Japane.se. in all of which the close relations ex- 
isting between the two countrie.n were dwell 
upon. The subject of the gn-atest intorMt to 
the Japanese this summer is Korea. J» ug 

extremely jealous of the movemeuU of i... 

The Emperor Francis Joseph has 

In ((f>ttrn yisitod I' 

his visit 1...- K' • • 

that he will in the near fntnr*' consent to the 
establishment of a separali' Holii'inian ] nt 

„t 1 and that he - " ' vn.-o ,^.,,^ of 

\\u, thus placing i on a fiH.ting 

in the empire somewhat similar to that of the 
Hungarians, and turning tl 

a triple on«'. 'I' -ems, I 

lirmation of i . -rt. '1 i»l un- 

rest in the Balkan siattm, ami the Mactnloinan 



i:>',' 



THE AMERICAN MONTH I. Y KEllEii Of- REyiEWS. 



qiu>stion in one form or another is always iukKm- 

•■ : bill last month's news brings iiothiii^; of 

.»1 imjK>rtan(v from that part of Euioiu'. 
The news from Turkov that is most int»Mvsti:i<; 
to readers in the fnitetl States is that of the 
(layment of practioally the full amount by tlic 
Turkish Government of the sum that had been 
rwognized as due on account of the dcstruc- 
tion of American school property in Armenia. 
Mr. Straus had succeeded in getting the Sultan 
personally on several occasions to acknowledge 
the debt and promise to pay it. Mr. Lloyd (Jris- 
coni, who was lefi in charge of our interests at 
Constantinople when Mr. Straus came home, is 
said to have made it his practice to call every 
Saturday at the Sublime Porte to press for pay- 
ment of the claim. Mr. Griscom lately left 
Constantinople, having been appointed minister 
to Pei*sia ; and Mr. Leishman. who was trans- 
ferred from Switzerland to Turkey, seems for 
some reason to have found a way to get his hand 
into the Sultan's pocket. The ("i-etan National 
Assembly has been asking the protecting Euro- 
pean powers to annex Crete to Greece ; but the 
fKjwers have told the Cretans to let well enough 
alone. Prince George of Greece is administer- 
ing the affairs of the island, and the connection 
of Crete with Turkey is now only theoretical. 

The gifts to American colleges and 
Educational universities announced in June were 

/Votes. 

perhaps greater than at any previous 
commencement season. No exhausti\e record 
of them has been made, but they would probably 
foot up $15,000,000. "With the one very notable 
exception of gifts aggregating §5,000,000 for 
"Washington University, at St. Louis, most of 
the large gifts have been bestowed upon in- 
stitutions east of Ohio and north of Maryland. 
Brown L'niversity, as announced by us last 
month, has received gifts equivalent to $2,000,- 
000, and Harvard, among other new benefac- 
tions, is the recipient of a million dollars from 
Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan toward its scheme of 
liuildings for the medical department. President 
Hadley announced at the Yale commencement 
that the bicentennial fund of §2,000,000 had 
been completed. The Rev. Dr. Richard C. 
Hughes has been appointed president of Ripon 
College. Rev. Charles L. "White is chosen presi- 
dent of Col'oy College. The new head of An- 
dover Theological Seminary is the Rev. Dr. 
Charles 0. Day. At Chicago, the Rev. Dr. 
Frank "W. Gunsaulus has returned to the presi- 
dency of the Armour Institute of Technology. 
One of the most famous educators and scientists 
of this country. Prof. Joseph Le Conte, of the 
"University of California, died last month. 



Our oliituary record this month con- 
Obitiiary taius a larger number of distiii";uislied 

notes. ~ '^ 

names than usual. "We publish else- 
where an article from the pen of John Graham 
Ib'ooks on the late .lohn Fiske, ami some notes 
upon James E. Yeatnum, the well-known plii- 
lanthi-oj)ist of St. Louis. Quite as versatile an 
author as ^Ir. Fiske, thougli not so well known 
at home, was the late W. J. Stillman, the 
greater part of whose active life was spent in 
various capacii irs in southern and eastern Europe. 
Charles Nonlhoff was aiujtlier well-known joui'- 
nalist and author, 
for a long time 
connected w i t li 
the New York 
Herald. The 
Rev. Jose p h 
Cook was at one 
time the most 
conspicuous plat- 
form speaker in 
the L'nited States 
on religious and 
scientific s u 1j - 
jects. General 
Butterfield, of 
New York, was 
a prominent vet- 
eran of the .Civil 
War, and Sena- 
tor Kyle, of South 
Dakota, was a 
ness. 




THE LATli l{liV. JOSLl'H CUOK. 



public man of growing useful- 
Adelbert S. Hay, son of the Secretary 
of State, who had served our Government as 
consul at Pretoria, returned in safety to this 
country only to meet death by a sad accident 
at New Haven while attending the reunion of 

his class. Hon, 
George E. Leigh- 
ton, of St. Louis, 
w^as conspicuous- 
in t h e s o u n d - 
m o n e y move- 
ment. Among 
Europeans w h o 
died last month 
perhaps the most 
famous w a s 
Prince von Ho- 
henlohe, who had 
retired not long 
ago from the 
chancellorship of 
the German em- 
pire. Mrs. Paul 
Kriiger died at 
Pretoria. 




THE LATE SENATOR KYLE, OF 
SOUTH DAKOTA. 



Ri:C()RI) ()!• CrRRi:XT KVKNTS. 



(f>'>iiii June I'J (u Julu IS, I'Mt.) 



POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT-AMERICAN. 

June '21. — Prt'sitlt'iit MiKiiilfv's order I'stahlisliiii^ 
civil jfoverninent in the Philippines ami Hp|M)intinK 
Willianj H. Taft the first jiovernnr is pr<>niuli;iite<l. 

June •i'J. — tieiieral Cliallee is appointed military nov- 
eriior of the Philippines, relieving CJenernl MacArthur. 

June 'il — (teiieral ("allies, the Philippine insuriteiit 
leader, surrenders with »>."><> men and .")<io rirt«vs ; oathsof 
allegiance to tlie Unite<l States are taken. 

June 25. — Ohio Kepublicans renominate tiovernor 
Na.sh. 

July 4. — Civil government is inaugurated in the Phil- 
ippines : Judge William H. Taft takes the oath of olliee 
a-s the first civil governor; General I'hatTee succeeds 

General MacArthur a.s military governor The Porto 

Rican As.sembly unanimously adopts a resolution pro- 
vidingfor free trade with thel'nited States and re(|Uest- 
ing I'resident McKinley to issue his proclamation on 
July 25. 

July 5. — Comptrf)ller of the Currency Charles (J. 
Dawes resigns his otlice in order to t)e a can<lidate for 
United States Senator from Illinois in VM^. 

July 7. — A proclamation by President McKinley oiM-n- 
ing certain Indian reservations in Oklahoma to .settlers 
on August C. 1!^)1, is made public. 

July 10. — Ohio Democrats nominate James KillK>urue 





Photo by Frtdrick*, New York. 

THE i.ATK oKN. DANir.i, Bi'TTrHrirr.i). or i«rw Tortlt. 



THK I>ATK AOKI.IIEKT H. II A V . 

for tfovenior, adopt the rfs<ilutioim on franrhlM'*, mll- 
road>, an<l cor|M)ration t^ixation ndviK-atiil by Mayor 
JohtiHon, of Cleveland, and, by an overwhelming majoi^ 
ity. repniUate Hryanisin. 

July 11. — Governor HiTrie«l, of South Dakota, n\y- 
[Kijnt.s Alfre«l H. Kittretlge to the swat in the Cnltetl 
States S<'nat4' maile viu<ant by the death of .s«-tiat«»r 
Kyle. 

July 17. — PoMtma-Hter-General Smith Itiue* onlem 
placing reHtrictioiiH on secondMla-st* mail matter. 

POLITICS AND GOVKRNMENT FOREIGN. 

.Tune Ml- The Xicaratfuan (Jovernnieiit n««vp«» the 
resignatioii»t of the diriMtop* of thriH. nntlotinl rolle«wi 

iiid eloM'H tlie iiiHtifulion'. A' ' in the 

.\UKlrian HeicliHrath forcinnpul 'f «'<»• 

pioywM in private i»«'rvlce. 

.Inne -Jl).— The Htdglan Chnnilwr \MV•^'>^ nn anli gam- 
bllng bill. 

June 'il. — Mr. Ilonhl Torn, thr JiinaiifM- •>tnle«ni«n, U 
aMMiMHinat«*<l. 

June 'J2 liy a majority of Hn vote-, thr luli«ii Cham 
lier of DepulieM approve* of the home policy of the 
minlwtry. 



IM 



THE AMERICAS' MOMUl.Y REllEir OF REVIEWS. 



June 'JR.— Thu inniiMKfiiuMit of ttu- Stnti- post-offlct-s 
thiMUKluuit th»> AuMnilinn ('(iiumoiiwrHltli is ir.iii>- 
forrvil t«> tlu« fiHliTiil p)vi'rmni'iit. 

.luiu'-M. - Tin' trial of ("omit «U' Liir-Saliuo fur liij;li 
tn*aM>ii iM'Kiiis iH-fnrt' tht> Krench S»miiHi' iit Paris. 

June "JS.— IX>ii .Ii-riuan Hit'sm is i-h-ctcd President of 
Chilf. 

Jun»' "JlV— The Count lie Lur-Saluces is found uiiilly 
by the Frt'Heh Senate of hijjii treason and is sentenced 
to lutnishnient for live years. 

.1 u IK' 'iS.— The Dutch Cabinet resifins in c()nse(iuen(e 

of the l(».>is of la seats in the elections By a vote of 

813to*J41». the French Chamber of Deputies adopts the 

a.sM)ciations bill A royal proclamation announces 

that the coronation of Kiny Kdward VII. of Great 
Britjiin will take place in June, 1902. 

July 5.— The Argentine minister of finance rcsifins. 

July 8. — In the Hritish House of Commons the edu- 
cation bill is attacked by members of both partie.s. 

July 9.— A British Liberal conference adopts a reso- 
hition of ctinfidence in the leadership of Sir Henry 
Campbell-Hannerman. 

July 1(>.— The British ministry is defeated, on a ques- 
tion of minor importance, in the House of Lords, by a 
vote of 41 to 20. 

July 17.— The Danish cabinet resi<ins. 

July 18.— Karl Kussell is ariaigned before the British 
Hou.se of Lords on a charge of bigamy, pleads guilty, 
and is sentenced to three months' imprisonment. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. 

June 19.— It is announced at Berne that mo.st of the 
signatory powers, including the United States, liave 
accepted an invitation to confer on a revision of the 
Geneva Convention The documents covering the for- 
eign relations of the United States in the war with 
Spain are pul)lished at Wa.shingtou. 

June 22.— The United States addresses a note to Rus- 
sia on the sugar and petroleum tariff controversy. 

June 2;^- In con.sequence of tiie Ku.ssian ambassador's 
representation, the Sultan of Turkey agrees to send a 
commission to Macedonia to investigate the situation 
there and repc^rt. 

June 26. —The United States re- 
ceives from the Italian Govern- 
ment a .statement tliat no export 
duty is paid on Italian sugar. 

July 2.— Korea requests Japan 
to close the Japanese post-offices 
and withdraw the officials. 

July 8. — United States Consnl- 
General Stowe, at Cape Town, 
resigns. 

July 10.— I'nited States Min- 
ister Leishman obtains a final 
settlement of American indem- 
nity claims against Turkey. 

July 14. — American and Japa- 
nese warships take part in the 
ceremony of unveiling a monu- 
ment to Commodore Perry, 
U.S.X., at Kurihama, Japan. 

Jul}- 18. — The consul-general 
of Eicuador at Valparaiso, Chile, 
is assassinated. 



THE CRISIS IN CHINA. 

June 24. — Japan increases her indemnity demand by 
about S.(HK),0()(l yen on account of the depreciation of her 
4-per-cent. bonds. .. .(ieneral (iaselee, tiie British com- 
mander in China, arranges with the Chinese authori- 
ties for the administration of the city of I'ekiug until 
the time of evacuation arrives. 

.July 1.— The Britisli and Japanese sections of Peking 

are formally transferred to tiie Chinese Tlie French 

Chamber of Deputies, by a vote of 474 to 71, passes sup- 
plementary credits amounting to $ Hi, 000, 000 to defray 
the t'xpen.ses of the Ciiinese e.vpedition. 

July 4. — An agreement with the commander of the 
French forces in Pao-ting-fu for the protection of for- 
eigners in Sliaiisi province is made public. 

July 10. — Three thousand Chinese imperial troops are 
defeated by the Allied Villagers' Society at (Jhichou, 40 
miles southeast of Pao-ting-fu. 

July 11. — Li Ilung Chang orders Gen. Ma Yu-Kun to 
lake reinforcements to Chichou. 

.July 14. — General Gaselee, commander of the British 
Indian troops in China, leaves for England. 

July 17. — It is announced that Japan has withdrawn 
her request for an increase of indemnity. 

MILITARY OPERATIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA. 

June 20. — The Midland Mounted Rifles are overpow- 
ered at Waterkloof by the Boers, under Commandant 

Malaii Acting President Schalk-Burgerof the South 

African Republic, and President Steyn of the Orange 
Free State, i.ssue a proclamation declaring that "no 
peace will be made and no conditions accepted by which 
our independence and national existence or the interests 
of our colonial brothers sliall be the price paid." 

June 25. — A large Boer force under Commandants 
Malan and Smit attack Richmond, in Cape Colony, and 
keep up the attack until dusk ; they retire on the ap- 
proach of a British column. 

July 5. — Lord Methuen is engaged east of Zeerust ; 
he captures 43 Boers, with ammunition, cattle, and 
wagons. 

Julj' 11.— A post of the South African constabulary 
at Houtkop, northwest of Vereeniging, is attacked by 



—■•■■■^■- ■ ., jt<S!iu^.Kmt^u...^ .. 





'^tMiu^WZTJS^m 



THE NEW IMPERIAL YACHT CLUB AT KIEL, OPENED BY THE GERMAN EMPEROR. 



RECORD OF CURRENT El^ENTS. 



ir^-s 



the Boers, who are repul>e<l, tin- Hriti.-.h lo-^iim :i kilU-d 

and 7 wounded (Jeueral Hroadwiiod Hurprisfs the 

town of Reitz. capturing in.iiiy ulTuials of the (Grange 
Free Statt- ; I*rf>iiit'ii' Stt-yii narrowly fscapi-s. 

OTHER OCCURRENCES OF THE MONTH. 

•June 19. — A great meeting is lield in London to pn> 
test against the niethiMis of tlie IJoer war. 

June "^it. — Knipi-ror William of (Ji-rmany nnveiU a 
monument to the CJreat Kk-ctor of Brandenburg at 
Kiel. 

June i?. — A f1o<Ml in the Elkhorn River valley, in 
West Virginia, caus«'s muth lovs of lift- ai»d property. 

June 25. — The Leipziger Bank, in Gernuiny, fails. 

June "27. — The Seventh National Bank, of New York 
City, fails. 

June 28.— The brokerage firm of Henry Martiuaud & 
Co., of New York City, fails with heavy liabilities. 

June ■i'.t. — M. Kournier wins the three-<lays' auto- 
mobile race from Paris to Berlin, having covered the 

743 miles in 17 hours The City National Bank of 

Buffalo. N. Y., is closed by order of Comptroller Dawes. 

July 1.— The Munitcur Unirtrscl, of Pari.s founded 
in 1789. and until 1871 the official organ of the French 

Government, ceases publication Tlie assessment 

rolls of New York City show a totjil valuation <il 
$3,787,970,873. 

July 2.— Intense heat prevails throughout tiie ea>-tern 
and central portions of the United States; iheotliciai 
thermometer at Philailelphia shows a temperature of 
1<^2.H degrees; there are more than 21)0 deaths from tlie 

heat in New York City Cornell wins the "varsiiv 

boat-race on the Hudson at Poughkeepsie. 

July 4 —The Kliarkof Commercial Bank, of Ru.s.sia, 
fails, with a delicit estimated al ^2,.V)0,iHX). 

July h. — The Henley l)oat-race for the Grand Chal- 
lenge Cup is won by ieander. which wins fnjm the 

University of Pennsylvania by a length in 7:04 4-5 

The Commercial Bank of Kkaterinoslaf, RuH.sia, fails 
By the will of the late .lacol) S. Rogers, of the Rog- 
ers Locomotive Works, Paterson. N. ./.. nearly the 
whole estate, estimated at more than ?.5.(MK»,O00, is Ih-- 
queathi'd to tlie MetroiM)litan .Museum of Art in New 
York City. 

July ♦;.— The twentieth annual international conven- 
tion of the Young People's S<jciety of Christian Kn- 
<leavor ojiens at Cincinnati. 

July 9.— The National Kducational A.H.sociation iM-gins 
its annual session at Detroit. 

July 10— In a coIlisio?i of trains on the Chicago iV 
Alton Railroail, about PH) miles ea>t of Kansas City, H» 
persons are kille«l and many injured. 

July 13. — The Univerxily of Peiiiisylvaiii.i iicii;ii- 
Dublin University in a Ixwit-race at Killarney. 

July 13.— Members of the Amalganniti-il .VsMK-iation 
of Iron, Steel, and Tin Workers goon strike. 

July If).— Statiomiry Mn-ruen in the anthracite region 
of Pennsylvania goon strike, com|H-llinK many miners 
to stop Wf)rk. 

July 17.- The BaldwitiZiegler arctic exploring exjw- 
dition sails from TromsrM'. Norway. 

July IH. The fifth iiiteniafional convention ol lin- 
Kpworth LeaL'iie i> opeiieil at San Francis<-o. 



OBITUARY. 

June 19— F:x-Gov iVr-.n C Chnnv ,.( V.w llMmp- 
shirf, 7r». 

June 21.— Adniinil Sir Anthony lltixkinN of ihe Brit- 
ish navy, 73. 

June 22.— JaineM ¥i Taylor, the well-known artliU and 

illustrator, «U. 

June 2:J.— .XdellxTt .»s. Hay. funner Unilcxl Stnl<*» ■•"■k- 

sul at l»retoria. 25 General von Schwrinitx, < 

Itev. Dr. J. Aspiuwall Hoiige. of Linr<j|n University, 
Pa., 70. 

June 24.— Rev. Jimeph C«xjk, a iMipular lecturer tin 
religious and scientilic subjet-tn, Kl. 

June 25.— Kdward \V. llo(>|ier, tn-a^urfr of llnrvarti 
College for nearly a quarter of a century. «». 

.luiie 2«V— .los«'ph I^idiie. founder of Dawmin » iiy. in 
the Klondike. 47. 

June is.-.Sjr Thonnis (;alt, of Tonmto, (« Theo- 
dore Sutton Parvin, fonialer of the Iowa .Maxinic 
Library. S4. 




TMK I.ATK I'HIill'R VON MoMk^MlMK, or (tRMMANT. 

KriMii n miiiiMiiiol taken wtillr iIik l*rlnro w«a iin • hunting 

ektinlUlori.) 



150 



THE /tMERICAN MOXTH/.Y KFl'/FM' OF RFI^IFWS. 




I'HESIDKXT KlU'tiEn's VM.I.A " CAS.V CAltA,"" AT H II.V KKSl'M , 
IX THE NKTIIKKLANDS. 

•Iiuie '29. — Jiulge William A. Woods, of the United 
States Circuit Court of ludiana, 64. 

June 30.— Hev. Dr. Hyron Sunderland, a well-known 
clergyman, of Washiugtou, D. C, 82. 

July 1. — I'nited States Senator James Henderson 
Kyle, of Smtli Dakota, 47. 

July '2.— .VJhert L. Johnson, owner and jjronioter of 

many street-railway enterpri.ses, 40 Jacob S. R()ger.s, 

former owner of the Rogers Locomotive Works, at Pat- 

er>on. N. J., t>0 Kev. Greenough White, until lately 

a profess<ir in the University of the South, Sewanee, 

Tenu., 38 Paul Neumann, a prominent citizen of 

Hawaii, 68.... Dr. John Curwen, one of the oldest 
American si)ecialists in mental diseases, 80. 

July 4. — John Fiske. author and lecturer, 59 (see page 

ITo) George E. Leighton, a well-known lawyer and 

business man of St. Louis, 67 John E. Tegmeyer, of 

Baltimore, one of the engineers who laid out the line 

of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, 80 Col. Julian 

Scott, the artist. 55 Prof. Peter Guthrie Tait, of 

Edinburgh University, 70. 



.Iiily.'i. I'lincc von llohenlohc, former cliaiu'cUor of 
(iermany, H'l. 

.JidyO. — Prof. Joseph Le ("onte, of the University of 
('alirornia, 78. ... William .James Stillman, newsi)aper 
coi-rfspondent, author, and arclia'ologist, 7.'i. . . . Repre- 
scntativt- .1. William Stokes, of South Carolina. . . . Prof, 
.lohannes Schmidt, the Indo-German scholai- of Berlin 
University, 58. 

July 7.— James E. Yeatman, of St. Louis, well known 

as a philanthropist, 83 (see page 186) Pierre Lorillard, 

of New York. 68. 

July 8.— Ashley B. Tower, a successful New York ar- 
chitect, 54 Frederick D. White, .son of the United 

States ambassador to Germany, 41. 

July 9. — K.K-Congressman 
William H. Stone, of Missouri, 

72 Postmaster John F. B. 

Karhart, of New Orleans, 61 

Xajjoleoii Le Brun, the 

architect, 80. 

July 10.— Mrs. Martha Pat- 
ter.son, daughter of the late 
e.x- President .John.sou and 
unstress of the White House 
in the years 1865-(j9, 73. 

July 12. — Dr. Federico Erra- 
zuriz y Echaurren, President 

of Chile, 51 Robert Henry 

Newell ("Orpheus C. Kerr"), 
65. . . . E.x - Gov. Richard R. 
Hubbard, of Texas, 67. 
July 14.— Charles Nordhoff, 
newspaper writer and author, 71. 

.July 15. — Rev. Ezra A. Huntington, of Auburn The- 
ological Seminary, 88. 
July 17.— Gen. Daniel Butterfield, of New York, 70 

George W^arreu Wood, D.D., translator of the Bible 

into Armenian, 87. 

July 18. — Horatio .J. Sprague, United States consul 
at Gibraltar for more than fifty years, 78. 




THE LATE PROF. JOSEPH 
LE CONTE. 

(Of California.) 



FCJRTIICOMING EVENTS. 



THE following conventions have ])een announced 
for this month : 

Scientific. — The American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, at Denver, August 24-31 ; the 
American Chemical Society, at Denver, August ;26-27 ; 
the Economic Entomologists' Association, at Denver, 
August 22-23 : the Geological Society of America, at 
Denver, on August 27 ; the Botanical Society of America, 
at Denver, August 24-31 ; the Society for the Promotion 
of Agricultural Science, at Denver, August 2.3-24; the 
American Mathematical Association, at Ithaca, N. Y., 
August 19-2<5 : the International Congre.ssof Zoologists, 
at Berlin, Germany, during the month. 

Reform.\tory. — The League of American Munici- 
palities at .Jamestown, N. Y., August 21-24 ; the Na- 
tional League Improvement Association, at Buffalo, 
August 12-14 ; the National Good Government League, 
at Buffalo, August 1.5-18 ; the National Total Absti- 
nence Union, at Hartford, Conn., August 7-10. 

Professional and Industrial.- the American Bar 



Association, at Denver, August 25-28 ; the National 
Shorthand Reporters' Association, at Buffalo, August 
15-20 ; the National Dental Association, at Milwaukee, 
August 6-10 ; the National Negro Bitsiness League, at 
Chicago, August 21-23. 

Patriotic. — The Naticmal Association of the Army 
of the Philippines, at Salt Lake City, Utah, on August 
13 ; the National Spanish-American War Vetei'ans' Re- 
union, at Baltimore, Md., on August 12 : Daughters of 
Liberty National Council, at Boston, August 27-28; 
the Order of Scottish Clans, at Pittsburg, August 
20-23. 

Miscellaneous.— The National Universalist Associa- 
tion, at Ferry Beach Park, Maine, August 1-12 ; the 
Weather Forecasters' convention, at Milwaukee, Au- 
gust 27-29 ; the American Legion of Honor, at Buffalo, 
on August 20 ; the National Fraternal Congress, at 
Detroit, Mich., August 26-31 ; the Lincoln Emancipa- 
tion and Republican Leagues, at Philadelphia, August 
22-23. 



CURRl'lXr lOl'K ^ IX CARTOOXb. 




THK A.Mt:Ki('AN UANOKK TO Ei'ROPK.— Froiii Ilk (Berlin). 



MK. J. 1". .M()1{(;AN'.S recent visit to Europe and 
his return home early last month weresonielio'v 
provocative of a greater number of cartoons. European 
an well as American, than has ever appeared jit any time 
before Hlx)ut a man not holding public oflRce or engaged 
in a political campaiirn. The European pa|H'rs, especially 
those of (iermany and Austria, are continuing to taken 
very serious view of thedanKer of American comiH't ition 
to the industry of the Old World, as witnes.s thecart4M)n 
from Ulk reproduced on this page. An American car- 
toonist, on the other hand, seeks to call our attention 
to the aggressiveness ol (ienn.'iny in plucking; the apple 



of South Atiierican trade under the very 
s4)ninolent Uncle S<im. 



nose of the 





mofiT iMiKU III- M)-K. Kroni ilie 7'oM<-» i.Mlnii««n|>«>ii-«i. 



BA«V nrHttKT. 

I<<iI'r mm; whnCtI I <ln with It nritT' 

Vmtn thr Jiiuriuil (N«*w York). 



158 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REl^lEM' 01' REVIEWS. 




WAK PI-ASTKHS. 

Uxri.K Sam : " My i)lastcr conu's off to-day for good." 
John Bl"I,l: "And I am still sticking more on." 
From the Journal (Minneapolis). 

We have collected some very cheerful American car- 
toons ou this page. The first is a reminder of the fact 
that since the 1st of July American citizens have been 
relieved from various stamp taxes that were imposed by 
the war-revenue measure, the mf)st familiar of these 
t»eing the two-cent stamp on bank checks. The one- 
cent ta.x on telegrams and express receipts has also been 
dispensed with. John Bull meanwhile is pretty well 
plastered over with war-revenue stamps. The Des 





Iowa : '* That's our Uave."— From the Leader (Des Moines). 

Moines ieaderhas a good cartoonist, veho finds amuse- 
ment in the idea that the Hon. David B. Hendei'son, 
Speaker of the House, for whom his fellow-citizens 
in the Hawkeye State have a feeling of affectionate 
familiarity, .should have been hobnobbing with kings 
and dukes abroad. American public men have been 
welcomed in England this summer as never before. 

In a strong cartoon on the opposite page, Mr. Bush, of 
the New York Worlds reminds us that John Bull is look- 
ing on with some degree of complacency and satisfac- 
tion at the spectacle of the struggle between capital 
and labor in the American steel industry. 



Uxci-E Sam: '•J don't believe they will come over as long 
as the watchdog is there." 

From the Tribune (Minneapolis.) 







From the Inquirer (Philadelphia). 



CURRENT TOPICS IN CARTOONS. 



l.-iW 




The Intekested Spectatoii: "Sic 'em! "-From tlio World (Niw York). 




A TKST OF HTKESOTTI. 

'When Ore«k nu^j-tM (jn-ck iln-n «oiiu-(« the tug of war." 
From the Jintrnal (MiiiiH'<i|M)llM). 




i.\niii«n iii«rruiii><( i>im\m>. 

" Don'l yiMi think ><mi nil|(hi Irt mri hiivm wltitf i>f thiti 
binir" Fmtn th« Niirlh AimrrieaniVUllntMuMm). 



100 



TUF .^iMFRICAN MONTHLY RHI^/HIV OF RH^/EIVS. 




SUKK THIN(;. 

"Easy Boss" Platt: " New York will furnish the next 
Pri'sident."' 

UOOSKVKI.T \ 

Keki) f ... 

„ V - I wo 

Odei.l. ( 

From thu Journal (Minneapolis). 



render if he means me !' 



SENATOR MASON IS MOVED TO WRITE AN URGENT NOTE TO 

THE PUESiuENT.— From the /{ficord-Weraid (Chicago). 

linois, is supposed to be disturbed by the candidacy of 
Comptroller Dawes for his seat. " Bart," of the Minne- 
apolis Journal, has been exceptionally amusing and 
timely in his recent cartoon work, as shown by three 
of his cartoons on this page. 



Hoot 



Congressman Kabcock, of Wisconsin, has .said that 
the tariff ought to be revised adversely to trusts, and 
much discussion has followed. Senator Mason, of II- 





ANNEXATION. 

A WARM ISSUE. CuBA :" Don't Worry, old fellow. When we get our gov- 

Joey Babcock's dog is stirring up plenty of excitement ernment well established, we'll annex you." 



anyway.— From the Jnumal (Minneapolis). 



From the Journal (Minneapolis). 



CLRRFM TOP/CS /.V C^RTOOW 



1«1 




THE IMPERIAL rAHll%-AHt>. 

York : " Mustn't Irt thoM fowU fly Into thr m-xt paddock, 
nohow." Fnnu the RulUtin (!<ydn<?yi. 



HOW LONG ?— From tlie VrUit. 

The Antrel of Pt-ace still kncx-ks in vain at the lioor ot 
S>mh Africa. Race feeling is further embittered by 
the new policy in Cape Colony of dealing summarily 
w-th Boer sympathizers by court-martial. Several havf 
a'.rriidy Ijeen haiijred. The>e methods will not make 
."^■uth Africa a comfortable place for John Bull (see the 
Ziiriih i-artiion on this paire). 




1^ «.'||ffCv 1^ ^< 



HrTTKR I.ATK THAN NEVKK. 




^ — * — — r^ ^ 



Bll.l.P<»*T» R KlTTiiR.XER (to the Vn\f nJ" 1- • \..w-, 
rt-ad thisnrw prfxlnnintion-Ulntfrf*!." ).iii ; »im1 n imtiil- r. i • 
It wUn*r<irrk.l«ii/.'- Fn.in f>H< (Cape Town » rliajr t« all on.' Kn.m Ar/»«l«M«»r ,/^rtrh. 



1&2 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REl^/EIV OF REyiElVS. 




RUSSIA'S GITAKANTEE FOR THE CHINESE LOAN. 

The Czar (to the powers) : " I guarantee that my good friend here will pay up promptly." 

Li HfNO Chang: "Oh. Confucius! How he's pinching me !"— From the ^nisten/animo' (Amsterdam). 



The alleged wiliness of the diplomatic methods of 
Russia forms a stsiple theme for the cartoonists of all 
other countries except France. It is evident that Rus- 
sia's hold upon the Chinese situation grows stronger 
every day. Meanwhile Russia has been successful of 



late in restoring her influence among the small States 
of Southeastern Europe. She dominates Servia, and 
she is reported to have gained a fresh hold upon Bul- 
garia by helping Prince Ferdinand of that little coun- 
try to obtain a loan from France. 




JAPAN URGES CHINA TO RESTORE LAW AND ORDER IN 

.MANCHURIA.— From the Bulletin (Sydney). 



"ONE GOOD TURN DESERVES ANOTHER." 



(Russia and France conciliate Bulgaria by the familiar 
device of a loan.) — From Kkiddcradatsch (Berlin). 



THE RECENT GREAT RAILW.W CoMHlXAIToXh 

15V H. I. NKWCOMB. 
(Ktlitor liiiihntu Wnrlit ) 



THE strong movement toward com-entration 
of industrial control, which has opi-rated 
within the United States since about the begin- 
ning of the year 1899, found expression during 
the earlier portion of the period mainly in con- 
nection with manufacturing enterprises. More 
recently, however, it has affected the railway in- 
dustry, and there have been within a few months 
several verv extensive combinations in the latter 
tieUl. Among the most notable are tiie acquisi- 
tion of control of the Baltimore & Ohio system, 
wliich. according to the latest data furnished by 
ihe statistician to the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission,* includes ;i,60S miles of owned and con- 
trolled railway, and of the Long Island, with 41 9 
miles, bv the Pennsylvania : that of the Boston 
& Albany, 394 miles, the Lake Erie & Western, 
881 miles, and the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago 
& St. Louis, 2,33r> miles, by the New York Cen- 
tral & Hudson River ; of the Filchburg, 4.').S 
miles, by the Boston & Maine ; of the Central of 
New Jersey, 703 miles, by the Philadelphia &, 
Reading ; of the Kansas City. Fort Scott iS: 
Memphis, 9<jS miles, and the Kansas City, Mem- 
phis & Birmingham, "JTT miles, by the St. Louis 
& San Francisco ; of the Mobile & Ohio, OsS 
miles, by the Southern ; of the Southern Pacific, 
7,():;4 miles, by the Union Pacific ; and the joint 
acquisition of the Chicago, Burlington & yiiiiicy. 
7.740 miles, by the Great Northern an<l the 
Northern Pacific, which was followed by the 
purchase of a large interest, if not of actual con- 
trol, in the Northern Pacific in l)ehalf of the 
Union Pacific. Tlie Pennsylvania and New York 
Central k Hudson River have also jointly ob- 
tained control of the Chesapeake Jt Ohio, 1,457 
miles, and the Norfolk & Western, I.')") I mil.-s. 
The ar)sorptions enumerated, not including the 
apparent transfer of control of the Northern Pa- 
cific, the ultimate disposition of which is still un- 
certain, aggregate "_'S,(;,"),', miles, ami include only 
the more important of those that have taken place 
within a comparatively recent period. The In 
terstate Commerce Commi.ssion stateH in its latest 

•Tin- inlli-uu'i- l\uiir<-?* lliroii«Jii.iit tliin iirllcli- ar.- fn.in lli<> 
Banu- HUllioril> . aiul li.-nr,- an- tli..Hr ..f .run.- :»•• 1««». 1 1.- <l.il.- 
bIh.wi. Ill till- laf.-Hl rt-iM.rt «> fur i.uIiIIrIuiI. TI...ii«Ii lii.r 
diitii ii.ikjlit liftv.- lK'i-i. iiriMuri-il. iImtc \n no i-«iuull) r.ll-il.l.- 
Keii<Taliii)tli<.rity.aii<l<l<rtlilH-n.H»H4-.-miMl lo N- lieat scrvwl 
by rtfi-rrliiK u, liiforniaiinii i.f nTi»Kiil/.«-<l Hi-riiniiy. 



annual re|K)rt that, '• disregarding • ■«, 

but taking account of well authen;. ..,. . ..tu- 
nients, like that asserting a control by the New 
York Central in Cleveland. Cincinnati, Cliicmgo 
& St. Louis, and of the Penn.sy' n iho 

Clu'sapeake A: <Jhio,* there were ,. .-d be- 

tween July 1, 1899, and November I, 1900, 
■J.'),;>11 miles of railway." 

The Commission's statement proltably includes 
many smaller combinations than thuM- enumer- 
ated by the present writer ; and as about half of 
the mileage represented by tli< ' -i>«- 

cilically referred to herein ha.s i»y 

those occurring after Novemlier I, 1900. it is 
.safe to say, accepting the commission's -nt 

as accurate, that since July 1, 1S99, l;.. ,• ..iix)l 
of at least* 40,000 miles of railway ha« Ijoen 
transferred to corjxjraticns owning other railway 

liM«'S. 

These facts cannot pass without occa.sioning 
some comment and inquiry. All public-spi riled 
citizens will ask what the social and economic 
consequences of this movement are likely to be ; 
thev will wish to understand \l» causes, and to 
ascertain what further movement in the same di- 
rection is reajionably to 1m' nr -'d. 

The history of railway de iit shows that 

a strong tendency toward < .ition in some 

form has always U'en a marked ciiarM< of 

that industry. None of tli- -■ ys- 

tems was constructed by a - _ or 

by ptsrsons working in a common interest or ar- 
cording to a single plan. The railways of the 
United States have mainly Ikm-u constructed a« 
short, detached lines, and these have l>een weldetl 
into systems by gratlual processes of combination 
Worked out slowly, in tl.>- f.i ' Tn^pular pn'ju- 
ilice, and over legislative . '■ ^'y |>er»M»n8 

who, though usually greatly in advance of their 
contemjM»raries in ec«»nomic have 

rarelv s«M«n how far the moveuH-i..- ii ibey 

have participated must linally lead. 

The following ststement shows, subject to lim- 
itatioim that will In« e.xi ' ' ' vrocett 

of concentrating lailwav ••ssed. 



•Tti<* ctitiirtil"!"!! !• nMcliMv 111 ••rf»»r h*«r*. Th»««ntrft|nf 
till' 
trni 
Ni«w York Oniml liriim iln> iiniriTiirnw»i- 



ir»4 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RFl^/RW OF RFJ^/FM'S. 



(iPKRATED MILKAOI 



ITEM!^ 



Over 1.000 I 800 to 1 TO 
miles. mile: 



VnmNT"f <-"rrior»tions 

'ail mile«ce. 

lt«e. 



rpontions 

•t«g» 

i'vi ve&U of total mi)e««e. 



V- 



ileag^. 



Nnmber of corporations. 
'Jigxr*g» te mi lea^ . 



Per cent, of total mileage. 



1 
1.152 
6.«t 



19 



99JJ32 
5T.86 



44 

100.406 
57.W 






14 
11.179 
11.47 



24 
18,<62 
l(t..53 



24 

is.t^ 
9.96 



4flotoaao 

miles. 



3.440 
19.9S 



30 
9.807 
10.06 



24 

12.307 

7.17 



24 

12.058 
6.36 



•W to 400 

miles. 



11 
3,1S9 
18.52 



4S 
15.730 
16.13 



4)1 

12.796 

7.46 



43 

13.206 

6.96 



rn«ler250 
nlile^. 



7.183 
41.73 



400 
34.814 
ii.4«i 



871 
29.115 
16.9S 



1.071 
36.063 
19.03 



T«it«l. 



94 
17.216 
lui.tm 



501 
97.470 
l(«i.(*i 



1,003 

171.5(13 
100.00 



1J06 

189.649 

100.00 



• Includes some mileage located in Canada bat operated by corporations whose lines are principally in the United States. 



TABLE SHOWING THE TEXDEXCT TOWARD COXCKXTRATIOS OF RAILWAV MTI^EAGE. 



The data in the foregoing statement for 1S92 
and 1S^9 are fi-om the statistics compiled for the 
Interstate Commerce Commission, and include all 
railways reporting to the commission ; those for 
1S67 and 18S2 were compiled by the present 
writer, whose facilities permitted the inclusion of 
I "lit 46.61 per cent, of the total railway mileage 
of the country for 1867, and of but 89.44 per 
cent, for 1882. It is believed that the complete 
data for those years would increase the propor- 
tions shown in the classes of smaller mileage. 
The foregoing statement, however, fails to show 
:^ • * ■ intensity of the movement toward cen- 
: railway control, particularly for recent 

years, because it does not take cognizance of 

rorate contracts which do not affect 
.... u. or of those practical consolidations 
:h are effected by purchases of the control of 
different companies by the same individual or 
e f individuals. Both of these arrange- 

11- _.; .ave become relatively more common than 
formerly, and the latter frequently takes place 
without being given formal and public, legal or 
contractual, e.xpression. Thus, the forty-four 
companies indicated in the foregoing statement 
as each having operated 1.000 miles or more of 
railway in 1899 include the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, the Pennsylvania Company, and the Pitts- 
burg, Cincinnati Chicago & St. Louis Railroad 
as separate comp^^nies, altliough, so far as the 
:- - -— r and .-' - • •_- - \'c is concerned, they 

:e ess^; - — .e concern. Their 

absolute unity of interest is shown by the fact 
that though they have separate boards of directors. 



nine of the thirteen directors of the Pennsylvania 
Company and eight of the thirteen directors of 
the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago k St. Louis 
are directors of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 
X^umerous similar corrections would be necessarv 
lo make clear the degree of concentration of rail- 
way control even up to June 30, 1S99. For ex- 
ample, the table regards as separate corporations 
the New York Central & Hudson River, the 
Michigan Central, the Lake Shore k Michigan 
Southern, and the Xew York. Chicago & St. 
Louis, which really make up a single system. If 
the attempt was to bring the list up to date. 
the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago ,t St. Louis 
would have to be added. There are also other 
corporations that were controlled in 1899 bv the 
Pennsylvania and Xew York Central companies 
which appear in other mileage groups. The fol- 
lowing table presents an attempt to indicate the 
effect of their representation and that of the 
properties subsequently acquired, none of which, 
under present conditions and methods, would 
appear, even in a subsequent report, as con- 
solidated with those companies in each class and 
upon the totals. For convenience, the Norfolk 
A: Western has been regarded as a Pennsylvania 
property, and the Chesapeake &: Ohio as belong- 
ing to the Xew York Central. 

The obvious difficulty of the foregoing will ex- 
cuse minor errors of detail, especially if, as the 
writer believes, they are all on the side of an 
understatement of the effect of th^ modifications 
proposed. To those familiar with the extent in 
which single interests now dominate properties 



THE RECFXT GREAT RAH M AY COMHISATIONS. 



HU> 



ITEMS. 



All nil 
show 1 1 

of -• •• 

I» 

111' • 
siuii. 



1,000 miles and over. 

Xunilter of corporations 

At;j:r«-»{atf iiiiU-at;<' 

I'er cent, of totjil mileuKe 

eOO to l.UUO miles. 

N'uiiiImt of (-oriHirations 

Aifgretjatt' mileat^e 

Percent, of total mileage 

V*) to filW miles. 

NunilHT of roriM)rutions 

At;>;rt^'ate inilfatrc 

I'er cfiit. of total mileage 

350 to 400 miles. 

Number of corporations 

Aggregate mileage 

Per i-eiit. of total mileage 

Under 250 miles. 

Num>)er of corporations 

Aggregate mileage 

Per cent, of total mileage 

Total.— Number of corporations 

Aggregate mileage 

Per cent, of total mileage. 



ii>rtv<Jiiii;. 




44 

l(W.4<k', 

5;.»a> 


5 


5 

73.91 


<j.9b 


3 
2.341 
U.tU 


1 
djJl 


34 

1-MkW 


1.014 
tf.tSi 


1 
.vn 

4.4« 


43 

1:1.306 

tt.9tt 


5 

l.ura 

10.91 


3 
l.OI.S 
»J0 


1.071 
36.0N2 
lU.OB 


34 
1.34A 
8.T8 


13 

RSI 
7.13 


I. J Hi 
IMtlHit 
KHMJil 


:fi) 
i:i if,' 

llll.UI 


31 
!l.tM4 
lllMli 



IK7M 



H.40 



&.&4 



as 



17.H7 



l.lw: 
IW.IHV 
l<>).(li 



A TABLE SHOWING THE RESL'LTS OK TKANSKKKHINIi VAHFOfS LINKS HEAI.I.V COXTItOI.I.KH t«V THE l>K.\.\«YLVAM A AKIt 

.NKW YOHK CEXTItAL TO THE " 1,(«W MILES AM. OVEIl" < I.Ass. 



that maintain wliolly separate oju'ratinif organiza- 
tions, and often even legally independent corporate 
existences, the fact that merely correcting the 
laljle for two systems raises the percentage of 
railway mileage in the class of corporations con- 
trolling over 1,000 miles each from 57.(i"J to 
62.64 is very significant. 

Further evi<lence of the situation so far at- 
tained as the result of the progres.s towartl rail- 
way systematization is afforded by a study of tiie 
composition of the hoards of directors of the cor- 
porations ajiiioaring in the interstate rommorre 
C'ommission's list as operating over 1,000 miles 
of line. There are forty- four of these companies, 
and. omitting the (iulf, Colorado & Santa Fe, 
the securities of which are entirely owne<l liy the 
Atchisorj, ']'o|>«'ka & Santa Fe, wliich rlcct.s its 
entire board, their boards of director have 54"» 
members. Onlv .'i70 men, however, fill these 
jx»sitions. Two hundred and eiglitysi.x of them 
serve in but one of tho forty-three boards ; 4 I 
serve in two; 17, in three; l'>, in four; '). in 
five ; .'{, in six ; I, in seven ; and 2, in eight.* 
\'ery manv of these liirectors are al.so memlN-r8 
of the boards of companies not ajiin-aring in the 



l.<M»(J mile lust. r«) take a by no moans extreme 
instance ; it appears that of the twelve memU'rs 
of the board of ilirectors of the Mi.>vs».uri racilic 
all but one are membt'i-s of the )x)ard8 of other 
contpanies, which o|M^rate at least 1,C»00 miU>8 of 
line. The companies in this class which lliev 
assist in managing, antl the mileag*- of e«ch, 
appear in the following table : 



Name of riuul. 



NUMlb«T 
of 

<llr«i'l«ir». 



«U 

MlMMiurl 
J 'urine 
lN»jirt| 



i-oninilled. 



Denver* l{lo Ornncle. . 

IlllniiinCiMitrHl 

Oregon Sliorf I.Ino 

St. l..oiiln. Irun Mouii- 

• ^ " * . r T 



tt 




1 


\.«X, 


13 




1 


4.rt4> 


I& 




I 


l.4» 


\t 


1 


• 


I.TW 


If 


1 


tt 


i.«te 


l.'i 




•# 


1 1"^ 


i:i 




I 




•1 


:•. \*> 



•Thext- data relate to.Tanuar> I, IW»I. 



■|..i 



if\iiH''%i* iMitri itfi(^ TCiiii ««.«H(»iiii* III iiT- 

ThM.igl. •■ " '• •• ' - Mv 

do not c<'i , "ly 

of the lines shown, except thoM< of the St Louis, 



irt(i 



THE AMERICAS MOSThl.Y REllEW Ol- REI^IEWS. 



r .ill A; SoutlH>rii niul of tlio Ti'xas i^ 

1 fact that lluMo is such a Jiioaiis of 

(• on iK^tvveen tlioso cori>orations can- 

not be iiuimportant. Tlio roailiT must not infer. 
)i "' it this v»M\v obvious conn«'ction is {\\o 

I' '• ill wliich one railway corporation 

controls another. Ii is not at all necessary that 
the. person selected to n'luesent one corporation 
or interest in the board of directors of a particu- 
lar railway should also be a director of the con- 
trolling line, though at times this may be very 
convenient. One or more Missouri Pacific direc- 
tors also serve in the boards of the Delaware, 
Lackawanna & Western, Chicago & Alton, Cen- 
tral of New Jersey, International & Great Xortli- 
ern. St. Louis .'Southwestern. Little Rock & Fort 
."Smith, Galveston, Houston & Henderson, Sedalia, 
Warsaw & .Southwestern, Syracuse, Binghamton 
& New York, Kansas (^ity .'Soutliern, and a large 
numljer of the smaller railway.s of tlio country. 

The result so far achieved by the process under 
di-scussion is far short of the elimination of inter- 
railway rivalries. The railways have been formed 
into great systems, but no one of them wholly 
dominates in an extensive region. Any efifort to 
group the different lines according to the inter- 
ests controlling them must be, in a measure, un- 
satisfactory ; for the great controlling interests 
frequently mingle in the same properties, while 
alliances that are effective in one section do not 
necessarily hold good in other regions. Gener- 
ally speaking, however, it is true that a large 
portion of the railway mileage of the United 
States is now effectively dominated by a few 
compact groups of financiers and railway man- 
agers. The following summary is believed to be 
as correct as the circumstances permit : 

VANDKKBII.T SVSTKM. 

Miles. 

Boston <fc Albany :S<t4 

New York Central & IlU'ison River ;j.092 

Delaware. Lackawanna & Western 920 

Lake .Shore <fe Michigan Southern 1,.594 

Michiiran Centra! 1,6.58 

New York. Chicago & St. Louis 533 

Clevelanfl. Cincinnati, ChicaRo & St. Louis 2,:a") 

Lake Erie <fe Western 881 

Chicago & Northwestern 8,048 

Total 19,4.5.5 

PEXX.SYLVANIA SV.STEM. 

Miles. 

Pennsylvania Railroatl 4.7();j 

Baltimore & Ohio 2.(i8() 

Lfjng l~land 419 

Western, New York & Pennsylvania 043 

Pennsylvania Company I.:3(j8 

Pittsburg. Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis \.m^ 

Baltimore <fe Ohio Southwestern s^-z-i 

Cleveland. Akron & Columbus 205 

Grand Rapids & Indiana 584 

Terre Haute & Indianapolis ( Vandalia) 613 

Total 13 773 



M(ll((iAN' SVSTKM. 

Miles. 

( rnllMl (if New .Icrsey 7()3 

IMiiladelphiu A: Reading 1,431 

Lehigh Valley l.IWKJ 

Soutlurn Railway (>,471> 

( 'incinniit i. New Orleans & Texas Pacific 3;W 

M«.l)ile A- ( )hi(> 688 

Cenlr.il ol Ueorgia 70({ 

Total 11,7:1.5 

.MOIMiAN III 1,1, SYSTEM. 

Miles. 

Erie 2,410 

Great Northern 5,258 

Northern Pacific 5,050 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 7,740 

Total 20,4.58 

HAIUil.MAN SVSTE.M. 

Miles. 

Illinois Central 4,648 

Chicago & Alton 844 

Union Pacific 3,177 

.Southern Pacific 7,634 

Oregon Railway & Navigation Co 1,059 

Oregon Short Line 1,438 

Total 18,800 

GOULD SYSTE.M. 

Miles. 

Wabash 2,321 

Wheeling & Lake Erie 247 

Missouri Pacific 3,594 

St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern 1,799 

.St. Louis Southwestern 1,280 

Texas & Pacific 1,492 

International & Great Northern 825 

Denver & Rio Grande 1,65.5 

Rio Grande Western 582 

Total 13,795 

CONTROLLED .JOI.NTLV »V PE.NNSYLVANIA AND NEW YOUK 

CENTRAL. 

Miles. 

Norfolk & Western 1,.551 

Chesapeake & Ohio 1,457 

Total 3,008 

BELMONT SYSTEM. 

Miles. 

Louisville & Nashville 3,158 

Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis 1,189 

Total 4,347 

SEPAR.4TE LINES (THE MORE IMPORTANT). 

Miles. 

Boston & Maine 3,3.38 

New York, New Haven & Hartford 2,0'.; 

Seaboard Air Line 2,379 

Atlantic Coast Line 2,099 

Plant system 3,207 

Pfere Marquette 1,802 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. F-aul 6,340 

Chicago, Rock Islaid & Pacific 3,739 

Atcbison, Topeka & Santa Fe 7,481 

.St. Louis & .San Francisco 2,887 

Colorado & Southern 1,142 

Total 35,461 

Any one at all familiar with railway finance 
will observe at once that absolute ownership is 
not the basis of the foregoing classification. 



THE RECEMT GREAT RAIIM AY COMB/\AIIO\S. 



ler 




THE LINES OF THE VASDEKBII.T SYSTEM. 



Thus, the Delaware, Lackawanna & "Western is 
put down as a A'anderbilt property, as it appar- 
ently is for operating purposes, altliough it is 
well known that a majority of stock is not hoKl 
by the Vanderbilt family or those who usually 
act witlj it. Similarly. Northern Pacific and 
Burlinfrton are put in the Morgan-IIill svstem, 
althougli it is doubtful where the actual voting 
control of the former now lies, and its possession 
might, under conceivable conditions, largely in- 
fluence the disposition of the Burlington. Yet, 
circumstances indicate that although the securi- 
ties of the Northern Pacific, recently purchased, 
may be retained by the I'liion Pacific interests, 
the operating control of that property will remain 
in the han<is of those who have recently exer- 
cised it. It is most significant, however, that a 
rea.sonably satisfactory classification, according 
to the interests in control, shows that l(».'),:no 
miles of railway are distributed in eight groups, 
while the addition of eleven 
separate lines raises the to- 
tal to 14(i.h;!1 miles. Thus. 
74.40 percent, of the rail- 
way mileage of the United 
States is controlled Ijy nine- 
teen groups of investors, 
wliile between individual 
members of the.s;e groups, 
and .sometimes even between 
entire groups, there are nu- 
meroiis minor allianees and 
well-recognized un<lerHtand- 
ings. 

'J'hus far has the process 
of centralizing railway con- 
trol progressed in the I'niteil 
States up to the present 
time. What is the nature 



of the forces which have pro«luce<l this result ; 
how far is the process likely to go ; and what 
have been, and are hereafter likely to be, the 
social and economic consequences of such con- 
centration ? 

The early railways constructed in the United 
States were sliort lines, much like the interurban 
trolley lines that are now becoming familiar to 
nearly every one who resides east of the Mis- 
souri River, though the former were not nearly 
as well constructed as the latter, nor was their 
equipment as costly or comfortalde. The con- 
solitlation of such of these short lines as could be 
formed into through route.s early l)ecame an 
economic necessity. Thus the main line of the 
New York Central, from Albany to HufTalo, is 
composed of ten lines which were uuite<l in I.s.*)3, 
while the line «lown the lluil.son, fn>m Troy to 
New York, was added in 18«;".», after it had b«H?n 
independently operated for eighteen years. The 




THE PltXM^ri.VAfHA uTrmi. 



lt)S 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY KE^im' Oh REI/IEIVS. 




Photo by Dai'is& Sanfurd. 

MK. WILLIAM K. VANDEHBILT. 

services demanded by the public could not have 
been satisfactorily performed, or at a reasonable 
cost, had these lines remained separate. Later 
the Vanderbilt family, which has remained in 
control of the Xew York Central for three genera- 
tions, acquired the control of the Lake Shore & 
Michigan Southern, and it has been operated in 
harmony with the Now York Central, making a 
through line to Chicago, for many years, although 
formal control has only recently passed to the 
New York Central corporation. The public ap- 
pears to have learned that its interests are served 
by these consolidations of connecting lines, and, 
believing that they promote the efficiency of the 
facilities concerned, accords them its general ap- 
proval. The only serious opposition comes from 
railway men themselves, those who serve one line 
being always unwilling to permit a rival to ab- 
sorVj a line which connects with both at a com- 
mon terminus. 

The public attitude toward consolidation 
among lines whicli connect the same regions, 
or which connect different supplying regioi:s 
with a common market, is quite different. 
Here the public is swayed by the strong preju- 
dice in favor of anything to which the term 
"competition" can be applied, and it thinks it 
sees in the existence of rival lines a guarantee 
against excessive charges, the efficiency of which, 



in the ]>ublic view, is not diminished by the facts, 
now well eslahlished, that the e.\i,stenc<> of such 
lines often indicates a wasteful ami uimecessary 
penuiinent investment of cai)ital. wiiile llii'ir 
miiintenance of an active rivalry for traffic en- 
tails wasteful melhoils of operation, laig(> (;x- 
penditures for purposes not connected with ef- 
liciency of service, and discrimination against 
intermediate points, if not against manv classes 
of patrons. Yet in the face of popular prejudice, 
and overcoming many legislative obstacles, the 
work of combining so-called "competing" lines 
has proceeded without substantial interruption. 
The addition of the New York t^ Plarlem Kail- 
road to the New York Central in 1873 was an 
example of this kind, as was the later acquisition 
in the same interest of the Michigan Central ; 
Canada Southern; New Yoi-k. Cliicago, & St. 
Louis ; West Shore ; Rome. Watertown & Og- 
densburg ; and Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & 
St. Louis. The purpose of this form of combina- 
tion is to promote the efficiency of the railway 
facilities by securing harmonious operative and 
administrative metliods, to deviate the otherwise 
unnecessary expenditures entailed by competi- 
tion, and to pi'otect local trade and tx'affic from 
unjust discrimination in favor of points served by 
two or more railways. This process of combina- 
tion was proceeding naturally, and with neither 
undue speed nor undesirable sluggishness, when, 




A. J. CASSATT. 

(President of the Pennsylvania Railroad.) 



THF RECENT GREAT R A I! WAY .'JMR/\'AT/0\S. 



Hit) 



" ° S^W 1 S C > S ' C Jyy*, ( 

\ M-'i '^1 t 










( 

M 


VY \ mCH.'X-'^ A 


♦ 






"k •uTTu^Ky \,^ I " r^^^- k/\ ^ ' 




1 ^ ',j(,. tL»,Ci/ r"\s<Ljf» '^ •'">•"*"" 





TEKKITUKY OF THE MOKUAN BYBTEU. 



the r 



of traflic for which thunt 

— — . ill 
■ iiHiiro nf r«'«M"»n- 

, . . of 

unjust d i 8 c r i III i n a t i o n 8 

list tht ■ " ;i<I 

;...».ie UIIIK . . — ' of 

tho worst waste's of com- 
jM'titive railway o|HTation. 

TIm- lav ■ •^'- '■ •' - 

pniotu' 

its fifth or '-anti-poolinff " 

si'ction, ami by thus f 

till' rt'ail(i|>tioii of w.i 

ami oilu'rwisc uiulesirHblo 
methods gave a ^strong 
stimulus to tin* ' ■ 'a 1 
tcmlonoy towaril na- 

tion. Vet the latter could 
not be efTected at once ; 
tluMe were ^leat legal diflR- 
cultios in many oasi-s. tinan- 
c-ial obstacles in others, and 
the prejudices of many 
pruiiiiiK'Ht railway men to 
l»e overcome as well. The 
clearest -headt'd railway men 
set to work to th'vise m<>an8 



in 1S87, the provisions of the interstate com- for still obviating tho dangers to the public and to 

merce law were first put into operation. railway investors arising out of the fifth section of 

From 1870 to the end of 1886, the railways of the new law, and conceived the plan of forming 




TKicuiTonr or the Moiu»Af»-im.i. •TmtM. 



170 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REyiEU' OF REVIEWS. 



g.. wliioh rnilway ofTicoi-s could 

III, .>rtntii)H i'C)inlitioiis, rocoiiriK> 

diviMijiMil views ami conHii-ting intorosts, and fi)i- 
ji, hotlulos of rates. In this tli»>v 

ns<.>''. ..'■ . A| ,. .-s appi'oval of the liitt-rstato 
( oininprco Coinniission as at fii-st organized, and 
havo prol)ably at all times had the commendation 
of the most judicious and intelligent members of 
that IkhIv. Proceedings biouglit under the anti- 
trust law of 1S90 against one of these associations 
on the ground that the agreements efTected under 
its jurisdiction were " in restraint of trade'' were 
decided favorably to the carriers in all of the 
lower federal courts, but on a final appeal to the 
United States Sui)reme Court a decision was 
given by a bare majority which took the surpris- 
ing ground that the railways had no more riglit 
to agree to maintain reasonnhlc rates than to agree 
to observe an nn reasonable schedule. This deci- 
sion Ijeing reaffirmed in the Joint Traffic Associ- 
ation case, the railways were left with no means of 
protecting either themselves or their patrons, and 
a period of unprecedented and widespread rate 
demoralization at once ensued.. The Interstate 
Commerce Commission acknowledged itself pow- 
erless to control the situation, railway managers 
found themselves plunged in an abyss of mutual 
distrust, and in the face of traffic which overtaxed 
the facilities available for its carriage the closing 
months of 18HS were characterized by the wild- 
est rate-cutting, the most exasperating discrimi- 
nations against intermediate points and the 
smaller sliippers, the most general violation of 
positive statutory regulations, and the most ex- 
traordinarily disorderly and revolting condition 
of railway affairs known to the present genera- 
tion of railway managers. At first this situation 
was accompanied by a feeling of hopelessness 
that was apparently shared by those in charge of 
railway properties and. by the national and State 
officers who had been charged with llic duty of 
exercising supervisory functions in connection 
with the railway industry. That any remedy 
which did not involve legislative action could 
be devised was. at the outset, generally regarded 
as impo.ssible, and yet it was certain that imme- 
diate or even early legislation could not be se- 
cured. < )ut of this condition of necessity it was 
almost inevitable that something in the nature of 
a remedy should be evolved, unless American 
ingenuity had been wholly exhausted. 

Among the first indications of a hopeful na- 
ture was a letter from Hon. John K. Cowen, 
then, and until within recent weeks, tlie presi- 
dent of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, a man 
whose resourceful intellect had already devised 
the plans which were then producing tlie finan- 
cial and physical rehabilitation of that great 




MR. J. PIERPONT MORGAN. 



pi'operty. This letter, addressed to the 
man of the Interstate Commerce Comm 
pledged the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 



chair- 

ission, 
to the 




MR. JAMES J. HILL. 



THE RECENT GREAT RAIIMAY COMBINATIONS. 



171 



obs«'rvance of the statuiory riH|uirerin'nts con- 
cerning tlie pronml^iatiun of cliaiim's in rail- 
way cliarges. ami proniiseil the assistance of the 
officers of tliat company to the conunission in de- 
tecting and punishing violations of the law l>y 
other lines. This was justly regarded as of great 
moment, because one of the great difficulties 
wliich had attended the efforts of the commission 
to insure the observance of publislietl schedules 
of rates had been the difficulty of establishing, 
by legal evidence, facts known to all, — a diffi- 
culty that was believed to have grown out of tiie 
reluctance of officers of one line to testify con- 
cerning violations of law on the part of the offi- 
cers of rival companies. That such a letter 
should have been written by a prominent railway 
officer to the chairman of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission was evidence, to those best 
informed, of a significant cliaugc in the relations 
l)etween that body and the railway corporations. 
The policy of the commission for several years 
prior to the accession of Hon. Martin .\. Knapp 
to its chairmanship had not l)een one which had 
encouraged railway officers to rely ujjon its im- 
partiality as an arbitrator between those corpora- 
tions and the traveling and shi|.ping public. Ail- 
vances from railway men, intended to establish a 
system of co«jperation for the enforcement of the 
law, had Ijeen repelled, and they had come to feel 
that the commission had chosen the position of 





RON. JOHN K. COWBIT. 

attorneyship for railway patrons instead of that of 
a judicial board, fairly weighing and impartially 
deciding the controversies c«>ming before it. 
Prior tt) the date of Mr. Cowen's leti«»r. the atti- 
tude of the commi.ssion un- 
der the forceful leadership 
of Mr. Kiutp)) had done 
mucii to dis|>el this idea, 
but the letter itself was the 
first public expression of the 

nn>redesirabli * •• It 

iniiicat«'d tin- - of 

the more a«lvanciHl leatiers 
of the railway world, typi- 
fied by Mr. Cowen. to ac- 
cept the principle of public 
railway regulation ; to man- 
age tln'ir ' 

cordance nn - _ i 

to avail themselves, for the 
jirott'ction of t1 • 
ijolder- ■■' ''■• • 
lalive 
creation. 

Having a- ' " 

this wifMT !• 

confidence of the carriem, 
ih- u was ii-i-lf in 



MAP or TMK IIAHItlMAW (•VMTMI. 



a p..'n,.., •- ■ 

eviilenl. I 1 

the ni»iomii<»n of ronwrva- 
tivo methods. It was able, 



17 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY KEl^/EW OF REt^JEIVS. 



in the intorest of tliose who sulTiMvd froin violation 
of*' ■ ' ' • _r lM)tli shipprrsaml carriiM-s, to 

ill - ' o in such a way as to luMicfit 

both. This was accomplished by means of a series 
of -'nccs l>etwfcn the ci>mmission and the 

pi I ;s and principal traffic oflicers of the leud- 

iug railways. These conferences were called by 




MU. E. H. nAKlSIMAN. 




the chairman of the commission, and had for their 
object, not the maintenance of any particular 
schedule of rates, but the observance of whatever 
rates should be promulgated in legally issued 
schedules. 

As the result of the better feeling on the part 
of railway officers, their determination to restore 



Photo by Pacli. 



MB. GEORGE J. GOULD. 




TEKRITORY OF TFIE GOULD SYSTEM. 



something like order in railway rates, and the aid 
thus accorded by the commission, the situation 
during the early pai't of 1899 was quite satisfac- 
tory, and the chaotic conditions of 1898 seemed 

to have disappeared. Never- 
theless, it was felt that the 
situation depended upon the 
continuance of the fortunate 
traffic conditions of 1899 and 
the maintenance of mutual 
confidence and unusual self- 
control on the part of railway 
managers. It was evident, 
indeed, that the Interstate 
Commerce Commission itself 
did not believe that the con- 
tinuous and general enforce- 
ment of the law could be in- 
sui-ed by the methods then 
available. The happy result 
of the plans adopted was re- 
garded as in a large degree 
fortuitous rather than attrib- 
utable to their inherent 
strength. 

The competition of the 
Eastern carriers of bitu- 



THE RECENT GREAT RAIl.HAY COMH/SAT/ONS, 



173 



rainous coal liail Iuhmi fur years one of the 
weakest jK_>ints in tlie railway situation. The 
jtririfipal bituminous-carrying; roads had seen 
tlieir rstes decline with continuous rapiility until 
they were the lowi-st in the world, and liad 
found it almost impossible to secure the main- 
teiiance even of the very low rates officially pro- 
mulgated. In order to carry at the lowest rates, 
thev liad introduced tlie most economical o|)er- 
atiny methods whicli their officers ct)uld devi.se ; 
they had improved their roail-beds V)y laying 
heavier rails, increasing the radii of curves, and 
reducing grades; and had introduced most power- 
ful locomotives and steel cars of light weight and 
great capacity, which permitted the highest f»os- 
sible ratio of paying to dead weight in tlieir 
trains. Yet it was seen that the decline in rates 
could not be limited by the economies which 
could he introduced, and that something must Ikj 
devised to prevent the permanent impairment of 
the capital invested. 

At just about the time that tliis unhopeful 
condition was fully realized, two men, who 
had previously been preparing for the responsi- 
bilities alten«ling the leadership of great indus- 
tries in less prominent capacities, were advanced 
to positions of the highest importance in the rail- 
way world. Mr. William K. N'anderliilt Ijecame 
tlie fit facto head of the great Vanderbilt system, 
and Mr. A.J. Cassatt the president of tiie Penn- 
sylvania Railroad. The latter promptly and pul>- 
licly broke the traditional reserve of the renn- 
sylvania presidency by calling in person on the 
former, and thus establishing relations which per- 
mitted intercorporate negotiations of an important 
character. Together these gentlemen devised the 
expedient of securing for the properties in their 
charge shares in the proprietorship of their com- 
petitors. In pursuance of this plan, the New 
York Central ami the Pennsylvania both l>ecanie 
purclia-sers of considerable 1 docks of the shares 
of the Chesapeake ^: Ohio ami the Norfolk & 
Western railways. In this way they came 
jointly to possess a dominating inlluence in those 
corporations. There w;is thus a "community of 
interest" in tiie bituminous coal traffic, which 
protected the intereste«l carriers from rate de- 
moralization, and their patrons from the uncer- 
tainties and discriminati<»ns which it involves. 
Lali-r, the Penn.sylvaiiia iiecaim- a purchaser of 
Baltimore & Ohio securities, and thus a "coni- 
muni'v of interest" iH'tween those comj)anies 
wa.s established. The term which wa.s thus in- 
troduced into railway i)arlauce was projH'rly ap- 
plieil to tliese operations of which it was fairly 
de8<-riptive. ]>ut it has subsejjuently Ix'en npplu-d 
to every form of anangeinent liy whi«-li one rail 
way Itecomes inti-rested in another, whether the 



'in- 



interest is large or anmll, an«l lo tli60e in wi 

th. • 

ow 

it has lost all definiteness. 

It !■ 

usual ;.., > . ... i...... ,,.. i.. 

trol would not have lx*en pi., 
conditions prevailed in other industrial fields. 
Railway . ' • 
requiretl i - 

in such an unusual degree. The almost niMrvcd. 
ous prosjM'rity of American imlustry fu 
the re(piisite conditions. The |Hmple .-i i..- 
Uniteil Slates came into the control of a va.-il 
and wholly unprecedente<l fund of capital, and 
they naturally sought for means for its 
iiH'iit. It therefore became unusuallv «... 
dispose of new securities, and thus railway cor- 
porations were enabled to secure, much iiii»re 
readily than at any previous time, the fni; ' ' - 
purchasing the securities of their coini- 
Such an operation as the purchase of sultstantially 
the entire capital stix-k of the Rurlington, by the 
issue of the joint 4-i)er-cent. boinis of the 
Great Northern and the Northern Pacific rail- 
ways, at the ratio of $LM)0 in bonds for #100 in 
sto<'k. could only have l»een effected when the 
pul)lic was exceedingly strong ami conlident, not 
to say enthusiastic, in a financial sense 

Nor is it certain that the curn-nt movement 
has not, in some instances, ailvanced further than 
the jjivsent economic situation justifies, that the 
method of effecting some of the recent combina- 
tions has not Ix'en extravagant, nor that - ' 
the ojM'iations have not Iteeii inspinnl l>y i: 
to secure purely sjx'culative profits. The oppor- 
tunity to do .so has be«'n great, and as n 

industrial movements attach to tliem> j 

sitic operations, it is quite proltable that tiie 
ultimate analysis will show that some railway 
properties have Ix'en combined b 
issues of securities which have large 
the ownership of those who eflecte«l the combina- 
tions. Such combinations will eventually U* n'or- 
ganized under lowercapit«lization,or may even fall 
lo pieces of their own weight ; but their fall may Ije 
productive of wide industrial disaster, and the in- 
iipiitv of their conception may W \'\»\'' ' ' ' • 
upon the innocent. The spread of ^ 

judgment among invo8t«>r8 is. however, the sole 
security against such jmra-Mitic o|«TatH)n)». and 

society cannot afTonl to restrain a natu"^' ' 

iM-nelicial movement, even if It could ^• 
successfully against so strong an econ«unic tond* 
eiicv. in order to proioit iiwlf agaiiiMi '' 
ce».Hes «»f some of the ownen* of cnpilnl a; 
mis«oniliict of a few unprincipIiNl 8|MMMilatora. 

This sketch of ih« hislorv of the rwenl moTd* 



171 



THE .'iStl'.RICAN MONTHLY RF.yiEW Oh REklElVS. 



mcnl indicates that it is llie ivsult. primarily, of 
the inluMfHt wastrftilnoss of coinpotitivo niilway 
»iv- • •" •••:ition. that it rtM'oivo«l an cxtraoriiiiiai y 
ill ;uin the aiiti-jiooliiijj clause of the iuter- 

slAto commerce law ami from the SuprtMiio Court's 
in' • M of the anti trust law, while it has 

Ik . ; and accelerat»'«i l>y remarkable linan- 

cial comlitions that have grown out of unprece- 
dented national prosperity. As the primary ob- 
ject of the concentration of railway control is to 
prevent tlie wastes of competition, and as these 
wastes are obviously uneconomic, it is certain that 
it must be really helpful, unless the savings ef- 
fected are distributed with serious inequality. 
Do they accrue to the purchaseis of railway 
transportation in the form of reduced charges or 
superior service, or to the owners of railway 
property ? The experience of decades has shown 
that the former is the case. Railway oflRcers have 
no power to fix rates above the points at which 
they produce a fair return upon invested capital. 
The fierce competition of producers seeking to 
place their wares in the highest markets will 
always keep i-ailway rates at the lowest figures 
consistent with the maintenance of railway facili- 
ties, and this competition is neithei" more nor 
less intense on account of the existence or non- 
existence of parallel lines. Therefore, savings in 
railway operation effected by improved methods 
are eventually diverted to the pockets of railway 
pati'ons. and this must be the case with savings due 
to the elimination of the wastes of competition. 

It is important that it should be undei'Stood 
that the concentration of railway control does 
not mean the concentration of railway owaier- 
ship. The device of the business corporation 
was adopted as an expedient to permit the in- 
auguration of industrial enterprises requiring 
great capital by the combination of small indi- 
vitiual capitals. Every develc^ment of the cor- 
poration as an industrial institution assists in 
bringing together greater aggregates of capital, 
with larger numbers of individual contributors. 
With small local railway lines, each operated by 
distinct corporations, there can be no wide mar- 
ket for securities, and only those cognizant of 
particular local conditions will be safe in in\-t;st- 
ing. In addition, the risks of each corpora- 
tion are concentrated, and the possibilities of 
large proportionate losses much greater than 
when the enterprises are conducted on a larger 
scale. Competition is, of course, more acute 
and costly. Great lailway enterprises mean 
ready markets for securities, distributed risks, 
and competition largely controlled. Translated, 



this is security of investment, and security of in- 
vestment must nK'aii sooner or later ililTii^ioii of 
owut'rsliip. This will be pai'tictilaily i.ue as 
public i)rejudices are dispelled ami ilir dangers 
of legislative injustice become less tliieatening. 
The existence of such securities as a means of 
investment for small capital will be greatly 
beneficial, and will \m\ an effective instrument in 
promoting the etiuilabh! disti-ibution of wealth. 

How far is the concentration of the control of 
American railways to go ? If the question does 
not contain any limit of time, it may Ite answered 
that the economic advantages of absolute unifica- 
tion of the control are so great that it maybe ex- 
pected that the movement will not cease until 
unification has been completely accomplished. 
Such unification is, however, vei'V far in the 
future. At present, what is clearly indicated is 
the ultimate gi'ouping of the lines which serve 
certain regions. Not many decades can proba- 
bly elapse })efore the lines south of the Potomac 
and Oliio I'ivers and east of the Mississipjii, with 
the possible exception of those inaiidy engaged 
in caiTying grain from the northwestern States 
to the Gulf of Mexico, are combined. Later a 
combination of the East and West lines, from the 
Atlantic to the grain-producing regions and 
north of the Potomac and Ohio rivers, may be ex- 
pected. Another probable line of concentration 
will affect the lines connecting the Mississippi 
River with the Pacific coast, and this may at 
first take the form of two separate systems, one 
north and the other south of the Missouri- Iowa 
State line. The most spectacular of all proposi- 
tions, and that most frequently announced in the 
daily press, is the least likely. There will be no 
line under one management from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific coast. Such a combination would in- 
troduce tlie very competition i\\t< it is the pur- 
pose of the leaders of tlie railway world to pre- 
vent. Railway coi-porations and banking syndi- 
cates may seek extra-territorial influence, or may 
feel the necessity of gaining strategic footholds ; 
but there will be no combinations of railways 
situated, respectively, east and west of the line 
formed by the Mississippi River from its mouth 
to St. Louis, and running from that point Lo 
Chicago, until the teiTitorial combinations sug- 
gested have been effected. Even these may be 
long deferred by the difficulty of adjusting con- 
flicting interests and the fact tliat the conditions, 
which at the present time are so extremely 
favorable to railway combinations, are not. in the 
nature of things, likely long to continue or soon 
to recur. 



JOHN FISKE. 



BY JOHN GRAHAM BROOKS. 



AT tlie thousandth anniver 
sary in honor of Kinj,^ 
Alfred's death, in Wincliester. 
Kiitrland, John Fiske had been 
cliosen to deliver the oration. 
'I'he charm of his lectures upon 
American history, first at Uni- 
versity College, London, and 
later at the Koyal Institution, 
is still remembered there. But 
a few days before he was to 
sail, he fell a victim to tlie in- 
tense heat, and died suddenly at 
the Hawthorne inn, at Glouces- 
ter, on the morning of July 4. 
Horn a Hartford, ('oiiii., in 
1842, Mr. Fiske lived most of 
his early youth at Middletown. 
He entered the sophomore class 
at Harvard in IStJO. graduating 
in 1863. He passed to the law 
school, and was admitted to the 
Suffolk bar in 1SG4. He seems 
never to have been seriously 
tempted to practis«^ the legal prt) 
fession. From 1 SOO to 1X71. he 
was university lecturer on phi- 
lo.sophy at Harvard; in 1870, in 
structor in history. From 1 87"-' 
to 1879, he was assistant libra 
rian. I remember t(j have h(;ard, 
in the library, some one ask 
Kzra Abbot how Mr. Fiske 
could do so much writing on 
all sorts of subjects and still do duty as li- 
lirarian. " 1 don't know," was the reply. 
" He is away a good deal, but most of »is 
who are li<'re continually do less work than lie 
does incidentally." Hut a few weeks sinr- 1 
heard from one of his earlier friends .some ac- 
count of Mr. Fiske's university <lays. " I see 
him now, tall, thin, pah", quite lilling one's ideal 
of the traditional 8tu<hmt. Some of us had al- 
ready h«>ard of his prodigies of acquisition while 
still a child. At eight and nine he had tzvu- 
nine delight in Shak.-speare, Poim;. iind Milton. 
Before he was thirteen his knowledge of Virgil. 
Tacitus. Horarf, au'l Salliist was such that he 
could rejM-at pages of tlicm with rare accuracy 




. THE I.ATE JOHN nSKB. 

and appreciation. .Ml our doubt* altout thii 
precocity vanishe*! as we came to know hini well." 
OiH' who turns to his works and reads •' ■ '--ny 
upon "Mr. Hin'kh'S Fallncirs " can ; ue 

measure of his inl«'llectiial maturity. Thjs waa 
writti'u in his secouil yt-ar at ■ " His iin- 

agination wa.<» at once caught, a- . id me. bv 

."^iM'ucer and I>arwin. "and the sublime story of 
the universe which tliey unfoldivl to nie. "' 

Tile current «Titici«»m of .Mr. Fi<»ke timi ..■• 
laeknl original |Ntwer. that lii> wan primarily an 
assimihitor and e.xjHwitor, is in llie main prob- 
ably true, but l»oth I)nrwin ami ~" ■ hav«« 
left it up<»n n«cord that he waM nn .tor «»f 
the verv highest onler. Both give him cordial 



17« 



THE AMI-.RICAN MONTHLY RliyiEli' OF REyiEU'S. 



civ.iii for soinothinjr nioiv tlian tliis. It is «'.\- 
n •• • ''iity voars sinoo lu> inaili' his original 
, .ti,,'n i",. tlie evolution tlioorv of the caiisfs 

of proionp'*! infiincy in man and all that this 
nuMUit f' ■ 'v ami for soi-ial devolopnuMit. 

It jj; ,. ,1 if any .svuvfj*/ ever had the p;ift 

of jHTfecl hu-idity that he did not suflter for it. 
In the aristoera'oy of scieni-o, the exercise of 
this pift, as Huxley and 'J'yndall exi-reised it, 
never goes un whipped. That one should inter- 
pret the mysteries to the multit.uie clearly and 
jH^rsnasivelv is a sin that goes unpardoned. 1 
have heard a learned but obscure specialist in a 
great university say with much heat that Tyndall 
was the rankest mountebank — that no man of 
real learning would stoop to make things clear to 




.MK. FISKE AT THE AGE OF EIGHT. 

the many. In a little group of historians, T 
have heard more acrid censure still against Mr. 
Fiske •■because he wrote so that every block- 
head could understand him." The dangei's of 
popularizing are doubtless very grave, but, given 
a range of scholarship so vast and painstaking 
as that of Mr. Fiske, is it less a danger to un- 
derestimate its worth and serviceableness ? If 
the discovery of a fact be sacred, to make the 
many see it and appreciate it is not profane. 

Thirty years ago. the ignorance of and preju- 
dice against evolution were dense and universal. 
Among all the forces that overcame this igno- 
rance and pi'ejudice. what was so effective in its 
influence as the skill of this expositor ? He was 
among the first to understand the bearing of the 
new thought upon the whole of life. He was 
almost without a peer in restating the great 



]>roblenis with clear and peneti-ating power. 
Neither is it to b(> gainsaid that his intci'pretation 
of evolution, as the years passed, took on an 
ever higher ami more spiritual ii()t(\ His learn- 
ing was not more astonishing than were his sym- 
pathy and imagination. These qualities have 
rightly endeared him to one of the most splendid 
audiences that any American man of letters has 
yet won. 

I asked a distinguislKHl Virginian at Richmond 
if he had read Mr. Fisk(;'s new volumes on his 
State and neighborliood. He replied: "Yes, 
and no Northerner ever brought such insight to 
his task as Mr. Fiske. He has told our story as 
if he were one of us, loving the old State as we 
love it, but understanding more about it than 
any of us." 

In a good deal of journeying, during the last 
ten years, among the cities and towns of the 
middle West, I found no man among Cambridge 
scholars about whom so many thoughtful people 
— lawyers, clergymen, doctors, merchants, teach- 
ers — were eager to learn as about John Fiske. 
If one was curious about the things of philos- 
ophy, the interest centered upon the author of 
"The Cosmic Philosophy;" if upon politics, 
it was the author of ' ' American Political Ideas ; " 
if upon religion, " The Idea of God " and " The 
Destiny of Man." 

It is with a little surprise that one hears a 
clergyman say : "If there is any good in a 
preacher's vocation, I give John Fiske the credit 
lor keeping me at my task. Those little books 
came into my life when everything seemed slip- 
ping away. They saved my faith in spiritual 
realities." I once heard an English clergyman 
and author of repute give practically the same 
testimony. 

If this quality is recognized as a living part 
of his whole literary achievement, of his entire 
interpretation of history and life problems, it 
may perhaps point to the highest and most dis- 
tinctive service which this scholar has rendered. 
He is not merely hopeful about some other life, — 
he is hopeful about this one. For the essential 
processes of life and society, he has no de- 
spairing word in any line that he ever wrote. 
Every historic page, from 1885 to his latest 
volume, is as full of good cheer as the specula- 
tions which saved this clergyman's faith. 

It has often been said that the kind of training 
which our higher institutions of learning give 
dangerously overstimulates the critical faculties. 
As a consequence, the very men who should be 
at the front to inspire positive and constructive 
political action are for the most part coldly and 
cynically aloof. They are quick and ingenious 
as fault-finders, even converting these sorry gifts 



JOHN F/SKE. 






into proofs of superiority. If any literary influ- 
ence has a bit of healing for these " 

to no records can we turn more hoj 

to this historian. In long railway journeys, two 
years ago, I read consecutively eight of his his- 
torical V>ooks. 1 should guess that their rank 




HR. FISKE AT TWENTY-UN K. 

was below that of Parkman, Henry Adams, or 
Rhodes. But one merit seems to me very pre- 
cious. It is that of making the reader feel that, 
in a political society like ours, all honest and in- 
telligent effort toward reform is tcorth while. He 
does this, not by ntoralizing about it, but through 
his treatment of the dominating characters in 
our history. The central thought of society as a 
growth has become so structurally a part of 
the author's mind and metliod that the relations 
l>etwe«'n effort ami result come into very vivid 
evidence. It is doubtless the prevailing cheer- 
fulness of Mr. Fiske's t<'m{wrament that l.-ads 
liim as by instinct to see these results at tlu-ir 
»>est. A powerful writer like Professor Pearson 
would, from contrary temperament, add chill 
and gloom to tin* entire picture.* 

It was hapi)y for Mr. Fi^ke, as it is happy for 
the great multitude of his readers, that the uni- 
verse honestlv apjx'ared to him soun<l and g«.«"l. 
If was, upon'tho whoh'. a worhl '■■■•• '" ^vln.-h 
u<> iionest intfnti<»n nee<l have t ' fear 

of jK-rmanent ill-treatment. This laiih ha.l a 

Tvn in the well-known book. " Snllonal U(v .n.l fl.ur. 
acter." 



certain hardiness and gayety alx>ut it tluU 

-in for 

■.. If 

i fail- 



't to t..' 
r than 



I 



Mr. 



there wa^s in this a na-a.sure of i. 

ing that one prefers to its far coimnonvr 

site. It is a 

struggle at its 

have heard one learned in history so 

upon Sam Adams that t^ 

upon the mind was that •<< >^.i- <. ; 

and a worse demagogue than Bi-n . 

Fiske knew these failings, bat in his larger and 

immeiisural'ly truer \k-v ' did not 

blot out iSam Adams. " . ve t-vt-ry 

fault, we see the sturdy tribune playing a part 
with such uns«'l(ish skill as to be an influence of 
first im|)ortunce in tlios«> fateful d;;- Tlie 
author dot's n<tt simply s1h>w us the 1. <n 

as an isolated epoch ; it is a leaf from a far 
ampler historv, — the sl<»ry of the 

in its struggle to l>e fn-e. The Kn^ 

yan, in his recent account of the same events 
makes us dislike the redcoats far more than Mr. 
Fiske makes us dislike them. He st-es the 
struggle of life an<l events unfohl from such an 
elevation ; he groups the events in a perspective 
so deep that our little at: 'd. 

We cannot even hate ....- . Js 

The bloody part they play can also be accounte«l 
for without vindictiveness if seen 16 be a part of 
the vast current of race ev ' ' '^rl 

which the author uniformly to 

the readers imagination is the relation U'tween 
cliaracter and scK-ial ai '»n. It is all an 

exposition of history and .i ...... u effort so cln*er- 

ful in its serenity that the reader d«»e8 not e9ca|>e 
its infection. As the book is ch>se«l we think 
iH'tter of our fellows, more pro " ■ ' ist. 
mon* bravely of the future. a 

largi' and generous reading of the story of evo- 
lution, a sustain»«vl and < of 
its meaning, and then 
the details of character .. 

pass before us, never lose their dignity as i»ans of 
something greater l! 

friends, other gifts I ... ' . . 

membrance ; alH)ve all. a never-failing p'niality 
and heartiness of jhtsousI good -will. One of 

the ni ''"ly known of the " ■ '' ""' 

has jii. 1 . ' Mie : "I never K 
able man. He would greet y«Mir little ihouirlit in 
such a spirit as really to convince you o( iu im- 
jKjiianee, " 

I ..II. e t<K»k a writer jn»t enmintf into winie 

prominence, to Mr. I 

man nv 

the e 



among pi 



in 



ortler to show that 



178 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REi^IEU OF REVIEWS. 



far too great and oxclusive einphasis had been 
placed ujxm the mere conipetilive sfruirKl*' for 
existetiee. He liojH-d to justilv the iiifereiiee that 
a selective advantajje in favor ol association (as 
ajrainst coiniH>lition) could be shown, and that 
men should now consciously make use of the 
principle to enlarge through institutions the 
"together-instincts" and subdue the "apart-in- 
stincts." 

Mr. Fiske listened with a sympathy as keen 
and kindly as if one were doing him the rarest 
favor. "Yes." he saiil, "1 believe the man 
who makes that his life-work is giving himself to 
the highest task in sight. The formulating of 
your thought about cooperation, with all that it 
means, against mere brute conflict, is what we 
are all waiting for. It marks the next stage of 
evolution. When we reach that, we shall see 
that it is not devilish, but divine." The schol- 
ar's sincerity in all tliis was transparently sin- 



cere. The young man told him nothing that ho 
did not know, but with gonuiiu* iutellcctiuil 
courtesv he clotheil his guest's olTering with ilig- 
nity and honor. 

It was this quality that in lighter hours made 
him a l)oon companion. He could wiile tlie jol- 
liest song and, in rich baritone, sing it in sev- 
eral languages. He could play a sonata of Bee- 
thoven or a gay waltz upon the violin. He had 
an instructed enthusiasm for sacred music, and 
WTote, I believe, a mass. 

E.xtraordinary range of admirable schola?'sliip, 
versatility, commanding power of clear and sim- 
ple expression in narrative, together with ex- 
haustless good-will toward all his fellows and the 
whole of life, — these were the gifts of this man 
of letters whom one does not know quite how to 
name. Philosopher ? lecturer? religious teacher ? 
historian ? To many thousands he has become 
at the same time each and all. 




MB. FISKE'S STUDY IN HIS CAMBRIDGi: HOMB. 




HON. WII.I.IAM II. r.Kt-T. 



GOVERNOR TAFT AND OTR IMlILilMMXE 

POLIC\'. 

BV RAVMOND P.^TTKRSON. 



AFTER having determined in a goiifral way 
that a civil government .sliould he «'stah- 
h.she<l in the Pliilippines as soon as it coui"! Ikj 
done safely, Presid«'nt McKinley was confronted 
at once with the necessity — first, of fornuilating 
a sy.stcin, and tlicn of securing tlic services of a 
man who would not only he in liarmony with the 
purposes of the Administration, but would have 
the character, the courage, and the intelligence 
nece.ssary to carrv those plans into ojMTalion. It 
is not slninge, therefore, tliut a year ami a half 
ago, when Aguinaldo and liis half- breed asHoci- 
ates were still p<»ppiiig away at American soldiers 
from iKjhind tn-es ami rocks, tin- I'lesid. nf and 



Ids Secretary of War sliotdd liavo l»o<»n holcling 
anxious coiiferenc*' at the White !! -ird- 

ing the man and the work to !»»• . ■ by 

him in the Philippine I.slands. It vm iim»ojM»ible 
to frame a scheme of governiiuMil w " ' ' 

not l)e wrecked by a pious fiM)l or .i -. 

genius. It wu-s natural for lh»' Pn*!«i«Ient to turn 

to the men lie knew Ix'jil, and in the con«ider»« 

tion of til- 

cans thet! 

youngi'r generation in Oliio. Of that gi'nora- 

tion which suc4«vded the I*- • in Ohio, 

Wdliam H. Taft, of I'iucinna;., ily tho 

leader. 



1>0 



THE AMERICAS' MOXTHLY REI/IEIV OF RE^IEIVS. 



It will assist us to p»'t tlu» rhilippiiu' problem 
into llio proper focus if w(» can take into con- 
s' " 1 tli»' i"aup<>s wliich led to the selection 
o: ...... . ;;e man for a position of such grave ro- 

s|>onsibilitv, and at the same time study the per- 
sonal characteristics of the new governor, so far 
as thev relate to tlie proper ilischarge of the 
duties of liis office. First of all, it should be 
noted, as a curious instance of the way in which 
the foundation of character and success is laid 
early in life, that the career of Governor Taft at 
Yale University, and the good opinion of him 
expressed with extraordinary unanimity by his 
college associates, had more to do than any other 
one thing in determining his selection for the 
position of first civil governor of the Philippine 
Islands. It is not violating the confidence of tiie 
President or the Secretary of War to say that 
when every other element had been taken into 
consideration they were led to their decision by 
the declaration of scores of Yale men that, 
from the days of his matriculation onward, 
"William H. Taft, or " Bill, " as they invariably 
called him in familiar conversation, possessed 
the very qualities upon which the President 
insisted, and in such proportion as to form 
what chemists call a stable compound. Con- 
fronted, as lie may be, with the necessity of 
stamping out sedition, and in a land where 
secret societies and poisoned daggers are fre- 
quently made use of, nitre physical courage is an 
element not to be neglected. In this important 
regard, at least, Governor Taft is most happily 
endowed. From his school days at Andover un- 
til he graduated at Yale in 1878, he was an ideal 
young man, as youtliful ideals go. Wlien he 
came a freshman to Yale, in the fall of 1874, 
his reputation as an athlete had preceded him. 
He was probably the most powerful man in the 
Yale class of 1878. He was tall and broad, with 
the neck of a bull and the forearm of a gorilla. 
Before he had been in the college forty-eight 
hours, he was the champion wrestler of his class, 
and was selected without hesitation to lead the 
annual defiance of the freshman forces to their 
traditionary sophomoric enemies. Taft was none 
of your latter-day college atliletes, with splendid 
records in the gymnasium and dubious ones in the 
class-room. On the contrary, he came to the uni- 
versity with well-grounded, studious habits, and 
from the day of his entrance he was far more 
anxious to become valedictorian of his class than 
stroke oar of the crew, although, as it happened, 
he came near being both. The records of the 
university do not show many men who were so 
uniformly successful, both on the athletic field 
and ill the class-room. Coupled with this re- 
markable preeminence of mind and body was a 



lovable disposition and high character. This 
comV)ination of mental, physical, and moral 
superiority is not common. Many a boy suc- 
ceeds in one, but is at best only mediocre as re- 
gards the other characteristics of successful man- 
hood. It was no wonder, then, that "Bill" 
Taft W'as the idol of his associates, and tliat his 
leadership was voted to him by acclamation and 
was never seriously disputed. 

There is more to be learned* of men from the 
frank companionship of college than can possibly 
be derived from close intimacies of later years, 
when one learns reticence as a wise rule of con- 
duct. Young Taft was so constructed physically 
that fear of an opponent was personally impossi- 
ble. He knew that if he could not succeed in a 
wrestling bout he could at least give a good 
account of himself, and if in the end he was 
knocked out, it would be at best but an honor- 
able defeat. He probably studied the better be- 
cause of his acknowledged physical superiority. 
He was, himself, the exemplification of the fa- 
miliar Yale motto, "Mens sana in corpore sano." 
Struggling to reach the top both in athletics and 
in his classes, Taft early learned the great lesson 
of never shirking a battle but never scorning an 
antagonist. The Filipinos who appeal to Gov- 
ernor Taft will soon discover those very qualities 
which made him a university hero a quarter of a 
century ago. Personal bravery, great intellec- 
tual capacity, high character, and bulldog tena- 
city of purpose seem to form a compound as 
rare as it is admirable. With such a man, it 
may be easily assumed that if failare comes it 
must be either because his training has perverted 
his natural tendencies or else because the plans 
he was expected to execute were badly conceived. 

There is heredity in politics, and there are cer- 
tain families which seem to turn naturally to- 
ward the governmental function, just as others 
become lawyers or doctors. Governor Taft has 
inherited, not only his intellectual capacity, but 
his tendency toward governmental activity, from 
his father. Alphonso Taft was Secretary of War 
and Attorney- General under President Grant, 
and minister to Austria under Pi-esident Arthur. 
He was more ambitious for his sons than for him- 
self, and he saw to it not only that they were 
given an opportunity to secure an education, but 
that they availed themselves of it. He insisted that 
his boys should be hard students at college, and 
there are still memories of the days when " Bill " 
Taft would have been only too glad to slip away for 
an afternoon's boating on Lake Saltonstall had it 
not been for a plainly expi-essed fear of the wrath 
of " the old man." This determination that his 
sons should have the best possible equipment for 
the battle of life was a pronounced characteristic 



GOk^ERNOR TAFT AND OUR rnll.lPPINE POLICY. 



1»1 



of the elder Taft. It was also natural that he 
should direct his sou William, who hud made 
such a decided success at Yale, toward tlio 
same channels of reputable public endeavor in 
which he had distinguislied himself. Thus it is 
easv to see how, after praduatiug from Vale iti 
187S, near the head of his chi.ss, and from the ("in- 
ciiinati law school two years later, the present 
governor of the Philippines became assistant prose- 




MK. W 1 1. 1. 1. AM II. TAI-T. 

(From a photogruph taken in |h7S, at the time lie (^nutuutcd 
frum Yale.) 

cuting attorney of Hamilton County. A year 
later he was appointed internal -revenue collector, 
which position he resigned to ent<'r upon the gen- 
eral practice of law. In lss7, when only thirty 
years old, his success had become so pnmouiiced 
that Governor Foraker appointed him Judge of 
the Superior Court, to fill the vacancy caused by 
the resignation of Judge Harmon. In IS'M), ho 
became .Solicitor-Gen<Mal under President Harri- 
son, and in this position, allhoutrli o'dy thirty- 
three years old, he made a remarkable impress. 
His arguments in the Hering Sea and otlujr gr«'at 
cases are still quoted as mo<iels to bo studied by 
ambitious young lawyers. Then there came a 
vacancy on the fe«leral circuit Iwncli in Ohio, 
and Mr. Solicitor-General Tuft became .Mr. 
Justice Taft. This is a sufficient imlex to a 
successful American character, — a life position 



on the U>nch, won by actual ability and lianl 
work, A ■ I dozen yeara after graduation from 

th.' law ;. 

To such a man. dAvoteJ to his profeasion. »uc- 
cfssfid in a lu rtHf, filling a |>osition with a 

life ten -•',-' .(-h 

of the ' . y. 

there suddenly comes the demand — for sach it 
reully WHS — that he should ctuf-l all t' '■•«• 

sional life Ix'hind him and travel a<-'' . ^aD 

to demonstrate to the world that ; .1 civil 

government follows the Hag, however Jl may \»o 
as to the Constitution. W! ' ' ' 
up a life |H)silion to undertU' 
a)»out it little of romance, and scarcely more of 
emolument? Asa mere matti'r< '"a, 

no sane man would resign a jm..-,; ..... «^ .. 
of tlnj United States Circuit Court of A 
to become Governor of the far-off Philippme 
Lsluntls. .\ i)ad man couhl 1h» intl ninke 

the exchange by the ho|>e of loot. bi. .. ^ d man 
wouhl consent to the transfer only from a sens** of 
duty, and this ise.xactly what in«liicol Ju«lge Taft 
to al)andon Cincinnati and h* •' ' ,-■,:■ f„r 

Manila and its tiangerous p< - lO. 

Again it may be said, without violating con- 
fidences, that just after the P' • ami the 
Secretary of War had made tin-.. .-. iioii. there 
was a long day of steady conferi'nce at the White 
House, at which the three men went over the 
ground bit by bit, until they arrive<l at a common 
understanding. Judge Taft lesigneil his life 
position to become chairman of the Philippine 
Commission, and later, civil governor of the 
islands, l>ecau8e he believed it to lie his «luly to 
do so. He is not a man of wealth, and is largely 
de|H?ndent upon his own exertions for his 8Up|K>rt. 
In return for his splendid sn the PreMdent 
and the Secretary of War i him tliat on 
their part there should be the most constant and 
loyal sup|K)rt, and that in the great work of creat- 
ing a government for the Philippine I.Hlaiuis the 
executive in Manila should Ih» at all limes in close 
and loyal touch with the executive in Washington. 
The singularity of tlM< pacrifice was «• ' 
t>y the fact that there was nothing t^ , 
Governor Taft on Ixjhalf of the Government 
except the satisfaction of duty done. It is a 

sumcient in. lex '" ■' ' " " '' •'" •••■"*• 

governor of the 1 

made the sacrifice anil accepted the biinlen for 

the sake of the t! l^ of lit 

had m-ver 84'en. ..... ;..at he :.... ,- 

towanl demonstrating that the t an in^ 

Htitutions of wliicli we are so proud an 
an' ' '•' of «' " ■ •' at II 'i 

ns t . . which , or the : 

country so many splendid colonioa. 



182 



THE AMERICAN MONTHI.) RHI^IEIV OF REl/IElVS. 



If thero has been any iiiystory ropmlinj; tlio 
p.' . ' ti hy the Pivsidi'iit anil tlic 

>, \, ..r thf I'ontrul of the riiilip- 

|>iiu»s, it is by no means the fault of those two 
public men, i>ut is ratlier to l)e ascrihod to the 
vastness of the subjoi'l and to the inability of 
the public to grasp the idea. The writer is in a 
|M>sition to aflirm that the ])olicy of the Adminis- 
tration rejrardinjr the Philippine Islands is noth- 
ing more or less than the creation of a govern- 
ment for the people of those islands of such a 
character as will i>e best adapted to furtlier their 
material and moral interests. 'I'ho founders of 
this repul»lic had a groundwork to operate ui)on, 
in the various provincial governmems establislied 
bv Great Britain for her American colonies. 
'I'hev had to substitute merely the control of tlie 
j)eople for the absolutism of the king. Tliere 
were involved no racial changes, no abstract 
revolution in system, no attempt to substitute 
one master for another master, and both alien. 
'I'he difference in the government of the city of 
New York under the king and under the Con- 
stitution was not, after all, so great as one might 
imagine. There w'as a vast difference in the 
liberty of the individual, but not so great a 
change in the mechanism of the government. 
George Washington and King George spoke the 
same language, and the negotiations for the sur- 
render at Yorktown needed no interpretei'S. 
The problem of the Philippines is distinctly dif- 
ferent. It is a curious but well-understood fact 
that Spain, which discovered America, and is 
thus responsil)le for Western progressiveness, 
has lagged behind farther tlian any other Euro- 
pean nation ; and Washington and Madrid are 
probably more widely apart, as regards their 
point of view, than any other two Cliristian capi- 
tals. The governmental problem in the Philip- 
pines was far different from that which was met 
\n Cuba and Porto Rico. Both of tliese islands 
were cui'sed with bad govei-ninents, but the 
people were at least civilized ; and the govern- 
mental structure, bad though it was, furnished a 
natural foundation for something belter. In the 
Philippines, on the other hand, the Spaniards 
never attempted to assert actual control, except 
Iiere and there along the seacoast, and in the 
vicinity of the larger towns. The Spanish gov- 
ernment, where it existed at all, was ineffably 
bad. Of the 7,000,000 people on the island, 
only the inconsiderable fraction of about 500,000 
were anything but Malays. About 200,000 Chi- 
nese Mestizos, who are a cross between tlie Chi- 
nese and Tagals, living principally in the neigh- 
borhood of Manila, represent almost the only 
nucleus of the native population even remotely 
fitted for self-rule. These very Mestizos, to whom 



Aguinaldo and all of his generals l)elong, nattl- 
raiiv intelligent and turbulent, had become thor- 
oughly infected with the corruption of Spanish 
ofhcial life. These half-breeds, who have gj-adually 
come to be c<)nsid(M-ed populai'ly as the real Fili- 
]»inos, altiiough tiiey do not represent moi-e than 
the merest fraction of the total population, have 
no more conception of the comparative purity of 
American methods of administration than could 
l)e found among the head-hunters who loam over 
the interior of some of the islands. These Mesti- 
zos are the iiatural governing class of the islands, 
because of their comparative intelligence, and also 
because of their location in the vicinity of Manila. 
Granting that these people are capable of self- 
go vernr.ient, they must first unlearn their ideas 
of the science of government derived from the 
corrupt Spanish officials. When that result is 
achieved, the seven millions of people in the 
Philippines will be divided into two classes. One 
of these, embracing only a few hundred thousand 
people, can probably be safely trusted with local 
municipal government, after a short period of 
education ; but for tlie other millions of the popu- 
lation it can scarcely be hoped that they will be- 
come capable of even local municipal control, at 
least during this generation. 

Broadly stated, therefore, it may be said that 
the policy of the Administration regarding tlie 
Philippines is, as the Secretary of War expressed 
it to the writer, "to create a govei-nment from 
the ground up." This stupendous work is now 
in progress, and if the existing plans are followed 
it will be in progress for many a long year to 
come. Under the most liberal estimates, there 
are not over a half-million people in the islands 
who possess anywliei^e near the capacity for self- 
government exhibited by the nost ignorant negro 
in the black belt of our own South. For these 
half-million, however, there is now being con- 
structed a system of municipal government in 
the administration of which, of necessity, they are 
the chief factor, for there are not enough edu- 
cated Caucasians on the islands to do the work 
of the general colonial government. Tho commis- 
sion of which Governor Taft was the 'hairman 
had been at work steadily for ten months, prior 
to July 1, gradually extending this fabric of muni- 
cipal home rule as rapidly as it could be done, 
taking into consideration the disturbed condition 
of the country. The purpose of the American 
government is to give the Filipinos as much 
home rule as they develop capacity for. If a 
mistake is made in any direction, it will be in 
trusting too much rather than too little to the 
Filipinos. The vastness of the work can per- 
haps be best imderstood by a mere summary of 
the instructions, in which, after vesting the com- 



GOVERNOR TAFT AND OUR PtllilPPIS'E POLICY. 



lAn 



mission with authority dating from SeptemU'r 1. 
President McKiiiley said: "Kxorcise of this 
legislative autliority will include the niakinj; »)f 
rules and ordei-s, having the effect of law, for 
the raising of revenue liy taxes, customs, duties, 
and ini{)osts ; the a])prui)nution and ex|)endiiure 
of public funds of the islands ; the establisimieiit 
of an educational system throughout the islands ; 
the establishment of a system to secure an 
efficient civil service ; the organization and es- 
tablishment of courts ; the organization and 
establishment of municipal and departmental 
governments, and all other mattei-s of civil nature 
for which the military governor is now competent 
to provide by rules or orders of a legislative 
character." 

This seems to be a large programme for one 
man to undertake. It undoubtedly is, espe- 
cially in view of the fact that Governor Taft is a 
sort of Robinson Crusoe, to the extent that he 
must create his own tools. It would be a simple 
enough matter for the average private citizen of 
ordinary al)ility to walk into the Capitol at Al- 
bany and by a judicious use of the existing 
machinery administer the affairs of the great 
commonwealth of New York without any im- 
mediate disaster. It is an entirely different 
proposition that is present<'d to (Jovernor Taft, 
and for the solution of which, if he does solve 
it, he will l)e entitled to the thanks of the people 
of this country ami of the friends of a republican 
form of government the world over. The re- 
mark of Secretary Koot that the work of Gov- 
ernor Taft is to create a government "from the 
ground up" furnishes tlie keynote to what is now 
going on in the riiilippines. Governor Taft and 
his associates have begun literally at the bottom. 
They have organized one municipality after an- 
other, making use of the natives as a matter of 
prime necessity, for there are few Europeans, 
and almost no .Americans, outside of the garrison 
towns. The Filij)ino, even when uneducated, 
takes almost too kindly to the governmental id«'a. 
The Mestizos derived from their Chinese ances- 
tors remarkable imitative faculties. Naturally, 
but unfortunately, they imitate all of the worst 
things of the Spanish reijime. Many of tiiem 
have conceived the idea that bril>ery and cor- 
ruption are es.sential parts (»f the process of gov- 
erning. It has l>ecoiiie neci'ssary, therefore, in 
establishing municipal government, to watch the 
local dignitaries with the utmost care, to prevent 
them from imposing upon therommf>n jn-ople by 
exactly the .name (h.-vices whidi the Spaniards de- 
veloped to such an extraoniinary degree. There 
is a curi«>U8 instance of this official corrujilion 
which has bothered (Jovernor Taft and his a-^o- 
ciates to no small degree. There was a h- i i 



Ux under the Spanish government, and the local 
officials were requirwl — finil, to count the people, 

an<i then to turn in a ' • 

the tax u|xjn eacli li 

for frauil was simply delicioua. The local 

mad.' th.ir returns of ; ,,„ far U-low ihe 

actual figures. They c the tax • • in- 

dustriously on the entire :on, an u^^\ 

the ilifference. The re«uil i8 that to this day it 

is practically imj i • 

lation even of th- 

anything like exactness. 

In attemj.ting to build up the i of a 

government by commencing with t ' or 

municipality, Governor Taft is m» ng 

the explicit instructions of the President, and in 
this regard is develo|>ing the PI ' of 

the Administration, which may . . ..au- 

thority to be an attempt, not only to create civil 
rights in the Philippine Islands, but to U'ach the 
people how to exercise them. It is an assump- 
tion of the white man's burden, so deftly tie- 
scril)ed by Kipling. People who are guessing 
to-day as to the Philippine policy of the A«iininis- 
traiion would do well to secure a copv «»f the in- 
structions prepared by Pi-esi«lent McKinley under 
the valuable advice of Secretary Hoot. These 
instructions may l>e taken to express the whole 
policy of the Administration. It is not for the 
President to say what laws shall l»e i»a.ssed, but 
when Congress comes to ' .« for the Philip- 

pines it will follow clo>. .. .., ..n the lines laid 
down in these instructions if it desires to nie<!t 
the wishes of the Administration. Take down 
from the shelf a copy of the Constitution of the 
United States and compare it with llie instruc- 
tions to the Philippine Commission, which form 
to-day the Magna Chnrta of the islands, and it 
will U' found that Presidt-nt McKinley has fol- 
lowed the Constitution with rare fidelity, and has 
eliminated only those so-called constitutional 
rights which are manifestly i ■ ' ' 
Philippines, and which the fa 
themselves would not have inserted if they had 
been legislating for savage irilws. The scheme 
of government adopted l»y the !'•-.-;!■••:! and the 
Secretary of War, and U'ing e.\ . by (tov- 

ernor Taft, is di.ntinctly twofold. The govenior 
of the Philippiiu's is ' I to iN'giii bu- 

in a small way by ••st,> \g munici|Mil g" . 

nients in every {N>sMible instance, and by thus 
training the jx'oph- i«> the exercise of civil rights. 
Following uiM)n this will come tlii> i>rgani»ition 
of provincial governments, lea«ling up t«i de- 
partmental control. The American analogy is 

to lie i'lowlv ^ " ' 

Will |K>rmit, th< 

will be a system of goveriiinents ■ulwtaiitially 



1H4 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RFIlFAl- OF REyiFWS, 



\T lo those of our townsliip, county, and 
Si.ti.-. The rri'sitUMit has «>.\pn>ssly ilin'ctoil that 
the siiuillor govormntMiial sulxiivisions shall al- 
wavs bavo tlio pioftMvnce in the distribution of 
j>ower, so that linally, as the rrcsidiMit hinisflf 
sjivs, "tho central <;ovt»rnn)ont of the islands shall 
have no directed administration except of mat- 
tiTS of purely general concern, and shall have 
onlv such sujHTvision and control over local gov- 
ernments as may be necessary to secure ami en- 
force faithful and efficient administration by local 
oflicers. " 

Following out their simple but cliaracteristically 
honest policy of divesting the central government 
of the ability to exercise meddlesome interference 
with local affairs, the President and the Secretary 
of War feel a just pride in tlie fact that since 
the first attempt to establish civil government in 
the islands no political appointments to subor- 
dinate places have been made in Washing- 
ton. The government of the Fliilippines to-day 
is free from the taint of carpetbagism. The 
governor, the members of the commission wlio 
form his personal council, the auditor who fixes 
the financial responsibility as between Manila 
and Washington, the assistant auditor, and tiie 
director of posts, who is necessarily responsible 
to the department here, are literally the only offi- 
cials in the Philippines whose appointment is 
to-day vested in Washington. All other places 
are filled in the Philippines, and the President 
has retained for himself and the Secretary of 
War merely a veto power. The laws passed 
in the Philippine Islands to-day have full force 
and effect as soon as they are promulgated. These 
laws are subject to the approval of the President, 
but Governor Taft and his associates are not 
hampered in their legislation by the necessity of 
submitting matters to Washington. Asa matter 
of course, in important cases there will be pre- 
vious consultation with Washington. This will 
frequently be necessary in revenue matteis, where 
the opinion of experts is necessary, and in all 
cases where the relations between the govern- 
ment at Manila and the source of power at Wash- 
ington are directly concerned. 

Taking one consideration with another, and 
assuming to speak with some degree of authority, 
it may be said that the government devised for 
the Philippine Islands, so far as It relates to the 
civilized natives, is entirely analogous to the sys- 
tem now in successful operation in the Disti-ict of 
Columbia, with the single exception, which is 
entirely noteworthy, that the people of Manila 
will exercise the right of suffrage, while those in 
Washington ai-e getting along very well without 
it. The city of Washington to-day is governed 
by three commissioners, all of them appointed l)y 



the President, and removable at his discretion. 
They control the fire depaitnuuit, the police, the 
schools, the system of ta.\alioii, the cleaning of 
the streets, the regulation uf the public h(>alth, 
and. in fact, ev«'rythiiig which is condiu-tcd with 
much more friction by the cumbersonu! nuu'hin- 
ery of the average city. People who have lived 
for years in Washington, after having been resi- 
dents of other cities, assert with great positive- 
ness that the capital is beyond all (juestion the 
best-governed large municipality in the United 
States. ¥ov the Philippines, the President has 
tliought to devise a central government consist- 
ing of a few officials directly responsible to him. 
They, in their turn, will create subordinate gov- 
ernments with the same degree of direct respon- 
sii)ility. This system secures the flexibility 
which is absolutely necessary to the creation of 
a new government out of such decidedly i-aw ma- 
terial. It secures to Governor Taft the neces 
sary independence of initiative, but amply pro- 
vides for the protection of the people against 
arbiti-ary action. Military government, however 
wisely conducted, is generally abrupt in its oper- 
ation, and inevitably disliked, because it is an 
attempt by military foi'ce to secure action on 
lines which are essentially civil. A military or- 
der is frequently both legislative and judicial, 
as well as executive. It prescribes a rule of ac- 
tion, executes its own law, and then constitutes 
itself a court of last resort as to whether the law 
has been properly executed. It was to avoid 
giving offense through this inherent abruptness 
of military power that President McKinly was so 
anxious to establish a civil government suited to 
the needs of the people. 

Whatever power the President possesses, it is 
manifestly executive. The Constitution has pro- 
vided for the coordination of the three branches 
of government — executive, legislative, and ju- 
dicial. In his assumption of the power to cre- 
ate a proper government for the Philippines, 
President McKinley has supplied a curious illus- 
tration of the ability of the executive power to 
subdivide itself into the very elements prescribed 
by the Constitution, and to create, under execu- 
tive authority, legislative and judicial functions 
strong enough to resist the possible arbitrary 
abuse of power by the executive himself. It 
has been deemed absolutely necessary to protect 
the people of the far-off islands in their right of 
appeal, and hence tlie curious and characteristic- 
ally Yankee expedient. The executive power 
cuts off one of its arms and calls it a legislative 
body, whereupon the new body, in defiance 
alike of surgery and politics, proceeds to auto- 
matic action with aV)solute control of its initia- 
tive, subject only to the final approval of its ere- 



GOrFRXOR TAFT AhID OUR rHlilPPISE POLICY. 



18A 



ator. Those who have boon fearful of a growth 
of iinjH'rialisin in tliis country may well stop to 
consider the meaning of this significant action of 
the President, who voluntarily divests himself 
of a large portion of his arbitrary executive 
power, and proceeds in a purely arbitrary but 
most benevolent manner to transmute that por- 
tion of himself into the legislative and judicial 
features of the Government prescrilnjd by the 
written constitution of the L'nited States. This 
single tlevelopment of the Philippine policy of 
the Government is worth the careful scrutiny of 
students of the science of statesmanship. It is 
an instance of the flexibility of an "inflexible" 
constitution. Governor Taft and his associates 
are to-day in the islands organizing courts and 
passing laws involving the grant of suffrage and 
equal rights to people who never enjoyed such 
privileges before, and yet all this l)eautiful mech- 
anism of liberty has proceeded from the sole 
executive order of William McKinley. 

As has been previously indicated, the principal 
work of Governor Taft and his associates is in car- 
rying out general principles of government for the 
benefit of the people at large. Municipal and pro- 
vincial control can be devised readily enough for 
the civilized or partially educated fractions, but 
for the great mass of the tribes in the Philippine 
Islands a method of treatment substantially similar 
to that followed by this Government in dealing 
with the Indians has been adopted by the Presi- 
dent and the Secretary of War. and will be 
faitlifuUy followed l)y Governor Taft. The ex- 
tension of the municii)al idea to the tribes will be 
made as rapidly as tiiey show the slightest desire 
or capacity for anything better than the mere 
tribal community of interests. Meanwhile, the 
government at Manila must concern it.self with 
still greater problems, all going to lay the founda- 
tion for a series of commonwealths which it will 
take generations to develop. It takes money to 
run governments, and the Philippine Islands can 
never hope to have even a nominal independence 
of the Washington Government until they them- 
selves are able to provide for all the expense of 
their local government. If the Supreme Court, 



to , : 

pnxhicts of oilhor Spain or the Unii4Hl 
there will b»' emiMirrassment. The .-Span- 

iards had no ■ • '•■ if intern:. ■ ■ 

They la.x«Mi t .1, but 1. i 

itself, and thus it became possible for non resi- 
dent ! " ' ' - • .. 

inevii,. ..: :....; : ... ... , .... ..; ;,. 

who impn»ved his lanii, were obliged to i 
burden of the government. It is imposstulo to- 
day to d- • • • • M of taxation •■ ' ' ■ . 
proiluce ., !,iK', for the _ i 

son that while there are in the Philippine Islands 
approximately 7o, (>()(», (lOO acres, only alH>ut 
5,000, UUU are owned by intlividuals. All the 
rest of tlie lands are either public or are held 
under clouded or squatter titles. Congress has 
expressly reserved from the executive the right 
to dispose of the public lands. Neither land 
grants nur mining concessions can be ma«le un- 
til Congress acts, and hence no system of in- 
ternal taxation can »lo more than provide for 
merely municipal needs. At the present tinje, 
however, the tariti duties furnish an abumiant 
revenue, and this is l>eing exj>ended in bntad proj- 
ects of general improvement. The creation of an 
extensive highway system, and the establishment 
of public schools worthy of the name, are de{H'nde«i 
upon to begin the regeneration of the Philippine 
Islands ; and it is to this great task involving 
the uplifting of the people and their education up 
to the point of making use of their long dormant 
but none the less inherent right.s, that Judge 
William H. Taft, of Ohio, has Ut'n called. 

In the hands of this young .American, with only 
forty-four years to his cre«lit, are now :-■ • 1 the 
political and social ilestinies of seven .s of 

people. Failure either in the plan or its execution 
may mean mis«'ry for these • ami so"..- 

thing akin to shame for the .\ .m repute. .1;. 

Success, and success alone, will glorify llio ab- 
stract principles of «lemocracy, start the Malay 
millions on tlie highway to intelligent entleavor, 
ami, {li'rhaps. make the first governor of the 
islands a i>oteutial [Mjlitical quantity here at home. 



A (iRlCAF CITIZEN -JAMES E. YEATMAN 



ON" Julv 7, at Si. Louis, one of the fuiciiiost 
oili/.t«iis of the I'liitinJ States jm.ssod away. 
He had lived a long niui honored life, full of 
us«»fulness to his fellowiiien. Although his tal- 
ents and eliaracter were such that lie might have 
Hlled any |ml)lic station, he did not seek fame on 
tlie battlefield or in iH>lities. He seems, indeed, 
never to have sought anything except to be use- 
ful in his day auil generation as oi)[)ortunities 
presented themselves. He was a perfect type of 
the American gentleman, with manners and 
ideals of the traditional N'irginia school. He was 
not l)orn. however, in X'irginia, his family having 
gone farther west and attained prominence and 
wealth in Kentucky and 'rennessee. 

James E. Y eat man was boi'u in Bedford 
County, Tennessee, nearly eighty- three years 
ago. In 1842, after he had attained liis major- 
itv, he went to St. Louis and engaged in mer- 
cantile enterprises, — among other things found- 
ing what is now the Merchants' National Bank 
quite half a century ago. Althougii he had not 
entertained prevailing Northern views, he es- 
poused the Union side with firmness on tlie out- 
break of the war, and became almost at once a 
personal friend and adviser of Mr. Lincohi and 
a pillar of Union strength and influence at the 
critical time in Missouri. Later in the war 
period he was the president of that vast and 
noble system of army relief work, the Western 
Sanitary Commission ; and in that capacity fu- 
ture generations of America will do liim honor 
for services as ardent and important as that of 
a general in the field. His brother, it may be 
noted incidentally, took the Southern view, and 
was a member of the staff of the Confederate 
General Folk. 

One of the most prominent characters in ]Mr. 
Winston Churchill's new novel, " The Crisis, " and 
one drawn by the novelist with evident affection, 
is Calvin Brinsmade. It is no secret that the 
original of Mr. Churchill's Brinsmade was J\lr. 
Yeatman. The novelist will always, of course, 
take liberties with incidents and details ; but in 
the main, undoubtedly, Brinsmade is a very 
faithful transcript of Mr. Yeatman. Readers of 
" Richard Carvel " will remember that it was to Mr. 
Yeatman that Mr. Churchill dedicated that fa- 
mous novel. It is forty years since the war 
broke out, and Mr. Yeatman was at lliat time 
only forty-three years old. Mr. Churchill's de- 
scription of Brinsmade's personality seems to 
have been drawn from the Yeatman that the 
novelist himself knew in later years. This slight 




THE LATK MK. YEATMAN, OF ST. LOUIS. 

anachronism is not to be apologized for, since 
Brinsmade is not introduced avowedly, like Lin- 
coln or Grant, in Mr. ChurcliiU's great book, as 
an historical personage. 

Stephen Brice and his mother, in this new 
novel, have come from Boston to live in St. 
Louis. They fall almost at once within the 
sphere of Mr. Brinsmade's thoughtful kindness, 
and are fortunate enough to become his tenants, 
taking a little house next to his large one, at a 
rental that for some characteristic reason has 
been set much below the market rates by the 
owner. Stephen has got the key from the 
agent, and after church he and his mother have 
turned down Oliver Street to inspect the house. 
The rest of the incident may be quoted directly 
from ' ' The Crisis : " 

As Stephen put his hand on the latch of the little iron 
gate, a gentleman came out of the larger house next 
door. He was past the middle age, somewhat scrupu- 
lously dressed in the old fashion, in swallowtail coat 
and black stock. Benevolence was in the generous 
mouth, in the large nose that looked like Washington's, 
and benevolence fairly sparkled in the blue eyes. He 
smiled at them as though he had known them always, 
and the world seemed brighter that very instant. They 
smiled in return, whereupon the gentleman lifted his 
hat. And the kiudlinesis and the courtliness of that 



A GREAT CITIZEN,-JAMFS E. YEATMAN. 



1«7 



l).)\v iiuule them vcrj- happy. " Did you wish to l(M)k iit 
the liou.se, nrndain *'' he n-sked. 

•'Yes, .sir," siiid Mrs. Unite. 

"Allow me to open it for you," he saiil, Kraciously 
taking the key from lier. •• 1 fear that you will Jlml it 
inconvenient and incoinnioilious nui'ani. 1 shoulil lie 
fortunate, in<lee<l, to gi-t a ;;ink1 tenant." 

He fitte<l the key in tlie door, while Stephen and his 
mother smiled at each other at the thought of the rent. 
The gentleman oi)enetl the diM)r, and -sUxkI a.siile to let 
them enter, very nmch as if he were showing theuj a 
palace for which he was the liuinble ai^ent. 

• •••••• 

The gentleman, with inlinite tact, wiid little, hut le<l 
the way throuj^h the njonis. There were not many of 
them. At the diH)r of the kitchen he .stopi)e<l, ami laid 
his hand kindly on Stephen's shoulder. 

" Here we may not enter. This is jour department, 
ma'am," siiid he. 

Finally, as they stood without waiting for the gentle- 
man, who insisted upon locking the door, they oh.served 
a girl in a ragged shawl hurrying up the street. As she 
approiiched them, her eyes were li.ved uytou the large 
house ne.xt d<x)r. But suddenly, as the gentleman 
turned, she caught siglit of him, and from her lips 
escaped a cry of relief. She flung open the gate, and 
stood before him. 

"Oh. Mr. lJrin.smade," she cried, "mother is dying. 
You have <lone so much for us, sir, — couldn't you come 
to her for a little while ? She thoiigiit if she might see 
you once more, she would die happy." Tiie voice was 
choked by a sob. 

Mr. Brinsmaile took the girl's han<l in his own, and 
turned to the laily with as little luiste, with as much 
politeness, as he had shown before. 

"You will e.xcu.se nie, ma'am, "' he sjiid, with his hat 
in his hand. 

The widow had no words to answer him. But she 
and her son watched him as he walkeil rapidly dow n 
the street, his arm in the girl's, until they were out of 
sight. And then they walke<l home silently. 

Might not the price of this little hou.sc be likewise a 
piece of the Brinsmade charity t 

Here is another little touch, a hundrod pages 
farther on in tlie book, ilhistrative of Mr. Yrat- 
man's unforgetting courtesy : 

Stephen stoo<l apart on the htirricane deck, gazing at 
the dark line of sooty warehouses. How many young 
men with their way to make have felt the same as he 
did after some pleasant e.xcursion. The |)res«'nce of a 
tall form iM-sidc him shook him from his reverie, ami he 
looked up to recognize the benevolent face of Mr. Brins- 
made. 

" Mrs. Brice may Im* anxious, Stephen, at the late 
hour," said he. " .My carriage is here, and it will give 
me great pleasure to convey you to your d<K)r.'' 

Dear Mr. lirinsmade ! He is in heaven now, and 
knows at last the good he wrought uiM)n earth. Of the 
many tlioughtful charities which Stephen re<eive<l fn»m 
him, this one sticks (lrme>t in his remembrance: A 
stranger, tired and lr)nely, and a|)art from the gay 
young men and women who stepp<-d from the Iniat, he 
iiad iM-en sought out by this genlh-man, to whom liad 
beeu given the divine gift of forgetting none. 

fh another part of the book one fuula the fol- 



the war : 



r 



' furih Mr. 
and during 



Virginia drove i« Mr. Brinsmade' . ilU wan one of the 

I'liion houses which -' . r 

M'lf res|Htt. Like niii: ., 

<ine>tion of go or stay. .Mr. Hrmi<miwk- h unralterlng love 
for the Inion hiui kept him in. He htul vot«-«l for Mr 
liell, and later had preside*! nt Crittenden ('ompnmii-- 
meetings. In -, he Wi. 

U-en willing t- . -. And ; it 

it was to lie war, and he had taken hiH Htaod unconi- 
prondsinyly with the I'nion, the neighljor. u ' 
had U-friendiHl for so many years could not br.i 
s»-lves to regard him as an enemy. He never hurt their 
feelings; and almost as mmiu as the war began he M-t 
alKiut that work which has been done by stdf-^lenying 
Christians of all ages — the relief of sufTerinu. He vi*. 
ited with comfort the widow and the fatherli-«>s and 
many a night in the hospital he sat thniugh lie^ide the 
dying, Yankee and Uelnd alike, and wrote their Inst 
letters home. 

.\nd one runs aeross anotlier allusion which shows 
the estimate Mr. Cliiirchill placfs tj|Kjn Mr. Yi-at- 
man's great work as chief oflicer of the Sanitarv 
Commission : 

The general was a goo*! man, hail he done nothing 
else than encourage the Wfstern .Smitary CommivHion, 
that glorious army of drilletl men and women who gave 
uj) all to relieve the sntTering which the war was caus- 
ing. Would that a novel — a great novel — might \te 
written setting forth with truth its doings. Tlie hem 
of it could Im' Calvin Briiisimide, and a nobler hem than 
he was never under a man's h.iiul. For the glory of 
generals fades Ix'side his glory. 

As a further tribute not hidden under a cloak 
of ficlioii, it !uay be |K>rini8sil>U' to nirnt*' wiine 
stateiiu'iits in a privatt* K-ller from Mr. ("hurchill, 
written after Mr. Veat man's death, last month : 

Although he was as much l(M>ke4l up to and rvven**! 
in St. I<«inis a-> any man could Im-, vet some of our lM>«t 
citizens coiilii not but think that in the swif«-p of more 
iiKKlern events s<jine of his In-?.! work for the city hml 
Imh-u forgotten. I iloubt very much if any city ever 
had a lietfer citi/A'U or a liner figure. Mr. Veatman 
siMMit two fortunes on charity in the ■ ' and 

he die<l a |»oor man. The list of or.: with 

which he was connect«i coven* alnumt every prt>gni«^ 
ive movement in the city's gmwth : the .M. - !.• 

Library, the Home for Blind (tirU, li«-llffont.i 
etery, the Fre«'«lmen's Bureau, and tin- NVestmi .sjiin- 
tar}' Commi'>sion his most signal work. I'ptowilldii 
a year of his death he continued to receive and take 
care of the siivinus of hundnsU of |n>i>r «■■• <• 

vants, and factory girK who brought « hat IIm .• 

him to keep, lie never di>celve«i any one. and oftrn 
maile up a Ntip;)osed deficit out of hiN own |ioekel. One 
of his most striking characterixticx wi\» hi* lovp fur 
1 hihlren and youinf |NMip|e. He • 
ets fall «if ( aiidy, and for forty ye i 
town in the «%'eninKt he wmji rollowetl by •hutilinu 
I .-(Hip*, whoclung to his hanii«, and even to hU • '^ 

W'll hill a inolith of the time he ili«<<|, lie liMii tt 

iiiaiiy chihlreii for an oiitliiK In .*-«hnw'ii (ianlrn. 



Till-: c;Ar:Lic ri:vival in irllland. 

BY THOMAS O'DONNEI.L, M.P. 




THOMAS O DONNELL, M.P. 



NOT alone the survival, but the very exist- 
ence, of the Gael — so long a matter of in- 
difference to Englislimen — have been brought 
prominently to the front by the unexpected ap- 
pearance in the English House of Commons of 
three Irish representatives who, on being intro- 
duced to the House, took the oath, signed their 
names, and addressed the Speaker in their own 
language, returning his words of welcome to the 
English House of Commons with the soft and, to 
him, strangely musical words, " Cumnus tha 
tku?" The existence, the actual reality, of a 
living Gaelic race speaking a language of their 
own, different in character, in ideals, and in as- 
pirations from the ubiquitous, soulless Saxon, 
was still further exemplified, and. more plainly 
brought home to John Bull's dull imagination, 
when, a few weeks ago, I had the honor of being 
called on by the Speaker to address the House of 
Commons. Being a new member, naturally im- 
pressed with the spectacle before me, imagining 
myself in the presence of the educated, the re- 
fined, and the polished intellects of the British 
empire, feeling myself about to address this 
" first assemblage of gentlemen " in the language 
of my own people — a language which these same 



"gentlemen" iniaginod they had long ago 
crushed out of existence — my mind was natu- 
rullv filled with mingled feedings of timidity, 
anxiety, and pride. For just one hundred years 
Ireland's parliament has been destroyed ; her 
n'prcsontatives have in the meantime attend(!d in 
tiie English chamber, and during all that time 
not one of those representatives ever addressed 
the House in the Irish language. Into the rea- 
sons for this appaivnt ignorance or neglect of the 
Irish language by the Irish people 1 am not at 
present going to enter, further than to say that 
the era of popular representation of the Irish 
peasant in the English Parliament, by men of 
his own class, is not very remote, and therefore 
it is true to say that for this neglect the Irish 
people are not to blame. Feeling, therefore, 
that I was about to introduce an innovation not 
attempted since the Union, "without," as the 
Speaker remarked, "a precedent in the history 
of the House of Commons during the past 600 
years ; " feeling, also, that my attempt was an 
embodiment of the new-awakened ambitions of 
my countrymen in their now clearer vision of a 
national duty and a national aim, I was con- 
cerned lest I might not present in a worthy manner 
a subject so dear to me and my countrymen. 

It may be asked by the materialist — and the 
number of such seems legion among the mem- 
bers of the English press — what object had I 
in view, what practical purpose did I intend 
to serve, by speaking in a language which was 
an unknown tongue to the great majority of 
those present. To this I simply reply that, being 
an Irish representative who spoke my native 
language from the cradle, who sees in the will- 
ful destruction of my country's language the 
departure of a national asset, a national and lit- 
erary treasure, with which must inevitably de- 
part the characteristics, the finer instincts, the 
spiritual ennobling ideals for which my country- 
men have been remarkable, I availed myself of 
the opportunity presented to me to draw the at- 
tention of Englishmen to the fact that neither 
the Gael nor his language is yet dead ; and I also 
availed myself of the opportunity to point out to 
my countrymen all over the world — many of 
whom may, in the struggle for existence, and 
amid foreign surroundings, have half forgotten 
the fact — that an inheritance common to them all, 
a relic purified and rendered inestimably valua- 



THE GAELIC REyU AL l\ IRELAND. 



189 



ble by a^s of historic ami national association, 
liad yet existed, to bo in time, perhaps, the torch 
with which in an ape of commercialism, material- 
ism, ami godless imjwriulism a new (jaelic na- 
tion may be established. 

As the space at my disposal is limited, I do 
not intend to enter into an exhaustive uif|uiry 
as to the antiquity and the literary worth of tlie 
Irish language. I trust I sliall find another op- 
portunity of doing justice to this part of niv 
subject ; but I shall ask my readers to inquire 
if it is not a fact that Ireland was famous for her 
schools — to which flocked students from England 
and the Continent — from the fourth to the twelfth 



"-""■'•'. all young, 
who mriin 



bering its n»eml)er8 riv f.n-. t.f t1.. 

enthusiaiiiic, and in: 

to undo the efTcct.s of past niiHgoveniment. This 

league has its branches :i'' ■ - ' - and I 

have had tlie pleasure n. ;; lar^e 

meetings in London, Liverpool, and Mancli.'Ml4jr 

in tlie Irish 1 •«•, thoi: 

be expected, i .... i with i;.. 

a great many, and with inleng** and 
delight by all. 

Ye.s. this ii: ■■ --ntforil ' 

of our languii.- .th \>\u> i 

is national in its pun>st and fullest sense. It has 
arravid in it.s advocacy the vouth and intelji- 



to 



vth 

. It 



century ; that the number of ancient priceless gence of Krin, the patriotism and national pride 
MSS. in the Irish tongue preserved in home and of our race. I quote the words of Mr. John Red- 



foreign libraries is exceedingly large ; that Irish 
was the language of the Irish clergy for over 
twelve centuries ; that till the introduction of an 
English system of education, over sixty years 
ago, Irish was the language of nine -tenths of tlie 
Irish people. I would a.sk my readers to inquire 
if it is not a fact that so early as the year l."}tj7 a 
law was passed forbiilding the use of Irish in 
Ireland ; that ever since that time the use of the 
Irish language was sufficient to have the lands 



mond, whose practical common sense, love for 
the welfare of liis country, and at the same lime 
clear, keen vision of the duties of the hour can 
scarcely be denied. Sp<'aking on Manh 19 in 
the Hotel Cecil, he said : "It [the Gaelic 

League] is striving to nationalize Irish ^ • '-nt, 

Irish feeling, and Irish thought, to . i- a 

knowledge of the past of our country, tostmiulate 
tlie Irishman's pri<ie of race. My view is that, 
of all things thai have been working on the side 



and goods of an Irishman confiscated if he did of England in this quarrel with our country dtir- 
not find some " loyal" subject to go bail for him; ing tiie nineteenth century, that with the most 
that the men who tauglil the Irish peasant his deadly effect to Ireland has been the fashion of 
language or other sub- 
jects were subject to fines 
and imprisonment, all 
under the beneficcuit 
English Government. 
Having learned from an 
impartial and authorita- 
tive source llie truth of 
those statements, the se- 
verity, the barbarity, of 
the laws aimed at the de- 
struction both of the liisli 
people and their language, 
it will, no doubt, be mat- 
ter for surprise to Eng- 
lishmen, as a proof of the 
vitality of the Gatdic race, 
to find at the beginning 
of the twentieth century 
about a million. Irishmen 
able to speak their own 
language. It may al.so in- 
terest the careful reader 
to know that the h'ague 
set on foot a few years 
ago for the spread and 
study of the Irish language 
has over two hundre<l 
branches in Ireland, num- 



Boaao of Commons Library, t 
a22-0L 

'■4T-Cdt5 ZtK^i ^.uifT iujam aPTie 30 «-t> «" 
^'S fO F^^r °S ° Oipinn ij- eib me « tam'j 
ann-o jtitZTr\&\n 6 fO'i <um Cuipe fno C'pe a 
4up ^p a^AiV, 'aCc CJ eajla mop Opm r.«C 
b^r«T>7Ain60<o puinn m«iTe«r« T>o 4^«rdm 
T>'f ipinn Atinj-o. Cim/ioi'O ""f.^rS il-«"a'r* *" 
Tjomain, X)iO"ie lat t) fU'l cpfflri"!, ca^Ia 
"Df. njipe, piopannACC Tio «ott putT> e>L* m4ic 

cca. za f'^'o v«'wp. r*'^^'r «"o'r. *5t 

Cimao'O V^5, bote, Jjn a^j^hii, 541 vp 
crirjjilte le rl46*ir><)c. jan Aon cun^nam 
Atr o t)i4 

TAi^C too A*pC6fn *>d puT)A">«n5 &\t T>0 p»nncj- 

tpoive «nn mo t««l, T n> f*'»'p no 50 m btn)- 
ffi «p cf^rS tiu'Le l«6 Ci piT> « rm«5«<i 
fuiun Ca V'Op *c« r«f tj-^'^r"'"*^'^ *°" 
niA a iieanArh cpp«, 4tt bv*i^ip l» tunjnjm 
D* 50 b.^uiU r'*o *.S m'S*" T""^* f" C* 
niaoio AnOip fp *" b'ir«>r po mop l-4't>p« r« 
b-cintp p'4m f op C* leitpi- p itfAO |^e«p m*it 
O.itnn pen. • n- I n^ petp'pivv i> Ul*t> po f ^pC* 
Cd *i» <om«T) \t »j«-«fi«m «ic' •n.'D'u <np » t p»'>p- 
tfijl. T b p«iTj<p p»l « pjo* .lo m.b«iT.r*»' <> op 
TO A'ci Ve t)i4nam in <'ic »"5'n e'V* T\> p»>«>p 
T»o Id* t>«>e n* S«p4n*t X,o TJto Cunj;nAm «n 
an r>p bote aZJ. pop 45 bpui^can <wm | .O'pp* 
tJivimip »;tj l*>p P'Op 1 U' lunjnom V» ca «n 
l« 45 eraic no 50 fn-04i<(miv nn 4p m4i5'p- 
tipi«iO 7»>n 

Olif* »0 <4f4 pop 



Mil. n'l>nR?<KI 



I.'K MEI'I.Y TO Til* -' 



"TRANSLATION. 
Uoui* o( CoiniLoni Libr»rji 
■2i ■: 1901. 

Th« Secrelir^ G»«lic Sucirit. N»w Yotli. 

D««r Friend — 1 cm thmktui fjr lh» c«bl»- 
gram which jou t«at oe >»>lfid»y U) lbi« 
lloQir. I •» • jouog intD from Irrlind obo 
rim* her* a. wrfk »(jo to {oi»«r<< l»i» c«j»« 
of my couutr-v. but 1 grr»ll> («ir lh»l il "ill 
not b« pombl* for u( lo do oiocb |p?od (jr 
Irrltad h»r». W* kr« amoog tb» ri»>.«rd» of 
Ihf world. propl« wilhoul UiUi. lb» («»/ ot 
God. kUioir. lrulhtultit«». or »t..T olbfr (nx>i 
qualit}. ThfY •r* itrong »nd rich oo». »fii 
«« •?▼ we»k »nd pOfir, »Uhoiil wfn. bciie4 
in cbiint, without »r.y help »»»• fftn Oed 
If yoo WOT* h»r». »« I tn. li«l»nion to th»« 
rflttinn l^» (I'Hxl Cling* lh«y b»»« doo« lor 
Ir.;«nd IhfK huidrcd »?«t», !iouT brwl wou.d 
ri«» to jour mouth. »r.d it •uuij »oi b« po*- 
tib!« lor )vii rot lo git« ihtm to »=irf blow. 
Th».T »r» Diking fuB ol u«. They koow Ibtt 
It 11 Br.1 p»i<iV>:« for u« lo do »rTthir\j| o» 
llittn. but r»rl-»p< with lh» help o( G"A lfc»^ 
mty b« ir»kiin (on of thennehe* W* %r% 
oow in thu J'»rli«in»Dt ttron-er Ui»n we wire 
c<«r be/ori>. Th^ce »r« ei»nt» tr»« m** at 
u«, •r J liie member* from I Itter »r>» mot oter 
• ilitfieil. Sh« (tr^ •;>ll ht« loo Diit(b l«» do 
in the Tr»n»»»«l. » ' • 



m*y ti»e ninr« 11 

It i« not I 

• l*4y* 

ttill «U\i(;i,..nn I 

tfu«*. eod ^ikli tt 

roini'ig •h'li •» • 

•a )ont Uu« l««od 



■ \ 
r ^ . i. a 

iSit n 

I -. >.• «n u 

.r u*a Batter* —t 



T*nY f«» • "•• '■ 



TDOMAS ODONKCLL> 

«KI.I(' MM ICTV l^ KKW TiillK. 



100 



THE AMF.RICAX MOSTHI.Y RHIlf-U- Ol- RF.yiElVS. 



Kn^lish mo»les ami Knglisli thought in Iri'lniul. 
Ytw. m my opinion, worso than famine and tlie 
8Wi>nl, \vi>i-j««> tlian iMiiiirraiion and ccuMvioii, cvtMi, 
this >;ra<liuil an^lici/.aiiDM oi our country has mili- 
tated ajn»inst national hopes for freedom " (strong 
hut truthful wordsK Further on, he says : 
" Irislj history — that glorious story which tells 
on every page of devotion to high and holy ideals, 
and disregard of merely materialistic aims — has 
Int-n kept a closed book to her sons," and ho 
winds up a masterly expositi<)n of the national 
outlook in Ireland thus: "Irishmen and Irish- 
women liave reason to lift up their hearts with 
thankfulness and with joy, strong in the belief 
that the near future will see an Irish Ireland, 
self- centered, self contained, self-reliant, imi- 
tating the opinions and thoughts and modes of 
feeling of no other nation, — an Irish Ireland, 
proud of its glorious past, confident in its future, 
and determined to be free." These are the calm, 
deliberate words of the present leader of the Irish 
partv. giving in no unmistakable terms his ideas 
of the serious and immediate national duty which 
Irishmen owe to their language. 

The Most Rev. Dr. O'Donnell, Bishop of Raphoe, 
s[)eaking at the Maynooth Union in 1900, thus 
expressed himself: "No doubt they were all 
pretty conscious that the ancient love of learning, 
ami of reading, and of the salt of wisdom that 
was so characteristic of their country was at 
l)resent in a decadent condition. But lie put it 
forward as his opinion that for restoring the lost 
chord to the heart of Ireland, and making a re- 
sound, a leading condition, and, perhaps, the first 
condition — the condition most congenial to the 
Celtic nature — was the reviving and placing upon 
an honored throne the grand old language of their 
country ; " and, further on, speaking of the cul- 
ture which the language has brought to those who 
use Irish solely or almost entirely, and who would, 
according to present ideas, be considered illiterate, 
his lordship says : " In the remote glens of Ire- 
land they still came upon fine types of Irish man- 
hood and womanhood cast in a noble mold of 
mind and manners, and with an inherited culture 
which he believed not a century of training could 
attain." 

From these quotations from men who are lead- 
ers — one in the political or national, and the 
other in the religious, moral, and spiritual ad- 
vancement of our race — it must be admitted that 
we in Ireland consider the safety of our language 
as a living tongue, its value as a barrier to the 
irreligion and gross materialism of the present 
age, its value as a national relic, a national treas- 
ure, marking Irishmen ofT from the rest of man- 
kind, a distinct race with an inheritance of nobil- 
ity, idealism, and devotion to principle, as above 



and beyond, because embracing, all other ques- 
tions at present occupying the mind of Ii-e- 
land. 

Our language is the only thing that remains to 
us after the struggles of centuries. Our liberty 
and our own lainl have been takciii from us. While 
that language remains it will ever act as a Ma- 
sonic bond to link a people whom misgovern- 
inent lias exiled all over tlie globe, and who 
would otherwise be lost in the multitucU; and 
lost to their country. Our national poet has said : 
' ' The language of a nation's youth is the only 
easy and full speech for its manhood, and for its 
age, and when the language of its cradle goes, 
itself craves a tomb." And again : "A nation 
should guard its language more than its territo- 
ries, — 'tis a surer barrier and a stronger frontier 
than fortress or river." 

The language and the mind of Ireland mutually 
reacted upon each other. While the language 
was in the first instance the product, the growth, 
of the Irish mind, leaving in its idioms and forms 
of expression distinct characteristics of the minds 
which evolve it, the minds of future generations 
of Irishmen were shaped and developed by the 
language, by its expressive beauty, its prayerful 
and religious tendencies, its mystic charms ; 
they grew in the natural order, forming, each 
one, a link in the chain of national development, 
each the inheritor of the wisdom, the culture, 
and refinement of those preceding, each drawing 
from the storehouse of the past ; and thus has 
been developed, not in one generation, not by 
forced instruction, but by slow degrees, through 
nearly twenty centuries, the Irish mind and the 
Irish language. The Irish mind was, even in 
pagan times, essentially religious, chaste, and 
idealistic, docile, dutiful to parents, passionately 
loyal whether to earthly chief or heavenly King, 
self-sacrificing and unselfish, — a fitting soil on 
which to sow the seeds of Christianity, a soil 
which has brought real enduring fruit, not its 
semblance, or the blossom, to decay on the ap- 
pearance of tlie storm of self-interest or self- 
indulgence. That mind, with its simplicity, its 
sincerity, and its devotion to the cause of reli- 
gion, has come down to us unstained, in a 
language which to-day, in the wilderness of irreli- 
gion, moral depravity, selfishness, and mammon- 
worship, speaks only of the beauty of a simple 
life, relating tale after tale to exemplify the 
worth of self-sacrifice, of chastity and purity. 
Our language breathes of the time when men 
and nations were younger, more beautiful, and 
less materialized than they are to-day. Let me 
compare this with the mind for which we are 
asked to exchange our birthright. I am afraid, 
without wishing to be severe or extravagant, it 



THE GAELIC REill^AL IS IRELAND. 



101 



must be admittod tliat the Kiiglish mind tu-day 
is a mind without God in its world, anxious for 
the possessions of earth, striving madly fur 
earthly power and dominion, disreganling the 
higher and the nobler aims which tend to spir- 
itualize our natures ; a mind to which real prac- 
tical Christianity, with its beautiful teachings, 
is unknown ; a mind grossly materialized, avail- 
ing of every new doctrine to choke the voice of 
God within the conscience ; a mind always self- 
righteous, to which contrition or self-condemna- 
tion is an absurdity ; a mind which, while boast- 
ing of Its independence, is the most abject slave 
on earth to fashion, to power, to titles, to catch- 
cries — the most easily Wfooled or blindly led. if 
the leaders can but properly appeal to the selfish- 
ness of its nature. 

For this mess of pottage, which inevitably 
would, with the spread of the English language 
and its poisonous literature, become of necessity, 
and according to the natural order followed in 
all national growths, our lot and inheritance, we 
are asked to sell our birthright, to deny our an- 
cestors, to break away from a past of which we 
should be proud, and which will ever act as a 
source of inspiration and guidance to us. We 
are asked to tell our children that they had the 
misfortune to be born in a country with no na- 
tional inlieritaiice, and that they must regard 
themselves as an inferior race, only fit to delve 
and toil, never to initiate or lead ; that their 
motherland is but an unknown province with a 
liistory only of defi-at and humiliation ; that love 
of country and pride of birth — those powerful 
instincts in man's breast — are to.be unknown to 
them. 

Irishmen of all creeds and classes refuse to as- 
sent to this demand. They feel that their an- 
cestors rendered noble service lo civilization and 
to Christianity, that their country has a histc^ry 
and a destiny which are peculiarly its own, that 
Ireland was, and again must be, a nation, with 
a language, government, and influence peculiar 
to itself. Our language is, as I have already 
said, after all po.ssible efforts to destroy it, 
spoken by a million of our countrymen; it is being 
taught in our schools ; songs are sung and 8tt)ries 
told by the peasant's fireside in it ; the entire 
Nationalist press of Ireland devote columns week- 
ly to Irish ."Stories or essavs ; several concerts, 
where not om; word of English wa.s hcaid, have 
l)een held in different parts of Irclanrl ; sermons 
are being preached in Irish to crowded and en- 
thusiastic listeners even in such unlikely places 
as London and New York ; a new spirit has 
come over Erin, her slumlMMing, fiery noul has 
been awakened ; her d(;termirialion. Iter zeal, 
and the unity of her representalivi-s are ii,.i; 



ters of notoriety and much c..iic.«mi t., l,..r 
governors. 

^ has now to .U-m1 with a |K*opio and 

ihei; - ; -entatives ('.-' • • _' with d. • ■ -on 

and characteristic fea >. not i> «. 

terial welfare and the rights of self-govornineDt, 
but for -•''•• ■ ' • • ,] 

tl'^' Vel\ ^. :.. .- ..^iJ 

language to Ireland ; as such do the Irish people 
h)ok upon that language to-day — t(io«? wlio know 
it, and those who do not — all determined that tho 
rising generation of Iri.>.hmen shall \w aff.^rde*! 
opportunities for acquiring a thomugh knowleilge 
of it. We are determined to make our children 
bilingual, h'arning Engli.«^li for commercial pur 
poses, Irish for social entertainment, for instruc- 
tion, for elevation of soul, and whether the Speaker 
in an English IIous*' of Commons, w' — are 
a foreign element, dissatisfied, k«'pt -t our 

will, allows it to be 8()oken or prevents its use, 
we care not. As space iloes not p^-rndl my going 
fully into the eiiucational value of the language 
to the Irish child, I shall confine myself to quot- 
ing a few extracts from re{H)rts written by the 
late .*-;ir Patrick Ke<'naii. Hesi<h-nt Commissioner 
of National Education in Inland : 

The slirewdost jH-opU- iii tin- world an- tliosi- who nre 
biliii>{u«l ; lMir(l<Tfr> have always Ut-ii n-niarknbU- iii 
tliis n-s[»ect. lint tilt* most Hitipid i-liiliin-ti I have ever 
nu-t with art' tliosc wlio wi-rc IfumiuK Kiitdinh while 
eiideavoriiiK to f(»r>:et Irish. The real (xilicy <if th«- e«lu- 
c-atioiiist wuui<l. in my opiiiioii. In- (<> tt-arh Ii ">• 

matically ami M»uinlly to the Irisli-sjwakiiiK |x . I'l 

then to teach them KiiKlish thntiiKh tl>e iiu*4liuiu uf 
their national lamriia^e. 

Dnrinf; my in»p«'ttion last year I was fn-qiiently en- 
){aKe<l in the examination of cifisses nf <-hil<ln-n who ex- 
hihited neither intellijjenre nor smart iiesx, nor even or- 
dinary aninintion. wliile Inmiik qiiestiontil in Knitlinh ; 
hut when tiiecjiiestions wen- Kiveii. i>r answer- d. 

in Irish, at once their eyes tla.shed with fi\< • ir 

voices became loud ami musical, and their intellect iinl 
faculties apiieared to rijH*!! up, and to delight in IwIuk 
exercised. I never oliwrve*! a contrast mora nmrkiHl 
than the !ipi»«-a ranee of a ela.ss of lri-h-s|»eii! 1- 

dren who wiT>' i-x.imiiied first in Kiicli-li aip .n 

Irish. 

We are determined to have otir lnnguagi> in 
our own parliament, to mold our constitution on 
lines characteristically Irish, to bri«lg«» tlu^ 
breach of the last hundnnl years, to lako up 
anew the <Iuty of our race. If, by endeavoring 
to speak in my native language in the House of 
Commons, I have in the sn " ' coii 

tributed toward this result, I i and 

proud. I may here \ns iwrmitttnl to comTl the 
mistaki' int<» which the English pn«i«s ha* fallen 
ii ' ' - tir language as •• Krse." Uurs M 



MOSOriTOES AS TRANSMITTERS OF DISEASE. 



BY I.. (). HOWARD. 
(Entomologist. United States Department of Agriculture.) 



NO one .<5ubject to-day is exciting jnoro wide- 
spread interest among medical men all 
over the world than the agency of insects in the 
spread of disease, and the popular interest in 
the subject is very great. For numy months 
the newspapers have contained long accounts of 
experimental work which has been done in one 
part of the world or another, and every one has 
at least a general knowledge of the results ob- 
taineil . 

Probably the first important step toward pro- 
ducintr the astonishing results which have been 
reached was the determination by the Bureau of 
Animal Industry of the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture of the fact that the germ of 
Texas fever of cattle is conveyed from diseased 
to healthy cows by the cattle tick. The Texas 
fever of cattle is a disease allied to malaria. The 
causative organism is a parasite which inhabits 
the red blood corpuscles, just as does the parasitic 
organism of malaria. It is interesting to note 
that this discovery was made in America and by 
Americans, because much of the subsequent work, 
and in fact most of the work with mosquitoes 
and malaria, has been carried on by investigators 
of other nationalities, and in many different parts 
of the world. 

The discovery of the parasite of malaria, the 
suggestion that it may be transmitted by a mos- 
quito, the long experimental proof, in which 
many investigators took part, and the conclusion 
reached that mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles 
are necessary secondary hosts in the life of tlie 
parasitic organism, makes a long story and an in- 
teresting one. So many investigators participated 
that it is difiBcult to give proper credit, and even 
now much hard feeling exists between the inves- 
tigators of the English, Italian, and German 
schools in regard to priority in certain discov- 
eries. In the May number of the Quarterly 
Journal of Microscopical Science, Dr. George H. 
F. Nuttall has a short paper on the question of 
priority with regard to certain discoveries in 
the etiology of malarial diseases, and from a 
reading of this paper one cannot fail to be im- 
pressed with the fact that many observers de- 
serve great credit, and that tlie knowledge which 
we have gained is due to their combined labors ; 
and further, that perhaps no one name stands out 
preeminently. 



However satisfactory the demonstration of the 
complete life-history of the malarial pai-asite as 
it occurs in the human blood, and as it lives in 
tlic stomach of the Anojihclcs mosquitoes and 
wanders through the body cavity of these crea- 
tures until by way of the salivary glands and 
duct it reaches the proboscis, may be to scientific 
men, and especially to those familiar with the 
biology of the particular group of parasitic crea- 
tures to which the malarial germ belongs, as 
demonstrating tlie necessary relation of mosqui- 
toes to the disease, something more is required 
to convince the average individual, and this has 
been done many times and in many places by 
means of actual experimental work in the way 
of preventing the disease. 

The Italians have been most active in this 
work. Italy is the classic land of malaria. More 
than half of the communes of the country are 
malarious. Every year, two millions of workers 
are attacked, and malaria is probably the prin- 
cipal cause of the enormous emigration of poor 
Italians. The first large-scale practical experi- 
ment tried in Italy, after the actual demonstra- 
tion of the transmission of the disease by the 
bite of the Anop)hcles mosquitoes, was conducted 
by Dr. Angelo Celli by means of a preventive 
regime with the employees of the Roman Cam- 
pagna Railroad. He chose two stations, Cer- 
varo and Pontegalera, the most abominably ma- 
larious places he could find, and by protecting 
the railroad employees from mosquito-bites he 
succeeded in keeping them free from malaria, 
while other people in the neigliborhood, without 
exception, suffered from it. These experiments 
interested the scientific men of the whole world. 
Koch came from Germany to watch them, and 
the English Government sent a commission which 
was installed at Ostia. Similar experiments 
were carried on by Dr. Grassi, another famous 
investigator. He established headquarters at 
Albanella and San Nicola Varco, in the province 
of Salerno, in the midst of the desolate Cam- 
pagna. He dosed malarial patients with qui- 
nine and other specifics from January till June. 
The houses of the railroad employees and the sta- 
tions were protected by wire screens in all doors 
and windows, and even in the chimney openings, 
so that no mosquitoes could gain entrance. The 
interior walls were whitewashed, so that the 



MOSilU/TOES AS TRANSMITTERS Oh D/SFASE. 



lua 



mosquitoes could li«M'asily observetl aii<l killed, in 
case any accidentally gaineil entrance. Tlie 
doors were all made double, and the outer one 
closed autonialically, so that by no chance could 
a door Ije left open. Knipluyees going out after 
nightfall were protected l)y veils over tlieir heatis. 
and by gloves on their hands. The most satis- 
factory results Were obtained. Without excep- 
tion, the fever spared the protected emplovees, 
while the neighboring farmers, who ridiculed the 
exj)eriiMents, were all ill. The large Italian 
landowners, and the government itself, were con- 
vinced of the possibility of prariical anti-malarial 
work, and the following year (liH)U) King Hum- 
Ijerl gave seventeen thousand francs to the com- 
mune of Home, and an anti-malarial campaign 
was umlertaken. Ambulances, with doctors and 
nurses, worked in the field from June 30 until 
()ctol)er '24. Not one of the corjis was taken ill ; 
they treated hundreds of nuilarial patients, and 
practically proved to the ignorant and poor resi- 
dents that protection against mosquiti^es means 
no malaria. This year the same campaign is be- 
ginning again. The King of Italy has given ten 
thousand francs from his private purse, and one 
of the most important charities based ujton a 
great scientific discovery is now in operation. 

The English have been very prominent in this 
malarial work, both as investigators and as prac- 
tical fighters of disease. Englainl has little or 
no malaria, but her enormous colonial posses- 
sions in tropical and subtropical regions have 
drawn her attention forcibly to tlie question of 
remedies for malarial fevers. The beautifid 
exp«;rimental demonstration cairied on by Drs. 
Sambon and Low, of the London Scliool of 
Tropical M(!dicine, in the summer and autumn 
of 1!)0(), near Ostia, on the Roman Campagna, 
has attracted a great deal of attention in tliis 
country, and the newspapers have contained very 
fidl accounts. This experiment was so con- 
vincing that the last doubt«'r must have given in 
at its conclusion. The Englishmen lived in a 
woollen house constructed for the jiurpose in a 
very malarious region. The house was tight 
an<l thoroughly screened ; they took lU) quinine, 
and their only precaution was to enter the house at 
nightfall an<l to remain there until the next morn- 
ing. TIk! winiiows were left open, so that the .no- 
called deadly night air of the Campagna circulated 
frecdy through the house. They exposed them- 
selves to rains during the day, since the surnmer 
rains wen; formerly supposed to Ik? v«'ry conducive 
to malaria. They renuunecl in absolutely robuHt 
liealtli, while almost every non-protected |M'i"8on in 
theneigliborhood was ill. Conversely, mos(piito«'s 
which had bitten patients in Italy were taken 
alive to Englan<l. and lliere, in a phu-e where 



thiMe was no malaria, they wen* aliuwe«I to bit« 

a jKTson who had never had malaria, am! 

mitted what the physicians called a "U , 

case ' of double tertian malaria 

Hut it has been in her several Mientitic ••xjie- 
ditions to the west coast of Africa tiiat England 
has done her best work. Well-equip|M*<l oxpiHli- 
tions have U-en sent out under the a of 

the Hoyal Acatlemy. of the Londf»n of 

Tropical Medicine, and of the Liverp .lol 

of Tropical Medicine. They have studied with 
great care the conditions under which the mala- 
rial mosquitoes of the genus AnopheUs itreed ; 
they have displayed the habits of tluse inwcts in 
the fullest manner ; they have studied malaria as 
it exists in the natives • they have mapjM'd for 
many settlements the exact 8j)ols in which 
Anopheles breed ; they have ex{NM-imented with 
different measures for d?stroving the insect in all 
of its different stages, and they have brought 
about results which are of the greatest practical 
value to the whole worhl. The expedition of 
the Liverpool school, which s|N'nt the entire 
summer of 1!U)0 in Nigeria, was es|>ecially pro- 
ductive in results, and its re|)ort. published iu 
March of the present year, lays down a definite 
course of action for F}uro|)eans resident in West 
Africa by which it seems certain that the iliea«letl 
African fevers may practically Ije avoided. Hue 
of the most interesting features is the -ice 

of the recommendation that the hab.; .., of 

EurojK'ans must be segregated from those of 
the natives ; but eventually in many places, bv 
means of exterminating work against lh< 
(jiiitoes, the natives themselves will U' pi. 
to such an extent that their habitations will no 
longer l>e the menace that tlu-y are at pn'sent. 

Some of the important wcirk u|Hin malaria hajc 
also l)een done in America. We must not Iosm* 
sight of the fact that the first strung rational 
paper armiing in favor of the carriage of this dis- 
(•ase l>y mosquitoes was written by an American 
physician. Dr. A. V. .\. King, of Wasiiingtun. 
I). C., in 1KS2. Nor must the im|H>rtanl di;»- 
covery by W. G. MacCallum, of .lolms Hopkins 
Cniversity, in 1H!»7, of the sexual generation of 
malarial parasites be forgotten. This discovery 
contributed greatly to the complete kii' ' ■ of 
the full life history of this group of in ^an- 

isms. A few )M>autiful and practical deuiun- 
strations of tiie comparative eas4> with which u 
so called malarial ••pideinic can U* Klop|>«>d liy 
])raclical anti-mosquito work have lM>en carriiil 
out by Americans. One of the m«ml perfectly 
convincing ones which have Immmi pi." '^^iii 

record was iie»cniH*d by hr W. N. i.. .„..ev. 
of New York City, in th«' ,l/r./ir«i/ lirfnni of 
.iMiiiiary '2<». jyoi. This cane occiirnMi in a sfiall 



Il»» 



THE AMERICAS MONTHLY REFIEIV OF REI^IEIVS. 



town iH'jir Nt'W York City, in tlu'suiniiu'r of IIMM). 
It was a place \vlu»rt> iiiainrin was nol known. 
but Anophrlts broil tliert". and wlion a malarial 
|kati(Mit «'ann» the disoasc was nvpitUy transniitlt'd 
bv those mosquitoes to many people in the vi- 
cinity. Under Dr. Herkeley's direction, the 
most]uitoi>s in the houses were exterminated ; 
screens were placed in the windows and doors ; 
the smaller breeding places of the mosquitoes 
were filled in and the larger ones were drained ; 
every malarial patient was secluded by nettiiii;: 
from the bites of mosquitoes, and the spread of 
the disease was instantly stopped. Not a single 
new case of malaria developed. Anopheles dis- 
ap[>eared entirely from the houses. 

The most striking work done by Americans, 
however, in connection with the spread of dis- 
ease by mosquitoes has not been upon malaria, 
but upon yellow fevei'. The actual and conclu- 
sive demonstration by the army yellow -fever com- 
mission, of which Dr. Walter Keed is presi- 
dent, will rank forever as one of tlie most 
beneficial discoveries in medical science. 

The cause of yellow fever has always been a 
mystery ; and. indeed, it is a mystery to-day in 
a measure, since, although undoubtedly a disease 
of parasitic origin, the parasitic organism itself 
has not yet been discovered. Several times it has 
been thought that it was found, and there are 
those investigators who to-day believe that the 
Bacillus icteroides of Sanarelli is the causative or- 
ganism of the fever ; while the English physician, 
Dr. Herbert E. Durham, who, with the late Dr. 
Walter Myers, was sent out by the Liverpool 
School of Tropical Medicine to Brazil, believes 
that in a small bacillus which they have frequently 
found in autopsies they have discovered the true 
germ. The proof brought by the American ex- 
periments that certain mosquitoes will transmit 
the disease, however, renders both of these claims 
uncertain and probably incorrect. In fact, Dr. 
Keed denies that Sanarelli's bacillus has anything 
to do with yellow fever. The true parasite will 
be discovered, without doubt, and it is to be 
hoped ihat the American army officers who have 
been responsible for such an extraoixlinary ad- 
vance in our knowledge of the etiology of the 
dread disease may be the investigatoi'S to carry 
the work through to its fullest conclusions. 

The experiments carried on by Dr. Reed and 
his associates were as perfect in theii- methods as 
It was possible for scientific acumen and hard 
common sense to make them. Every possible 
element of error seems lo have been guarded 
against. The final and conclusive tests made 
during the autumn of 1900 were conducted with 
a spirit of earnestness, self-sacrifice, and enthusi- 
asm which affected everv one connected with the 



work, even in the most suljoidinalc positions, 
common soldiers not oidy offering tliems(;lves for 
the presunud)ly dangerous test, l)ut insisting that 
tliev should be accepted as subjects for experi- 
ment. The master spirit of the inv(isligation, 
Dr. Reed, was evidently the in;in above all men 
for this work, in this respect of compelling the 
greatest confidence and enthusiasm, no less than 
in the absolutely complete manner in which the 
experiments were conducted. 1 have no space 
to descril)e the details of this masterly experi- 
mental work. While it was in progress, criticism 
was invited and urged, from Havana physicians, 
from visiting surgeons, and from every one 
interested. But so perfect were the plans that it 
seems impossible that any criticism could have 
been made. 

An experimental sanitary station was estab- 
lished in the open, a mile from Queiuados. Two 
houses were built, tightly constructed, with 
windows and doors protected by wire screens. 

In one of these houses, soiled sheets, pillow- 
cases, and blankets were used as bedding, and 
this bedding was brought straight from the beds 
of patients sick with yellow fever at Havana. 
For sixty -three days these beds were occupied by 
members of the hospital corps for periods varying 
from twenty to twenty -one days. At the end of 
this occupation the men, who were all non-im- 
munes, were taken to quarantine for five days and 
then released. Not one of them was taken ill. 
All were released in excellent health. This ex- 
periment is of the greatest importance, as show- 
ing that the disease is not conveyed by fomites, 
and hence the disinfection of clothing, bedding, 
or merchandise supposed to have been con- 
taminated by contact with yellow-fever patients 
is no longer necessary, and the extremes to which 
this disinfection work has been cari-ied in cases of 
yellow-fever epidemics in our Southern States 
have been perfectly useless. 

In the other house, which was known as the 
"infected mosquito building," were no articles 
which had not been carefully disinfected. The 
house contained two rooms, and nonimmunes 
were placed in both roon-s. In one room, sepa- 
rated from the other by wire-screen partitions 
only, mosquitoes which had bitten yellow-fever 
patients were admitted. In the other room they 
were excluded. In the latter room the men re- 
mained in perfect health ; in the mosquito room 
50 per cent, of the persons bitten by infected mos- 
quitoes that had been kept twelve days or more 
after biting yellow-fever patients were taken with 
the disease, and the yellow-fever diagnosis was 
confirmed by resident physicians in Havana who 
were above all others familiar with the disease 
in every form. Persons bitten by mosquitoes at 



MOSQU/TOHS AS TRANSMITTERS OF D/SHASF. 



li»: 



an earlier ]>erio<i tlian twelve tlays aftiT liiey liad 
bitten a yellow- fever patient diti not contract the 
disease. In another series of experiments, of 
seven pei-sons liitten by infected mosquitoes by 
placing the hand in a jar containing the insects, 
live, or 71 j>er cent., contracte<l iIh' disea^je. 

Such, in brief, was tlie result of the exjK»ri- 
mental work. None of the patients ex|x«ri!nented 
with died. 

It was found that yellow fever was produced 
by the injection of blood taken from the general 
circulation of a patient, suliciitaneous injections 
of two cubic centimeters of bloo^l l>eing followed 
by the disease, and the definite conclusion was 
readied that the j.arasite of yellow fever must be 
present in tlie general circulation at lea.*:t tluring 
the early stages of the disease, and tiiat yellow 
fever may be produced, like malarial fever, 
either by tlie bite of the mosquito or by the in- 
jection of the blood taken from the general cir- 
culation. From this the important corollary is 
reached, to quote Dr. Reed's own words : '* Tlie 
spread of yellow fever can be most efTectually 
controlled by measuies directed to the destruc- 
tion of the mosquitoes and the protection of the 
sick against the bites of these insects." 

In the malarial investigations, the only mos- 
quitoes which have been found to carry tlie dis- 
ease are those of the genus Annphelts. The 
malarial germ seems to die in the stomachs of 
tiie commoner mosquitoes of the genus Cu/ex. 
With yellow fever, so far as the investigations 
have gone, but one species of mosquito has been 
found to transmit the disease. Tliis is the form 
known as Sli/jniuyia (nsridln, formerly placed in 
the genus Culex. This mosquito is a south- 
ern form, an<l its geographic distril)Ulion corre- 
sponds very accurately with the geographic dis- 
tribution of the di.sease. It is commonly fouml 
in our Southern Stales, and is abundant through- 
out tropical regions. It is a mosquit<» which 
readily accommodates itself \o city conditions, 
and breeds freely in the cesspools, rain-water 
tanks and l>arrels, and places of a similar natun-. 
It thus abounds in southern communities. ( )iie 
of the most inten'sting dilTerences in the habits 
of this mosquito and the malaria-bearing forms, 
and f)ne which has some practical signili<'anc«', is 
that, while the malarial moscpiitoes seem to fly 
and bite only at niglit, the yellow-f«'ver moscpiilo 



is popularly ternieii in many MJUtiieni regions the 
" «lay mosipiito," since it liiles ii ■' 
as well as at night. It will be m y, 

the malarial exiK'rinienters on the Konian Cam- 
pagna walked alnnit the neighlK»nng 
during the day and retired to their n: 
proof hou8<> only at nightfall ; but in u 
fever country it ig wise to protect one's self 
against mos(|uilo-bites by day as well a.4 by nir' • 

The incredulity whicii was felt by many, a:. . 
which was expressed by certain journals after 
I)r. Heed's first aniujiincement of the preliminarv 
Work of the commission, at the nufiing i>f the 
American Public Health Ass«x-iation in IiKJian 
apolis last (Jctolxjr. has passed away since the 
publication of his last pajier, read In^fure ti.- 
I'an- American Mt'dical Congress at Havana eaii\ 
in February of the present year. The \m[H*r it- 
self is conclusive ; but the modest wav in whi.li 
Dr. Heed has told the story of the i- -• • 
results achieved by himself and by his 
while exact and scientific, does not impress ilu* 
average iion- medical n-adt-r with a due sense of 
its importance. Hut when one learns of the en 
thusiasm with which Dr. Heed was received bv 
the Johns Hopkins Medical A!<.sociation and bv 
the Medical A.^socialion of the District «>f Co- 
lumbia, an*l when om> talks, as the writer has 
done, with physicians from Central America 
who were present at the Han -American Medical 
Congress at Havana, anti with those who as.sihted 
in this great ex(>eriment, one cannot fail to be- 
lieve, not only in the soundness of the conclu- 
sions, but in t!ie transcendent im{K)rtance of the 
discovery. 

Practical ami mos(|uito work was undertaken 
in Cuba immediately following the formulntion 
of these conclusions, (u-neral «)rder8 were is 
sued requiring the universal use »>f mo8<(uilobars 
in all barracks, es|K>cially in hospitals, as well as 
in Held service where practicable. ThedrHinnge 
of bleeding- places, tlie use of |H>iroU>iim on 
standing water, in which mosquitws bretnl, was 
directed, and the ineiiical deparlin<<nt of the 
army furnished oil for this pur|M»s««. It has re- 
sulted that Havana had less y«>llow fever kluring 
the present year than at any time in its history. 
Not a single ca.se has originated in the city of 
Havana since .May 7 last, and, incidentally, ma- 
larial fevers have U'en greatly reiluce«l. 



CUBA'S INDUSTRIAL POSSIBILITIES. 

VA' ALBERT (;. ROBINSON. 




T 



gateway at entrance to a 
plantek's home. 



HE island of 
Cuba is a 
gigantic farm of 
•JS.OOO.OOO acres 
of niarvelously 
fertile soil. Thir- 
teen million acres 
remain as virgin 
forest. Her pres- 
ent population is 
a little above one 
and a half mil- 
lions. 

"Were Cuba as 
densely populated 
as Massachusetts, 
her census would 
show 11,000,000 
inhabitants. An 
equal density with that of England would give 
her upward" of -^^i 000, 000. Her ability to 
support a population per square mile equiva- 
lent to that of England, so large a percentage 
of which is dependent upon manufacturing in- 
terests, is somewhat doubtful, from the fact 
that Cuba presents little or no possibility of ever 
becoming a manufacturing center. In a meas- 
ure, the comparison with Massachusetts is also 
faulty, for tlie same reason. Yet, in the latter 
case, the vastly greater fertility of Cuban soil 
would ofTset the manufacturing feature, and there 
is little doubt that Cuba, along the line of her 
particular agricultural advantages, can provide a 
comfortable and reasonably profitable living for a 
population of 10,000,000 of moderately industri- 
ous citizens. 

The census of 1899, prepared by American 
authority under the direction of General Sanger, 
gives the number of Cuban farms as 60,71 1. Of 
these, 38,5.50 are of less than eigiit acres in ex- 
tent ; 11,050 are between eight and sixteen 
acres; 7.300 only are upward of 150 acres. It 
is evident, therefore, that under present con- 
ditions Cuba is a land of small farmers, ten- 
twelfths representing the small farmer as against 
one-twelfth each of farms of fair area and estates 
of wide acreage. This is further supported by 
tiie fact that about 1,000,000, or two- thirds of 
the entire population, may be classed as being of 
the country, against one-third which is of the 
city. A considerable percentage of this urban 



po])ulation also, more or less directly, derives its 
living from C'uba's agricultural production. 

Of Cuba's total area, only about 3 per cent, is 
now under cultivation. One of the surprising 
and impressive incidents of travel in Cuba is 
noted in journeying through the interior, partic- 
ularly in the provinces of Santa Clara and 
Puerto Principe. One rides by train for hours, 
and by saddle for days, across vast savannas, 
covered, in great part, with rank grasses of 
three to four feet in height, and stretching 
away, seemingly as level as a floor, to the dis- 
tant horizon on all sides. This is notably the 
case in Santa Clara. Puerto Principe is less 
flat, showing more of low, rolling hills ; but 
there is the same vast expanse, for which few of 
us are prepared on our first visit to the interior 
of Cuba. All this means, soirie day, corn, beans, 
potatoes, sugar, tobacco, small fruits, vegetables 
for New York's winter market, grown under nat- 
ural conditions of soil and climate, without 
forcing. 

Koughly averaged, Cuba's commei'ce may be 
given, for normal years, as $100,000,000 worth 
of expoi'ts, and $60,000,000 woith of imports. 
Giving to Cuba that possible six or seven times 
her present popula,tion, and assuming no increase 
in proportionate production, she becomes an ex- 
porter of $700,000,000, and an importer of 
$420,000,000, which is a very tidy business for 
a little country. Such figures may appear to 
be fanciful, — a kind of dream story, — but they 
are nothing of the kind. It will probably be 
many years before Cuba can attain such an in- 
crease in her population and such an extension 
of her commerce, but such attainment and ex- 
tension is a safe prophecy if one does not set' the 
time limit too far on this side of the opening of 
another century. 

During the six years 1890-95, inclusive, Cuba 
averaged a sugar crop of a little less than 900,000 
tons of 2,240 pounds per year. The total world- 
production is, approximately, 8,000,000 tons, 
divided, also approximately, into 3,000,000 tons 
of cane-sugar and 5,000,000 from beets and 
other sources. Cuba is easily capable of pro- 
ducing 4,000,000 tons per year, and her limit of 
possibility is far from being reached at that fig- 
ure. The cost of production in the island is not 
obtainable with any degree of accuracy. Much 
depends upon the advantages or disadvantages- 



CUBA'S INDUSTRIAL POSSIBILITIES. 



IU7 



of the iniliviflual planter in matters of localitv, 
shipping facihtifs, quality of soil, oquipiii.-iit of 
estate, financial resources, etc. Umler reason- 
ably favorable conditions and good business 
niethoiis. Cuban sugar should stand the planter, 
for test grades of raw sugar free on l>oard vessel 
for shipment, not far from :§t45 to |i50 |>er long 
ton of 2,240 jjounds. With Cuba a producer of 
her readily possilile 4,000,(K)0 tons, this item 
alone represents an export trade of some #21)0,- 
000.000. 

Such an extension depends upon two factors — 
tlie investment of capital, and favorable condi- 
tions in the market, principally of the United 
States. The matter of political conditions may 
be left out of the consideration, as one which will 
find reasonably speedy determinaliun. Without 
arguing for the free admission of Cuban sugars 
to the United States, it must be conceded that 
such admission presents a most important con- 
sideration for tlie general American public. With 
the free admission of Cuban sugare to the United 
States, it would be possible for the American 
grocer to supply his customers at about three 
cents i>eT pound. The vast economy which would 
thus be effected in American households and 
American manufacturing interests is wholly ap- 
parent. But it is to be noted that such a reiluc- 
tion and such an economy could only be eflected 
at the cost of an enormous reduction of national 
revenue now obtained from the tarifT placed on 
the importation. On the other hand, again, an- 
other important argument appeare. Such a re- 
duction in the price of sugars in the American 
market might well make the United States almost 
complete master of the worlds trade in caimed 




A ri.AN r>n ■» II' 



fruits, jellies, ami preserves. We c*n grow the 
fruits of all kinds, large and small. We can 
make the tins a"' '' •> •''••--' -■- - .. i :..i . . -jj 
them. The p< « 

channel extend m many dimctions. and involve 
commercial opjxjrtunir ' i^antic -iung. 

One thing is wholly ■ :,. At ; the 

Vexed Cuban question presents com; i po- 

litical features which dominate the prol*iem. In a 

few years, at the longest, •' • ' ' • ';. 

cations will have U-i-n a»l . .| 

States will stand face to face with Cuba's vaal 
economic ].• ' ' oj)ening new lines of trade 

and manufa. . .. the American investor, new 

economies to the American household. 

In some of her pro<luctive possibilities. Cuba 
fits into American interests as the 1 ' '"'^ the 
glove. Sugar is but one of them, i s an- 

other, and cocoa is a third. For many years, 
Cuba has raised but little cofTee. Planters found 
sugar a more profitable industry, and turned 
their attention in that direction. In the first 
quarter of the last century, Cuba was producing 
nearly 10,000 tons of coffee a year. In lM4fi. 
there were l.GOO cofTee plantations on the island ; 
in 1894, there were llil. In price, Cuba can 
never compete with the Hrazilian cofri»e. But in 
that which to many is of far •'• •■■'••r imjKjrtance 
— quality — Brazil offers no < ;ion. Ciiigi 

can grow the finest coffee in the world, and can 
grow a large i>«'rcentago of the coffee which 
coffee -drinkers want to use. In quality, Torto 
Hico would be its rival, but Porto Rico has l»een 
putting about 2'>,000 tons per year of delicious 
cofTee into the world-market, and few Americans 
have known of it. and fewer have tai«t«M| it. 
Porto Rico's utmost possible 
cofTee • pnxluction stojis at 
a>»out aO.OOO tons, and the 
world us<'8 alx)Ut 1,200,000. 
The hills and mountains of 

"•' i" - ■ ■ vince n: 

. .1 for {'>■: _ ■• 

duction. It will grow in al- 
most all {tarts of the inland, 
'•'1' the su|)erior quality is 
■'. pro«lucetl at an altitude 
of 1,500 to 2. SOU feet above 
' >'l. Th«*re is no n>as«^n 
.er why Ciil>a shoidd 
not grow and find a ready 
market for C' ■ an an- 

nual value of ..,,. ... • •■• •"•■■•n 
4l2.'>.(HHI.OOO to i.'iO.' 
1 1 iH oti<< of Culia's ready 
'- ■• , r • .,» 

. . : US 

l>mit growth and pnxluction, 



198 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF RE^IEiVS. 




THE REAL CITBAN AT WORK IN THE FIELD. 



a coffee estate becomes also a banana plantation, 
the banana being used as the most suitable sun- 
shade for the tender coffee shrub. Cocoa finds a 
smaller but far from insignificant market as an 
original product and as such derivatives as choco- 
late and cocoa-butter. Tlie same hills of Santiago 
province are capable of producing cocoa of an ex- 
cellent though perhaps not highly superior quality. 
Cuba's tobacco- production has heretofore been 
quite exclusively limited to special and high 
grades. In that department, she has no com- 
petitor. Vuelta Abajo tobacco stands, with Sea 
Islan<l cotton, Manila hemp, and a few other 
world - specialties, unique, incomparable. But 
Cuba can produce a very notable percentage of 
all the cigars used in this very smoky world. 
Connecticut will lift up its hands and its voice in 
vigorous protest against any free admission to 
the United States of the Cuban weed. But 
Cuba, little country though she is, can plant a 
tobacco area as large as the whole State of Con- 
necticut, and grow cigars, at two or three cents 
apiece, that will make a better smoke than Con- 
necticut brands at twice the money. Specific 
and ad valorem duties now stand in her way. 
As I see the prospective political status of Cuba, 
with the outcome that seems inevitable, I 
should, were 1 a Connecticut tobacco-raiser, 
hedge a little bit, and consider the turning of 
my toVjacco-fields into a nutmeg farm or a cutlerv 



plantation, or give careful consideration to the 
question of emigration to Cuba. 

Cuba produces no tobacco for chewing or for 
pipe-smoking. The Cubans who smoke pipes 
might be counted on one's fingers without mak- 
ing a second round on tlie fingers. Tlie cigar 
and the cigarette prevail. To what extent the 
Cuban cigarette miglit ever become popular with 
American smokers is a matter beyond deter- 
mination. It is certain that most Americans of 
prolonged residence become, if they be smokers, 
addicted to Cuban brands, and find difficulty in 
weaning themselves back to American brands 
on their return home. A few never acquire the 
liking for the Cuban. I recall one day in Yauco, 
in Porto Rico, when I saw a " Jacky " from an 
American warship take from his pocket a little 
pasteboard box marked "Caporal." It con- 
tained two cigarettes. He lit one. A private 
from an American volunteer regiment bought the 
otlier, paying forty cents for it. Generally, how- 
ever, tlie Cuban cie:arette is preferred by Ameri- 
cans in Cuba, as the Philippine cigarette is pre- 
ferred in tlie Philippines. But I strongly doubt 
whether, in the United States, the Cuban cigarette 
would prove a serious rival to the American. 

Cuba consumes nearly one-lialf of her present 
production at home, yet her exports of leaf and 
manufactured tobacco are valued at about $20,. 
000,000. The export for 1899 included 226,. 



CUB. -IS ISnrSTRIAI. POSSIBILITIES. 



litO 



268,569 cigars. The preau-r part of the ('ul)aii 
tobacco traide is now in the hands of two or lliroe 
larp^ concerns that control tho«outi)Ut aii'l, in 
many cases, stand behind the purchasers by ad- 
vancing money on the crop. The application of 
this system is chielly responsible for the verv 
rapid recujHM-ati(»n. since the war, of the Cuban 
tol)acco industry. 

It is wholly prol>able that one of ('nl)a'8 great- 
est industries, if not her greatest, will l>e the 
production of fruits and vegetables for the Ameri- 
can market. Thirty or forty years ago, the 
Havana orange was tlie choice orange of the 
market. American cultivation of the fruit, and 
the energy with which the American output has 
been pushed, liave sent the Cuban orange into 
the background. But there is no question that 
the proper cultivation, in Cuba, of the Cuban 
stock will result in the production of an orange 
which for juiciness, flavor, size, and sweetness 
will be without a superior in the world. The 
free-skinned mandarin oranges can be produced 
to advantage, as can the kintlred fruits, the shad- 
dock, the grape fruit, the lime, ami the lemon. 

Cuba can raise all the bananas that the Ignited 
States can eat, and it is probable that at no dis- 
tant day those concerns which now control the 
trade in bananas and cocoanuts and pinefi])ples 
will all look to near-by Culja U)V their supply of 
these fruits, leaving Jamaica and Belize and San 



Domingo to fintl new markets. Figs, dates, 
guavas, nectarines, apricota. and )K>megranat4*a 
are all among the ready s for either 

canning or .shipment. T _ tU" '\» a fruit 

which careful shipment might wt-ll lay down in 
northern marketa to the gn»at advantage of 
northern palates. To th<iS4> who lia n 

mangoes in the rhilippin<vs an<i (»lher , :n 

the far East, the Culmn mango is a distinct fail- 
ure. The guava jelly of Cul»a is fndli«s.sly hh- 
iMM-ior to the product (»f India and the far Kaat, 
and a larger market should l*o o|><>ne<l for it. 

It is (piite probable that tiiere art* 84>veral 
nioclerate fortunes wailing for those wlio will go 
to Cuba and grow strawberries in a busineM 
way. The same may be said of melons. By 
proi>er cultivation, strawljerrii'.s may Ih« prrnliict**! 
every month in the year under n;i -^ condi- 
tions. Specially selected sites and a .i irri- 
gation might Ijo necessary, but the sites and the 
water are there for thoi^e who will make scien- 
tilic study of a promising industry. Small 
watermelons of delicious sweetnetw and flavor, 
and muskmelons of excellent quality, make 
their appearan<'e in the market early in the y«'ar. 
Pineapples an' receiving considerable attention, 
and there are lx>th promise and opening for wide 
extension of their cultivation. Cuba is a land of 
fruits and vegetables, and the great markets of 
AuMMMfft are ojM«n to hi»r j>roduft<». Manv vege- 




KZi^i. 



^ ITI I.V«i Mt<.AU-< AM. 



20<) 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RE^IEIV OF REI/IEIVS. 




TOBACCO DRYING. 



tables will produce two crops per year, and some 
are perennial. New York may well eat Cuban 
peas and tomatoes and sti'awberries, all fnjsli 
from the vines, at reasonable prices in mid- 
winter. With capital, cheap sugar, and intelli- 
gent direction, Cuban canned fruits and pre- 
serves might well become famous. Careful and 
intolligeni investigation of Cuba's possibilities in 
fruits and vegetables will open many avenues for 
profitable investment. The Cuban "sisal grass" 
is of better quality than the Mexican, and the 
industry is hardly touched. The yucca is a 
plant wliose root yields a highly superior starch. 
It is officially estimated that there are 13,000,- 
000 acres of virginal forest lands in Cuba. 
This is nearly one-half of the total area. Tiie 
improvement of transportation facilities will 
bring some of this to market. It will include 
mahogany, ebony, granadilla, majagua, cedar, 
walnut, lignum-vitae, oak, and pine. There are 
more than thirty species of palm, some of which 
liave special u.ses. But timber cutting and saw- 
ing are for the specialist who "knows a tree" 
and has had experience in "making sawdust." 
It is an unsafe industry for the uninitiated. For 
the expert, Cuba holds some promise when San- 
tiago pi-ovince, where most of the timber is lo- 
cated, is opened up by railways. 



What Cuba may yet offer to the prospector 
for minerals, no man can say. Yet, while it is 
certain that Cuba's wealth lies in that which it 
is possible to produce on her surface, there is no 
doubt that a modest amount of wealth lies under 
some portions of that surface. Santiago province 
has already yielded over 3,000,000 tons of iron 
ore. It is mainly hematite ore, found princi- 
pally as "float" in great masses of bowlders. 
It carries about 62 per cent, of iron, and is 
remarkably free from sulphur. There is no 
doubt that other and larger quantities will yet be 
opened up. There is also copper and manganese. 
Nothing, I believe, is being done witli the cop- 
per, but some manganese has been taken out 
within recent years, and companies are now pre- 
paring for extensive operations in that material. 
Coal, asphaltum, and marble occur in various 
localities, but their abundance or their value 
has not yet been demonstrated. There are the 
usual rumors and legends of gold and silver. 

Cuba is a land of unlimited promise, a sun- 
kissed spot with a marvelous soil. Here and 
there some other region may rival her in all 
natural advantages save that one of supreme im- 
portance — her closeness to the world's great mar- 
kets. The logical outcome of her position is an- 
nexation to the United States. 



THE EXPOSrnOX OF THE ARTIST COLOXV IN 

DARMSTADr. 

By J. (). ADAMS. 




HOUSE OLBHICII. 



'T^IIK stronKla 
■^ and extent of 
the so • called new 
;ift movement in 
• iermany nmy he 
judged from the 
large number of art 
f xliibi tions now 
opeiied. Scarcely a 
i-itv in the whole 
empire that, has not 
its own local art ex- 
]»osition. Most of 
them have stuck to 
the w el 1 - beaten 
method of bringing 
together, under one 
root, a great variety 
of olijects from shop and studio : l)ut in Darm- 
stadt traditions have be«'n disregarded, ami an 
art exhibition has been opened as interesting as 
it is original. 

Two years ago the young Grand r)uke of Ilosse, 
Ernst Ludwig, called to his capital, I)armstaiit, 
seven German artists wlio had already won a rep- 
utation in their respective fields. Though they 
leceive small salaries from their ducal patntn, 
they are under no obligation to work for him. 
If he wants the i)roduct of tlieir lalx)r, he must 
}>uy it the .same as 
any one el.se. 

He also offered 
them building lots, 
rent free for five 
years, in a beauti- 
ful park. The t'our 
married members 
of the artist colony 
accepted this offer, 
and a little less than 
a year ago began 
I) u i 1 d i n g their 
houses. Later, they 
conceived the idea 
of exhibiting the.«e 
Iiouses and their 
contents a s works 
of art. Four other 
gentlemen of Darm- 
stadt bought neigh- 



ijonug lots, and have built on tliom under tlio 
guidance of the artists of the colony. The 
grand duke erected a large central building for 
studios. Then, besitles, they have built a re«- 




Kt.AU SILW cil IIUL.^L llAUKll. 

taurant, a temporary theater, and a temjMirary 
l>icture gallery, making in all a dozen buildings. 
These, with their furniture and decorations, 
form the Art Exposition of 1901 of the Arlisl 
Colony of Darmstadt. 

Here we see houses in their gardens, witii all 
their furnishings in place, and uo supcrfluouH 
articles to weary us. We must keep in mind 
that everything we see was designed by some one 
of the seven artists and made according to his 
directions. Naturally, we must not think of 





L. 





h 'J 


11 1^1 


uaaac^ 


d^ 


— .. . -, 



tlOl'KK HhMHKNN. 



TliaATKM. 



'20'i 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF RE^/EIVS. 



ihoso men as merely painters or sculptors. Al 
lliouj;h two or three work only in one field, several 
• • successfuUv all forms of plastic and dec- 
art. In some cases, the house antl every 
•lijoct in it are all desij^ned by one artist. 

While all of these houses are original and in- 
teresting, some of them possess many features 
which the ordinarv man is unable at once to ac- 




ENTRANCE TO ERNST LUDWIG HOUSE. 

cept. One feels that in some cases a new and 
striking form or juxtaposition of colors has been 
made at the expense of beauty, and some of the 
artists exhibit a ])lay of fancy and a sense of color 
very different from ordinary mortals. Neverthe- 
less, they all possess many beautiful features, and 
one, — House Behrens, — in its simplicity, dignity, 
and beauty, is a fine work of art. This house is 
original and most 
modern in concep- 
tion. It seems to 
have grown out of 
the best elements of 
our present condi- 
tions, and yet there 
is no feature that 
shocks good taste 
or cries aloud to be 
praised and flat- 
tered. Its artist - 
owner, Peter Beli- 
rens, was not only 
its architect and 
landscape gardener, 




THE GLOcKEUT houses. 

but he also designed every object in the liouse. 
He painted the pictures, made the bas-reliefs, 
designed the carpets, furniture, hangings, table 
services, patterns for embroidery on curtains, 
pillowcases, — in brief, tliere is not a single thing 
in or about this " home " that did not come from 
the fertile brain of its owner. 

Manv features of tlie exhibition deserve high 
praise. Especially the sculptures of Mr. Ha- 
bich, who, besides many other things, carved 
the two gigantic figures — man and woman — on 
either side of the entrance to "Ernst Ludwig 
House." 

These artists are thoroughly imbued with the 
spirit of our time. The designs for their fur- 
niture, carpets, and, in fact, all articles, are made 
so that they may be executed by machinery ; 
that is, they depend for their aesthetic effects, not 
on carvings and externals, but upon the structure 
of the object, — upon beauty of line, form, and 
color. So, the articles may be brought within 
the reach of persons of moderate incomes. 

Hence, here in Hesse, which is only a little 
larger than Delaware, and has a population equal 
to that of Philadelphia, has been started an art 
movement wliich is surely destined to have a 
marked influence on industry and art. 




THE ERNST LUDWIG HOUSE. 



LEADIXC; ARTICMJ':S OF Till-: MOXTII. 



A SKETCH OF TOM L. JOHNSON. 
TX the August l',,uik- L>'^ltt's, Mr. \V. K. Mer- 
A rick gives a good account of the career of 
Mayor Tom L. Johnson, of Cleveland, and of his 
pns.-nt activities in revising tlie tax lists of Cleve- 
land corporations. 

Mr. Jolinson was b«irn in Scott County. Ken- 
tucky, 1854. His father, Col. Albert Johnson, 
was a wealthy plant- 
er before the war, 
which ruined him. 
Tom Johnson at ten 
y ears of age was 
selling papers on the 
trains. He got a 
c li a n c e to go to 
school in Louisville, 
but had to give it 
up on account of 
further family re- 
verses when he was 
si.xteen years old. 
He then worked in 
a Louisville rolling- 
mill office as an er- 
rand-boy, and soon 
was given a belter 
position in one of 
the offices of the 
Louisville Street 
Railway Company 
at seven dollars a 
week ; two years 
later lie was super- 
intendent of the 
road. 

" He was married 
when about twenty, 
yea rs o f age. ' W h at 
liaveyou with which 
to support a wife ? ' 
his prospective 
father-in-law asked. 
' These two hands,' 
was the reply. It 



street • railway equipment, 
hatuisome profits. 

"Cleveland was tlu- n.xt 
Johnson. He purcIiaM-*! wh., 
as the Brooklyn line in 1879. 
marke«l a ii«'w ^ra in the new mv 
in the management of its street-ra 




M.V^Ull luM L. Jlill.N.llJ.N, Ut CL.L,Vt.L.A.NU. 



was characteristic, and it won him his wife. 

'• In 1^(70, with capital furnished I)y a wealthy 
relative and friends, Mr. Johnson bought the 
Indianapolis street-railwav system for fIJO.Oon. 
He was installed as manager. rrufits paid for 
the road in a few years; it wa.s subHetjuently 
sold for more than a million. During IiIh In- 
dianapolis can'«'r he invented and patented a 
number of devices that wen.- improvemenlH in 



and these yielded 

•r 

vn 

His coming 

of Ohio 

^. It 

was then the transition }>erio<l from i .,r8 to 

••lectric motors, yet 

'ho manager re- 
iuced fares anil lie- 
•ame the liveliejit 
kind of A con. 
•'>r for rival r.nn 
lanies. A road he 
I'ound much dilapi- 
• lated siH«e<lily l)e- 
came the best 
equip|)ed in the city. 
•• Another inven- 
tion — the girder 
rail, now in g»Mieral 
use on all street-rail- 
way lines — yi«'ldi'd 
him immense prof- 
its. Capital was in- 
terested, and a jilant 
was (•<tal'!:-.ln-d at 
.lohu.sttiwii. I'u., for 
tlie manufacture of 
these and other 
rails. Mayor John- 
son also stnrtt'd a 
big 8ttK?l plant at 
liorain, Ohio, atiil 
these, with his 
street-railway enl4»r- 
s, proveil ex- 

ir.'.i,.' : ' ' 

Til.. 

his fortune wa.<t 
rpiickly laiil. Helw. 
cnmi' interoHted in 
BtriH't- rail way pn»j- 
ertM in a half-do]u>n 
Hrsitje.'* Iiin Cli ' ' 



in 

1 



diff.'n'nl cities an<l town.** 

sy.stem, he acipiired Hfiwk in Si. Loui«, 1' 

Brooklyn, and New York roads, as well an 

sfveral little lines in small r: 

more or li'ss snccesMful. In I> ■•• n. "..- ji- 

nently in the public eye by reaiMtu of an otT-r 

to wll his Detroit lines to the city. This fell 

tin ' ■ r. the ^' ••Court (1(H*]aring 

till . ^. iblitiu' ilid 



204 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RE^IEIV OF REI^IEIVS. 



MAYOR JOHNSON 8 SEl.FEDrCATlON. 

•• Mavor Johnson's education, since leaving 
school at the age of sixteen, has Loen ol)tniiu'(l 
bv reading and stiuly daring moments snatclu'd 
from a l>usy life in caring for his extensive inter- 
ests. His knowledge is practical, theoretical 
onlv in mattei-s pertaining to liis hobby, tlie sin- 
gle lax and equitable taxation generally, and 
the reforms allied thereto. He has a large 
library, and travel and association with men of 
affairs has developetl and broadened his store of 
information. He is a ready speaker, quick- 
witted, magnetic, and forceful rather than pol- 
ished in his platform utterances. He has a 
happy faculty of adapting himself to his audience. 
He is apt in illustration, homely in metaphor, 
and fearless and frank in his admissions or de- 
nunciations. He is democratic in his manner, 
although his tastes and his appreciation of the 
good things of this world are epicurean. The 
doors of his Euclid Avenue mansion swing open 
freely to all w!io call upon him. 

THE MAYOR IN PERSON. 

" In person, Mayor Johnson is about five feet 
seven inches in height. His figure is rotund, 
almost roly-poly. His curly iron -gray hair is 
usually carelessly brushed back from his rather 
low but broad forehead. He is smooth-shaven, 
and his smooth, round face has been lightly 
touched in the matter of wrinkles. Many of 
his pictures give him a rather boyish appear- 
ance, which is belied, however, by the firm, ag- 
gressive chin and wide, strong mouth, with lips 
which compress firmly, and an under lip which 
protrudes just enough to indicate the tenacity 
of jHirpose, so strong a feature of his mental 
make-up. He dresses plainly, usually in a sin- 
gle-breasted frock-coat of generous proportions 
and of a dark mixture. He is unostentatious, 
and though always neat, hardly suggests a fash- 
ion-plate." 

THE PRESENT WORK ON CLEVELAND'S TAX LISTS. 

The news which reaches us as we are going to 
press, that Mr. Johnson with his board of equali- 
zation has succeeded in having the assessed valu- 
ation of Senator Hanna's Cleveland street rail- 
way raised from ^G00,000 to over |6,000,000, 
lends point to Mr. Merrick's account of the busi- 
nesslike way in which the new mayor has gone 
about carrying out his theories of taxation. Be- 
fore he had been an hour in the mayor's chair, 
Mr. Johnson engaged a corps of experts to in- 
vestigate the valuations fixed by the decennial 
appraisers, who had finished their work a few 
weeks previously. The mayor said that while 



the small property -owners paid taxes on about 60 
per cent, of th(v worth of their homes, great cor- 
porations only paid on about G per cent, of the 
worth of their street railroads, etc. He made 
the city council give him funds to carry on the 
work of investigation. He engaged Prof. E. "W. 
Bemis, late of the University of Chicago, and 
Mr. W. R. Sommers, an expert on taxation, and 
gave them a large force of clerks to compile 
data. 

"Offices were fitted up, equipped with maps 
and records, where the taxpayers could file their 




MAYOR JOHNSON AS HIS ENEMIES SEE HIM. 

complaints. Lawyers and experts received and 
tabulated thern, and all the mass of information 
obtained was laid before the board of revision, 
which finally fixes the valuations upon which 
taxes in Cleveland will be levied for the next ten 
years. Information collected in this manner was 
largely responsible for a flat increase of 12-^ per 
cef.t. in valuations which the State board of re- 
vision ordered made in Cleveland real estate. 
The task of the local board will be to apportion 
this increase, placing it upon property it consid- 
ers undervalued. Mayor Johnson's experts will 
attempt to point out wherein this undervaluation 
lies." 



LEADING ARTICLES Oh THE MONTH. 



d05 



DR. ELY'S ANALYSIS OF THE STEEL *• TRUST." 

TO the August C"-<i„,>j>n(,tiiu. Uv. Hichani 1". 
Ely contributes •• An Analysis of the Steel 
Trust," in which he finds that the forces at work 
in this combination are old and familiar, and 
that there is nothing new in the sfKvtacIe of the 
great cor[K)ration except its magnitude. Dr. Ely 
sees in the billion-dollar trust "three distinct 
kinds of inono|x)listic forces, working together 
and strengthening each other — viz., those pro- 
ceeding from sharp limitations of supply of 
valuable minerals ; those proceeding from patents 
and secret processes ; and, finally, tho.se coming 




THE CSITEU STATKS STKKI, COuruKATION A8 VIEWED 
KKOM EL'KOPE. From J IK /{/C. 

from transportation agcncii-s ami other smiiljir 
monopolistic pursuits. We find thus what we may 
call monopoly raised to the third power. On the 
other hand, all sources of supply are not as yet 
embraced in this combination, and j)ofcntiaIitii'S 
of competition still e.xist here and tlierr ; but if 
untoward events do not be.set the course of tin; 
billion -dollar steel trust, its monojK>lislic iH)wer 
is likely to increase." 

WE KKI.Y ON TIIK TUI STS HK.NKViil.KME. 

Dr. Ely calls atteniiou tu the fan that evi-ry- 
l)0<ly admits the triMm-ndous power now wielded 
by the men at tin- h'-ad of tin- Hti-cl truHt and of 
analogous companies, and to the further fact that 



wf are relying, apjmrently, on the wistloin and 
goodness of thes<> gentlemen foi fmni 

any ill use (.f their jMiWer. I»r ■. that 

history does not show any proofs (hat benevo- 
leti.e may Iw hojM-(l for fnjni practica uj- 

U'd power. "Or, turning to the ... . .. i,ve 

argument, does our observation of human natur© 
even at the best lead us to think thw a safe 
procedure? When we qu«*stion ours«'Iv«*s. do we 
think we can stand such a test "f" Dr. Ely (Kiinta 
out that the public, while almost dazed at the 
stujK'ndousness of recent industrial eventa, is not 

inclined t(* reproach our ex'< •• • • ' ■ - He 

quotes Mr. Tom L. Johnson- a -a* 

a private citizen he would take advantage of con- 
ditions favorable to i ' that, s<» far 

Iruiii aiding to pa.ss I.i : i to buihl up 

monopoly, he would do all in Ids power to defeat 
any projx»sals fur new laws of this character, and 
would likewise e.xert liimsi'lf to se«'ure tlie repeal 
of existing laws calculated to promote monop- 
oly. There is a general inclination and be- 
lift that this is a sound arid thoroughly ethical 
course of action, and one finds one's self wontler- 
ing at times how many of our m.ignates are 
.socialists at heart, working out a.s U»st they can 
their theories." 

KEVISK THE I'ATEXT LAWS. 

Dr. Ely thinks that if we want a comp««titive 
.system of society we must proceetl slowly but 
surely with legisUlive remedi»>8 ; his point of 
view as to the public ownership of such mono|K)- 
lies as transportation ageniies and ga,s works is 
well known. To muintain coiMjH'tilivo equalitv, 
he would have our patent laws reviM*d, ami lie 
thinks the most con.servative projtosition for 
meeting this situation is that of a former com- 
mis.>ioner of patents, who would have the (lov- 
ernment reserve the right to purchase patents 
ami throw them ojmmi to public uh«'. Dr. Ely 
calls to mind the recent action of IVof. S. M. 
Hal)Cock, of the Wisconsin Tnivernity, in refus- 
ing to patent his Uabcock milk test, an invention 
worth millions of dollars, ItecauM* he felt that an 
a public s«-rvant he ought to give the gi'ueral 
public the benefits of liis inventions. 

OTHr.K KEMICDIKH. 

.\side from the ]iatent laws. Dr. Ely thinks 
that the measures for protection agninxt great 
conci-ntration »>f industrial jM»wer »hoid<l priK't^Ml 
with the thorough regulation of Ih'i|ii< .st an<i in- 
heritance, including the taxation of the right to 
receive pro|HMty by ' ' and inheritance ; 

the law of pnvat*' • , .itions ought to Iw 
thoroughly n*fornHHi, and, atill more ini)H>rt«nt, 
ought to Im) better adniiniHtenHl. 



21)0 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RE^IEiV 01- REI^/EIVS. 



WILL EUROPE FIGHT THE UNITED STATES? 

''T^ilK Au^u.nI Atliihdc Mi»il/i/i/ opons with a 
1 striking ostimate of the results of Amer- 
ica's trade comjK'litioii with Europe, by Mr. 
Hrooks Ailanis. Mr. A*lams rehearses briefly 
the historical events which have attemled great 
tlisturbances of the economic equilibrium of the 
world, and he finds that these events prove that 
international competition, if carried far enough, 
must end in war. He applies this rule to the 
present critical state of the economic balance of 
the world, with America's trade balance risen 
to over half a million a year and tlie amount 
tending to increase. He finds America under- 
selling Europe in agricultural products, in min- 
erals as raw materials, in most branches of man- 
ufactured iron and steel, and in many other 
classes of wares. "On the present basis, there 
seems no reason to doubt that as time goes on 
America will drive Europe more and more from 
neutral markets, and will, if she makes the effort, 
flood Europe herself with goods at prices with 
which Europeans cannot compete." America's 
foreign rndebtedness must soon be extinguished, 
and then the whole vast burden of payment for 
American exports will fall upon the annual earn- 
ings of foreign nations, at the moment wlien 
those earnings are cut down by the competition 
of the very goods for which they must pay. 

THBEE POSSIBLE COURSES FOR EUROPE. 

Mr. Adams sees only three avenues for the 
relief which Europe must seek from such a con- 
dition. First, Europe may reorganize herself 
upon a scale to correspond with the organization 
of the United States ; but this may hardly be. 
Second, the United States may be induced 
to abandon something of her advantages and 
ameliorate the situation of Europe by commer- 
cial reciprocity. In other words, the United 
States may prefer to follow somewhat the same 
policy which Cobden advocated as opposed to the 
policy of Colbert and Napoleon. The third 
possible course is an armed attack by Europe on 
the United States. 

Europe's impass. 

Europe finds herself in an impass. Her farm- 
ers cannot compete with American farmers, as 
her soil is less fertile, and since 1897 her manu- 
facturers cannot compete with American manu- 
facturers. Mr. Adams thinks that tlie United 
States, for her own protection, lias in action a 
mechanism which holds Europe as in a vise, — the 
protective tariff. "To make their gigantic in- 
dustrial system lucrative, Americans have com- 
prehended that it must be worked at the highest 
velocity and at its full capacity, and they have 



takt'U llit'ir nH'a.sures ac(;ordingly. To guard 
against a check, they rely on a practically prohib- 
itive tariff, by which they hope to maintain the 
home market at a reasonable level, and with the 
profit thus obtained they expect to make good 
any loss which may accrue from forcing their 
surplus upon foreigners at prices with which these 
cannot cope. No wonder tlie European regards 
Ameiica as a dangerous and relentless foe ; and 
the fact that Europe has forced on America these 
measuH's as a means of self-defense signifies noth- 
ing. The European sees in America a competitor 
who, while refusing to buy, throws her wares on 
every market, and who, while she drives the 
peasant from his land, reduces the profits of in- 
dustry wliich support the wage-earners of the 
town. Most ominous of .'dl, he marks a i-apidly 
growing power, which, wliile it undersells his 
mines, closes to him every region of the wide 
earth where he might find minerals adapted to 
his needs. Lying like a colossus across the west- 
ern continent, witli her ports on either ocean, with 
China opposite and South America at her feet, 
the United States bars European expansion. 
South America and China are held to be the only 
accessible regions which certainly contain the 
iron, coal, and copper which Europe seeks, and 
the United States is determined that, if she can 
prevent it. South America and China shall not be 
used as bases for hostile competition. Regarding 
South America, her declarations are explicit, and 
during tlie last twelve months her actions in Asia 
have spoken more emphatically than words. 

AMERICA INVITES ATTACK. 

"Americans are apt to reckon on their geo- 
graphical position as in itself an insurance against 
war risks, on the principle that, like the tortoise, 
they are invulnerable if they withdraw within 
their shell. Such was the case formerly, but is 
not the case now. On the contrary, in European 
eyes, America offers the fairest prize to plunder 
that has been known since the sack of Rome, and, 
according to European standards, she is almost 
as unprotected as was Holland before Louis XIV. 

" First of all, America is valuable not only for 
what she has herself, but for what she keeps 
from others ; for even without her islands, the 
United States now closes South America and 
China. Were she defeated, these two vast terri- 
tories would lie open to division. But more 
than this, Continental Europeans apprehend that 
were the United States crushed on the sea, were 
her islands taken from her, were she shut up 
within her own borders, all the rest of the world, 
save the British empire, would fall to them, and 
that they might exclude American products at 
their will. They believe that American society 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



'2iK 



would not staml llie strain of tlie dislocuiiini ui 
the industrial system inridont to the interruption 
of exports, and that disturbances wouUl ensue 
which wouUl remove all fear of American su- 
premacy. Also, Continental statesmen are not 
lacking who conceive that England might see 
more prolit in helping to divide the lion's skin 
than in binding up liis wounds. Nor must it 
ever be forgotten that, with Great Hrilain, the 
success of the European or the American conti- 
nent is only a choice of evils. America is her 
most dangerous competitor save Germany and 
Russia. Great Britain, therefore, at present 
holds to America as the lesser peril ; but should, 
at a given moment, tlie weight in the other scale 
of the balance prepontlerate, England would shift 
to the side of our antagonist." 

WE MIST KEVISE THE TAKIFF OH FIOIIT. 

Mr. Adams thinks that we in tlie United States 
have got to make up our minds whether we will 
do away with our tariff or fight — whether we will 
prefer a peaceful or an aggressive solution of the 
problem before Europe. If we prefer the latter, 
he thinks we ought to set about preparing to do 
our best, and this at once. Instead of 100,000 
men in our army, he thinks we ought to have 
.'500,000, witli a much more complete system of 
coast defense ; and chiefly ought our navy to be 
strengtheneil until we have, say, a hundred bat- 
tleships and armored cruisers. 



*<-'.".i.'>it, whu li in a very Mmall sum to put against 
^rj.oOO of canal duties. 

Mr. n. W. Wil.^on writes on the danger wliich 
menaces Englaiui from the growth of the IrusU 
in Ameri<'a. In the cour- ' ' he calla 

attention to the declared iu: ... :iy large 

firms to establish works in other countries, espe- 
cially in the United States, whither the Yorkshire 
plii'^h trade lias already migrated. 

The American Invasion. 

The o{n^'iiiiig article in the Xew Libtral li^r ■ 
for July is by Mr. Kenric B. Murray, and is »ii 
titled "The American Invasion." Mr. Murray 



ENGLAND'S COMMERCIAL RIVALRY WITH 
AMERICA. 

THE Fortnightly Review publishes two articles 
on •> Our Commercial Rivalry with Auieri- 
ca. '' Mr. Benjamin Taylor regards the acquisi- 
tion of the Leylaiid steamers as a significant sign 
of the times, but only one of many movements 
that prove that England's unquestioned supremacy 
in shipping and maritime commerce is doomed to 
disappear. The Nicaragua Canal will afTord 
American manufacturers such an advantage m 
the markets of the far East as they have never 
yet possessed. Unless the American republic, as 
some people predict, falls to pieces, the year '.iOOO 
will see Uncle Sam establishe<l permanently in the 
paramount position long occupied l)y John Bull. 
He thinks that the Americans are sure to pass 
the ship-subsidy bill, and when it is passed Eng- 
land will l>e at the beginning of the most formi- 
dable competition which whe has yet fa<-ed. .Mr. 
Taylor calculates that the saving of <li.stance Iw- 
tween London and New Zealand "ny the Ni<'arngua 
Canal would only be eq livalent to three days" 
steaming for a quick steamer of rj.OOO' tons. The 
saving on these three days wouhl amount to only 




THE BITTKU CKV OF OL'TCLAIMKII KNOI.AM). 

"Hlurst the link! Hpvprythlnk In the \>\t> hcmpirr Is 
Yaiiki-cl" Vrnvn X\\v Jxuriuii iNcw York t. 



is not a |M'ssimist in regani t«> England's indus- 
trial position, ami he In-gins by stating that he 
regards the increasing investment of American 
capital in that country as iH-iieflcial to iKith the 
Americans and the English |K>opIe. He S4'«*s no 
sign whatever of dry-rot in the British nation or 
character. Britain's only drawliaoks lie in the 
fact that sIh' is 1<k) pros: , ' ■ ■ wealthv. 

The .Americans and «■ ugly take 

greater risks, and are sometimes content<Hl with 
smaller jnolits ; but thi.s is oidy a pr«K)f that Eng- 
land's reputation has rJHen ho high that the verv 
ln'st business is brought to her. Nevertheless, 
Mr. Murray sees that the British educational 
svstem is ' ■'• <'l : 

"Thuei , f (iermany has ris4*n front umier 

the tyrannical heel of the flnil Na|>uleon to be, 
by force of u<lucation. the fiml and nio«l |>uwcr- 



'.J08 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REI^/EIV Of- REI^IEIVS. 



i ' u of rontinoiitiil K)in>i>t' ; ami \v\ we 

h. ;. Hi'jmlilicau AiiuM-ioa has risen l>y 

iiu>ans of free inU?nial trade, and, nl)ove all, by 
means of free state eduoation, right up to and 
including free university training, to be the 
first nation of the West ; and yet we heed not. 
What cataelysin will be necessary to open our 
eves to the national and state value of effective 
tuition ? We pay and stpiander hundreds of 
thousands of pounds of good money yearly on 
an incomplete and disconnected system of edu- 
cation. When shall we cry halt and demand 
value for our money in matters educational, as 
we are already doing in matters naval and mill- 
tarv ? Mav it be soon, veiv soon, for we are los- 
ing time which may perhaps never be entirely 
retrieved." 

Mr. Murray says, also, that the limited-liabil- 
ity acts are defective, and that Biitish parlia- 
mentary procedure in regard to private bills is 
wasteful. Trade-unionism is the W'Orst evil of 
all. 

• ' But the greatest national waoce is that de- 
liberately and daily committed by British labor 
by intentional restriction of output. This re- 
striction has beconivB a rule now in the majority 
of trades. Needless to say that it is contrary to 
economic law, and is resorted to for purely self- 
ish purposes — viz., to produce an artificial in- 
crease of wages. Foilunately for the progi'ess 
of mankind, no such rule prevails in America ; 
in fact, the contrary and natural practice of pro- 
ducing the largest amount per individual worker 
holds good in that country. The consequences 
will be severely feli as competition becomes 



keeiKM'. Ill fact, it is already opciiiling in the 
machinery trade, where American iiroduclions 
are successfully building up an important export 
trade. It is particularly in regard to rapidity 
of delivery that American j)ro(hicers are able 
to compete successfully with British manufac- 
turers." 




THE AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE. 

THE recent discussion of American-built loco- 
motives in the British Parliament makes 
pertinent the question, Is there an American 
locomotive type ? An affinnative answer to this 
question is given by President John H. Con- 
verse, of tlie Baldwin Locomotive Works, in 
Cassier's for July. 

Americans have been T)uilding locomotives 
ever since Peter Cooper experimented with his 
odd little machine on the Baltimore & Ohio Rail- 
road in 1829. This proved at least that it was 
entirely practicable for locomotives to work 
around short curves. Old Ironsides, built by 
Mr. Matthias W. Baldwin, of Philadelphia, in 
1832, had a single pair of di'iving wheels and a 
single pair of leading wheels, and weighed, in 
working order, about five tons. This was the 
first locomotive built at the Baldwin works, but 
it was not to furnish the American type. That 
was evolved in Campbell's engine, in 1836 — 
a locomotive having two pairs of coupled driving 
wheels, with a four-wheeled swiveling truck. 
This design has remained in general use from 
183G to the present day, and, in Mr. Converse's 
opinion, is entitled to be called the American 

type of locomotive. Of 
course, many improve- 
ments have been made 
in the details of con- 
struction, and weight 
and hauling capacity 
have been enormously 
increased. 



CAMPBELL'S ENGINK, 1836. 

(Origin of the American type.) 



OUU l.OCOMOTIVES 
ABROAD. 

Our foreign trade in 
locomotives has grown 
up within the last for- 
ty years. Recently, not 
content with the Cuban 
and South American 
trade, our locomotive- 
builders have invaded 
the eastern hemisphere, 
and almost every coun- 
try in the world where 
railroads are in opera- 



LEADISG ARTICLES OF THE MONTH, 



900 



tion now has Amorican locomotives, ^fr. Con- 
verse alliules to the fact that witliin tlie past three 
years our locomotives have been supplied to 
Great Diitain. France, and Germany — countries 
which in the pa^t liave tliemselves been exten- 
sive locomotive- producers and comi)eiitor8 for 
the South American trade. 

Mr. Converse states three reasons for the in- 
troduction of American locomotives into Europe: 
"(1) The possibility of much earlier deliveries 
than Europ«»an works could make ; (2) to some 
e.xtent the preference for American locomotives 
as to their type and size and details ; (3) the 
question of price. Owing to the design and 
character of American locomotives, they can be, 
and have been, constructed at a less cost per 
unit of weight than the ordinary European loco- 
motives, although tlie wages paid in America 



price of not more than 40 or 50 per cent Tho 
chanm-s in the ntatorial have been the n 

of steel for '■ "' - ... - 1 ' Qf ^, , , , . 

boilei-8 and m a niu. !; 

more expensive and elaborate way, so as to be 
cai.able of . -ssure of 'JOO 

I'ounds to i!. . , roM thirty or 

forty years ajro lUO pounds was the ordinary 
pressure. More parts are made of steel about 
the locomotive than f ■■ - ■ . . ■ _ .• 
are made of steel ; the i 

the cabs are made of steel, where they were 
formerly of wood. All the w) " 

motive and tender are stoel-lin.-.. , .., 

both the tender and engine truck wheels were 
cast iron. This substitution has been niatle pos- 
sible by great iiir - •• ■ - • •! , ' f 
Steel. These cL. 




TEX-W II KEL ENGINE KOR HEAVY FAST PASRENCSKR SKRVICB ON THE BOCTnEllX PA«irir RAILROAD. BIMLT AT PATr.HHON. !l. J. 



are considerably higher than the wages in Euro- 
pean locomotive works. This may be accounted 
for by both the cliaracteristics of the Amerirjin 
workman and by the j)robably more e.xtfnded 
use of labor-saving machinery of all kinds in 
American shops." 

IXCREASED USE OF STEEL. 

Tlie aggregate weight of the ordinary locomo- 
tive used in the early years of American rail- 
roading probably did not exceed 12 or 16 tons. 
At the present lime, freight engines of 100 tons 
and passenger engines of from 70 to 80 tons are 
in general use. 

" American builders have ])robably more than 
doubled the weight of locomotives in twenty -five 
or thirty years, and at the same time have made 
most important improvements in the quality of 
material, but have done it with an increase in the 



motive works in America, but in Europe practice 
has Wen more firmly established, and they have 
adIieriMl to their original standards to a groAter 
extent." 

UlOn SPEED ON AMKRICA.S RAILK0A08. 

"The increase in speed has l)eon one of the 
most remarkable developments of recent years. 
Some can rememiN>r when the ti'chnical papers 

II ■ 1,1 . ' I.I ,1 1 

of a m; - 

any American railroad, and tlioro were those 

who maintained that such a story was only a 

mvlh. T' ' :•■ •' '■ "'« trnin" '" • •"■■ •'••• 

United .St . at a r. 

a s[K*ed of anywhere from 70 to 00 mili«s an 

hour. Tl. ,.,... 

thoy do ii < - 

in the world is made botwoon Vu da 



eio 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REI^IEIV OF RE^IEIVS. 



ami Atlantic City. TIio rcnnsylvniiia Railroad 
and tlio H«'aiiiiig Uailioa<l I'Oili liavo llu-ir liiu's 
from Pliila-li'li'liia lo Allaiiiic City, and they 
liav« suiniiH'r trains which arc scheduled to 
make the distance from IMiiladi'lphia lo Atlantic 
Ciiy in 60 ndnulcs. The distance is from 55 to 
59 miles, and o".;t of the 60 minutes they have 
lo tiike the ferry from Philadelphia to Camden, 
po that it is on record that passenger trains are 
run evorv day in the summer season from Cam- 
den to Atlantic City, a distance of 55 to 59 
miles, in from 45 to 50 minutes." 



B 



THE UGANDA RAILWAY, EAST AFRICA. 

V the end of the present year it is believed 



the mnintonance of an alien army, amonnting to 
over 20,000 men, in a praclically wateiless coun- 
try, tluvoid of resources and of all means of ani- 
mal anil wlieeli'd transport. Even at the ad- 
vanced workings, hiindretls of miles in the heart 
of Africa, everylhiiig li.id to be iiiipoi'teti from a 
distant country, and from railhead to liie atl- 
vanced parties all stores, etc., had, until lately, 
to be cariied on men's heads. Apart, too, from 
the engineering dilTiculties, which 1 will deal with 
later, the scarcity of water gi'eatly hampered the 
work ; while the depredations of Tnan-eating lions, 
necessitating the erection of fpecial stockades for 
the protection of the Indian coolies' camps and 
involving the death of two odicials and about 
thirty coolies, the prevalence of fever, 'jiggers,' 
and ulcers and sores due to the thoi-n bushes 



that rail communication will have been es- 
tablished between Lake Victoria Nyanza and through which the men had to cut their way, and 



Momba.«a, a port on the east coast of Africa. 
The building of this 5S0 miles of raili'oad has 
taken the British Government si.K years, but 
when the dilliculties of the task are considered 
the delay seems not without excuse. 

A writer in the EiKjinecring Muf/nzine iov July, 
Mr. Frederick \V. Emett, dwells on three impor- 
tant facts which seem to have been wholly or 
p.irti;dly overlooked by the critics of the govern- 
ment engineers : (1) That the country is sparsely 
inhabited, and that the native will not work, 
even under stress of famine ; (2) that water is 
generally ba<l, and only lo be had at long inter- 
vals ; and (3) that animal transport over the 
first* 250 miles from the coast — ''the tselsefly 
region" — is impracticable, so that porters have 
to be uced. 

" Perhaps one of the greatest problems that 
had to be faced was that of the supply of labor, 
wiiich, not being availai)le in the country, hail to 
be i!>i ported from India. Sir Guilford Moles- 
wortii states that the construction of the Uganda 
Railway involves an orgaiiizalion equivalent to 




KATLWAY OFFICIALS AND THEIR TRAIN ON THE UGANDA RAILWAY. 



many other untoward circumstances, — these con- 
stitute a list of difficulties which ought to be suf- 
ficient answers to critics who complain of the 
time occupied." 

ENGINEERING DIFFICULTIES. 

A profile of the line shows that in the first 60 
miles from the sea an altitude of 1,200 feet is 
reached, which is steadily increased until, just 
before the completion of the first 100 miles, it 
becomes 1,800 feet. After a drop of 200 feet 
from this point, there is a continuous np-gradient 
to Makiiidu (205 miles), where the altitude is 
over 3,200 feet. Then there is a sharp di( p for 
20 miles, followed by another steep incline ex- 
tending to !Machakos Road Station (280 miles), 
at which point an altitude of 5.500 feet is reached. 
Nairobi (345 miles), the headquaiters of the line, 
is at i)i-acticaliy the same level as Machakos. 
Kikuyu escarpment (360 miles) has a height of 
7,800 feet. Then begins a descent of nearly 
2,000 feet into the Great Rift Valley, followed 
by a climb to the summit of Man JVlountain (490 

miles), where the line reaches 
its highest level, 8,300 feet. 
From this point to P'ort 
Florence, the terminus on 
Lake Victoria Nyanza (580 
miles), there is a continuous 
descent to the lake level, 
3,S00 feet. 

Fir the descent into the 
Great Rift Valley from Ki- 
kuyu, in 13 miles o*" road, 
eight rnvineshad to he bridged 
by steel-trestle viaducts vary- 
ing from 120 to 780 feet in 
length and from 32 to 85 
feet in height at the deepest 
points. The most costly and 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



Ill 



diflBcult work of the whole line, however, will 
be in its highest section, covering the Man 
range. In tliis section there will be 28 stetfl 
viaducts, varying from 100 to 8SU feet in 
length, and frum 30 to 110 feet in ht-ight. 
There will be only one tnnnel on the entire line. 
This will be 4G miles from the lake torniums at 
Port Florence, and will !>« only 200 yards long. 
The stations on the Uganda Railway are built 
of corrugated iron with wood lininjrs. There are 
92 loconiotivos on the line, of whirli .3.') are of 
American make, supplied l»y the Haldwi'i Loco- 
motive Works. Thirty-four of the biidges also 
were built in the United Stales. 

ECONOMIC PROSPECTS OF TOE ROAD. 

Mr. Eraett notes the fact that when the line 
was open for the first 302 mih-s only, the traflic 
earnings amounted to from %15 to ^20 per mile 
per wet'k. Wlien the lake is leaclied and steam- 
ers are launched upon it, there should be a decided 
improvement. 

" At any rate, it is hoped that the traffic re- 
ceipts will pay the cost of woiking. The rail- 
way has a practical value, however, far beyond 
the actual amount of revenue it may earn. The 
saving in transport by rail, as compared with 
porterage, is enormous, to the great advantage of 
the Protectorate's revenues. In the time of the 
Uganda mutiny of 1898, the troops and stores 
were trained uj) tlie 140 miles of railway, which 
had been thus rapidly laid, and the situation was 
saveil. Stores, tioops, and other passengers con- 
nected with the Protectorate have been conveyed 
to the extent of 5,000 tons of stores and 47.000 
passengers, including troops. Up to June last, 
the dilTerence in cost of "onveyiiig these by rail 
as .igainsl road transport amounted to £;500,000. 
A glance at any map of Africa is suHicient to 
show the immense value of this important branch 
of the great Cap(!-to-l'airo system. In connec- 
tion with the line, a service of steamers on the 
Victoria Lake is U-ing organize! for the carriage 
of local and imporit-d goods over the waiers of 
this inland sea. The Ijoats, which are conveyed 
to railhead in sections, in which slate lliey are 
shipped from Englaml, will hav«i a s[>eed of 10 
knots when loaded, w.ll Ix; fitted with twin screws 
and tiipiee.xpansion engines, and have a cargo 
capacity of 150 tons, it is scarcely necessary to 
point out how this line will completely revolu- 
tionize thin part of .Afiica, and tins elleet the iron 
horse will have on the many tribes living along 
the route." 

Less thnn 5 per c«'nt. of the total freiglit i< 'li- 
nage carried in l.S'.>9 was export tradic, but when 
the lake is reached largo consignwouls of ivory, 
horns, and hides are expected. 



THE RiuIUVENATION OF EGYPT. 

T^IIK'"' in the > • ■ . '..y\ 

*■ y\on of ^ „_.i;ua 

works on the Nile, by Mr. Frwicrick A. TallN>u 

Tiio new dams i- ilt at .\ an<) Ami- 

out will add 2.0b. ., to the . ..., . .able an-a <>f 

Egypt, the value of which will ainuunl to al«< .i 
♦400,000.000. Mr. Talbot Mvs that. pro|M..rly 
controlled, the land of th- Nile should l>o the 
richest country in the world, and thai llio con- 
striictiori of the Nile dams constitiiieg the gn>al- 
est engineering achievement the vvorM has ever 
seen, an 1 will remain as ix-rmanenl a monumont 
of the Mritish occupation of the country as the 
Pyramids are of the grcatni>s8 and prosfKirity of 
the land of the Nile under the Pharaohs. 

THE WoItK AT TUE DELTA. 

Egypt has l»een in a dying condition for thirty 
cenluiifS. Napoleon saw t!iat the key to the 
proidein of rejuvenating Egypt ' '^ i'l thn iiiiliza- 
tion of the Nile waters, and f- 1 the con- 

struction of a huge dam near Cairo. One of 
Egypt's rulers, too, M«'lieniet AH, had French 
engineers working on the Nile to store up the 
water for irrigation puriM^ses ; but owing to in- 
sufficiency of funds to carry on so great a scheme, 
the dam wjis not strong enough, and came near 
producing a great catastrophe. Since then the 
British have constructed sufficient foundations, 
aiul have made these dams at the head of the 
Delta workalile. 

THE GUEAT DAMS OF THE IMTER .NILE. 

It was a much greater task that was undertaken 
for u[>iK?r Egypt. With the eiiinu>>a«lic 8upport 
of Lord Cromer, the necessary surveys were 
made, and three gentlemen — Sir lUMijaniiii Baker, 
the engineer, Sir John Aiid, llie i • ror, 
and Mr. Ernest C'assel, the London I, r — 

agreed to build the dam fur $25,000,000, Dothing 
to Ije paid until the work was finished satisfac- 
torily. We quote from .Mr. Tall>ot8 account of 
the coiiRtriiciion of ihe gn-at dam at Ahsouan. 
The work at Assiout is only less gigantic. 

"The 8coi>e of the proj«'cl wa-s to erect two 
huge dams across the river at Assouan and As- 
siout, re.«peciiv«'ly. By this means two gr«>at 
reservoira woiiM ho creato«l from which it would 

l>o [Kissibletoirriirato "' ;nlry. In t' 

suggesleti by Mr \\ >h, lie adv 

erection of tli«i datn at Asitouaii to store up one 

hundred ami tweniy f«Mt of water. The n'«l- 

i/jition of this - ' >i..m1.| litvo n««ull««<l in the 

ci'inpieto sub: historical and l«au 

tifiil island of Phila. whose ruinod t«niplo« and 
ancient iuscriptions are ao doar to touriata. 8uch 



1213 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RE^IEIV OF REI^/EIVS. 



an act of vandalism was rofranlod with horror by 
ihe jtroiiiiiu'iit E^'\ piulo^ists, who giilliercil uiuU'r 
tlie leadership of the hue pn-siiienl of llie Biilish 
Academy and vigorously agitated against such 
wanton destruction. The Egyptian govermncnt 
endeavored to satisfy these petitioners by redu- 
cing the height of the reservoir by almost one- 
half — that is to say, to sixty-five feet. By this 
means, altlunigh the island of Fliilas itself will 
be sul)r.:erged. together witli the w;ills and lower 
ruins, the higher temples will stand above water, 
and will thus be accessible by boat. 

A GIGANTIC WALL OF GRANITE. 

"The river at Assouan is over a mile in width, 
and the dam stretches from the right to the left 
bank, a total distance of a mile and a quarter. It 
consists of a solid wall of granite rising ninety 
feet above the level of low Kile, and is about 
sixty feet in width at the summit. A roadway 
will be constructed along the top, thus affording 
a means of communication between the two sides 
of the river. To carry out tiie construction of 
this Cyclopean dam, the cliannels of the river had 
to be diverted to permit tlie excavation of a 
huge trench to carry the foundations to support 
the superstructure. The trench was excavated 
through the solid granite rock which constitutes 
the bed of the river, and was one hundred feet 
wide by as many deep. In some places, where 
it was considered that the water miglit possibly 
escape, tlie foundations were carried to an even 
greater depth. This huge trench was then filled 
with concreted rubble, thus producing a huge 
solid bed of rock. Upon tliis have been erected 
the granite piers for the sluices and supporting 
the viaduct. The dam is pierced with one hun- 
dred and eighty sluices. 

MR. STONEY's SLUICES. 

"The enormous steel doors with which these 
sluices are equipped are constructed upon tlie late 
Mr. F. M. Stoney's patent. Indeed, it is safe to 
assert that had it not been for this invention, or 
one similar to it, the undertaking could never 
have been realized. 

"By the means of Mr. Stoney's patent, not- 
withstanding the massive nature of the machinery, 
the lieavy weight of the steel doors, and the tre- 
mendous pressure of the dammed water, a small 
lever which a child can work serves to actuate 
the whole mechanism easily and readily. The 
inventor, unfortunately, did not live to witness 
the employment of his wonderful invention in 
this gigantic achievement, though it has been in 
use for some years past at the Richmond Weir 
on the river Thames. One of those sluices was 
set up in the barrage at Cairo, and its efficiency 



was firmly established in the presence of Lord 
Cromer and llie inventor himself. 

A BILLION TONS OF WATER SAVED. 

"This dam at Assouan will store up over one 
billion tons of water. It will form a huge lake 
over one hundred and forty miles in length — 
that is to say, the effect will be ai)preciable upon 
eillier side of the river for a distance of one 
hundred and foily miles. The work has been 
carried on incessantly night and day, since it was 
imperative tliat it should be pushed forward with 
all possible speed, owing to the compulsory ces- 
sation of labor for several weeks during the time 
the Nile is in flood. Some eight thousand five 
hundred natives have been employed upon the 
task, working in day and night shifts. 

" The granite blocks of which this dam is con- 
structed have been excavated from the same 
quarries that supplied the stone for the temples 
of Philaj and Cleopatra's Needle. Indeed, many 
of the blocks bear the marks of the wedges em- 
ployed thirty centuries ago. 'J'lie stone is trans- 
ported by natives from the quarries to the tem- 
poraiy i-ailway, which cariies it to the scene of 
operations at the dam." 



THE SLAVE TRADE IN NORTHERN NIGERIA. 

MR. T. J. TONKIN contributes to the Em- 
pire Revieiu for July the second install- 
ment of his very interesting papers on '-The 
Slave Trade in Northern Nigeria." One of the 
chief causes of the enormous development of the 
trade is that slaves are the most convenient cur- 
rency. Cowrie shells, the ordinary medium of 
exchange, are useless for large ti-ansactions. To 
carry a hundred pounds' woi'th of cowi'ies a 
hundred yards would need 300 men, and the 
cost of poi'terage of such a sum a hundred miles 
would eat up the entii'e sum. For this reason 
slaves are used as currency. 

TUE VALUE OF SLAVES. 

Mr. Tonkin gives the following table to show 

the value of slaves of different ages and sexes in 

Nigeria : 

£ s. d. 

Child, seven years old, male or female 2 10 

Child, ten years old, male or female 3 15 

Boy, Severn een years old 5 10 

Boy (good-looking), twelve to fourteen 7 

Girl, fourteen to seventeen years old 9 10 

Young woman, say twenty or twenty-one 5 

Man, full grown, with beard 3 10 

Adult woman 3 

Babies and very young children of the con- 
quered in battle are regartled as the perquisites 
of any one who troubles to pick them up, and. 



LEADIXG ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



2i:{ 



are generally sold on the spot to the poorer street« of the native towns of Tunis or Al 
classes. 1 lie children, tiieaiitiine. are carried 



about in sacks. Mr. Tuukiii gives the following 
typical episode of a raiding party on its way 
home through friendly territory : 

" Meeting the party on the road, some country 
people haileil tlie nieii and inquired if they had ativ 
babies to sell. Whereupon several large skip- like 
sacks were produced, otit of which were rolled 
black balls of babies clinging together for all the 
worhl like bundles of worms. The episode had 
its ludicrous side, but the country native saw 
nothing either appalling or amusing about it. 
He merely teased out the writhing mass with his 
spear-butt, and having found what he wanted, 
paid for it, dropping the purchase in his ample 
pocket, and with an ' Allnh sin hn hu' (May 
God go with you), went on his way." 

ox THE MARCH. 

On the whole, slaves are treated well on the 
march, it being the owner's interest to sell th«'m 
in good condition. At the slave markets, little 
apparent misery is seen. 

"The young girls are dressed in gay loin- 
cloths and headdie.sses. They chatter and laugh 



'\i<^\ a '^" 



gu'rs. 

Mr. Tonkin r 

dealer what he . . iK-nma;„.:. 

and waj< told, after a minute e.xamination, tlial 
he was not worth more than £10 as an ordinary 
slave, but that he would fetch any sum for hu 
scientific knowledge. 



THE SULTAN OF MOROCCO AND HIS 
GOVERNMENT. 

T^IIE young Sultun of Morocco, dwelling in the 
■*■ faroti capitals of Kez and M.t ' lias 

lately drawn unusual attention to h by 

sending to Erigland a special embassy to con- 
gratulate King Kdwar<l VII. on his . 

the Hntish throne. So little is kn^^ i . 

personality of this mysteiious monarch that a 
writer in the A'«/«o»i«/ litvitw for Julv, .Mr. 

Walter H. Harris, who <^ o have an : ■ ••• 

acquaintance with Moor iiers and « 

has thought it worth while to describe in some 
detail the young man's daily environment and 
course of liie. 

Mr. Harris characterizes the Sultan as "a 

and eye inquisitively such men as may stop to mysterious figure, half grand, half pathetic 

look at them. In each they see a po.ssibie owner, the center of fanaticism, yet 1 '•' ' ' 



and are an.xious or the reverse, as the person af 
fects their fancy. They nudge one another : 

" 'Sav, Lututa.' 

" 'Well?' 

"'See that young man over therewith the 
gold on his turban, and the curly sword, — 1 wish 
het/ buy me.' 

" ' //c can't buy you.' 

" ' Why can't he buy me ? ' 

" ' Got no monev — all on his back.' " 



fanatic, posses-^ing. as he un 
tendency toward European thought and civili/ji- 
tion — a tf-ndency that has l>efore now been the 
ruin of an Oriental jHitentate. 

"A descendant of the Prophet Mohamme*!, 
through Katimaand Ali, and the Kiluli Sliereefs. 
Mulai Aljdul Aziz is p' I of no ' • ' ' ' 

ness, a;id claims for hill. i claim ■; 

the Sultan of Turkey — the titles of • Khalifa ' and 
'rommander of the Faithful.' He 



Real misery is seen writtt-n on the faces only sultans, tin-re are other pretend«'rs t 



of those whose families have been destroyed or 
torn from them. 

"Then there is tlie mother who has lost her 
children ; the lover who has seen his sweetheart 
torn from his arms; the chief who has lost his 
authority ; the slaves on whom privation and dis- 
ease have set their mark ; the woman with siitiken 
eyes, gaping rib .<5paces, and long skinny breast.^, 
and the man with tumid 8[)eRr thrust or raw, ooz- 
ing sword -slash fresh upon hiin. I?ehind a shetl 
is the body of a slave who has ju-t drawn his last 



honors of Islam, amonjr others the .^ 

cat and the Imam of Yemen — .Ahmed ed-I)in. 

" The <lviiasty from which Mulai Alxlul Aziz 
is directly descended, an<l from which he inherited 
the throne, has governed Morocco with more or 
less siiC('es,M — but always autocratically — since (he 

mitldle of the - ■■' •■• '(HMiih ceniurv. •• ' •■ •' -i 

of a fugitive .^ ; from Araltia i 

of Sijiima9.Ha in Tatllet. It wax ihiA n'fiigee's 

dit- i-enilnnts who , ■ ■ ♦■ 

<fi\< . !i. and even in 



breath, his thin limbs tangled in the agony of present Sultan the kingdoms of Fejs and Mars- 
death, while along the broad hi^diway to the kesh, Sus and Tu filet, are separately staled. " 

right, the Ilainyan Dala. tro yawing along on oovitUN-r.NT Br oravd v:zirHS. 

llieir northward journey great ungainly camels 

V)earing bales that a few months later will have The father of the present Sultan, the ]at« 

been carried across the entire width of the ."Sahara Malai el- 1! I in I.H1>.'>, " "on 

Desert, and may possibly be inconveniencijig a iniliiary > ., — .» in the c«i. ... ^ .of 

British and American tourists in the narrow Morocco. IliMchaml»erlain, ."-^i Ahmed Hen Mi 



'It 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RE^IEIV OF RE^/EIVS. 



hs(] the dead sultan's young son, ^[Mlai Abdul 
Aziz, proi-lainicd at once us nilor, with liinisolf 
as ^laud vizi«M". This post Si Alinicd connived 
to liold until liis deaili, in April, IDOO. 

«• Under the »«fyi///e of Si Almied, Miilai Abdul 
Aziz' personality never made itself felt. There 
is no dt)ubl that the masterful vizier awed and 
frightened the young Sultan, thus persuading 
hini to uppc-ar as little as possible in public, and 
to giant interviews to no one. By this means 
all the power lay in Si Ahmed's hands, and he 
wjis not slow to make use of it. lie anuissed a 
fortune, the extent of which was only known by 
tiie Sultan when his property, confiscated at his 
ileath, as is the custom with all officials in 
Morocco, came to be counted — and tiien Mulai 
Altdul Aziz' eyes were opened as to the manner 
in which he had been served by this most trusted 
of servants. A temp )rary gi'and vizier, Haj 
Mukhtar, was put in his place, while Mulai Abdul 
Aziz began to assert his own authority. Many 
sensational events have happtmed in the last year 
in Morocco. One gi'an<i vizier has died, another 
has been letired with confiscation of all his prop- 
erty, a lord chamberlain, a master of the hoi-se, 
the governor of Moiocco City, and its mayor have 
all in turn been arrested and their property seized 
by the crown." 

'J'«i-ilay, the power behind the throne is Kaid 
Meliedi-el-Menebhi, the Sidtan's favorite adviser 
and grand vizier, who went to London at the 
head of the special embassy. The revolutionary 
changes of the past year mark the successive steps 
of El Meneuhi's rise to supreme power in the 
state. 

THE sultan's daily PURSUITS. 

As to the character of Abdul Aziz himself, 
Mr. Harris says : 

"lie is veiy young still, probably not more 
than twenty, and with all the temptations and 
want of restraint with which he is surrounded it 
is liitle to i.e wondered at, though much to be 
regretted, that his pu:-suits are frivolous and ill 
suiied to the almost holy position which he fills. 
That he has plenty of intelligence, there is no 
doulit. He has taken to photography with such 
a will tliat he obtains the most excellent results. 
He develops and prints his own photographs, 
and even mounts them himself — and very excel- 
lent specimens of art they are. He shows a 
great interest in all new inventions, and is not 
content in being mei-ely shown their workings, 
but insists upon undeiotanding their method of 
constiuciion. 

"In person, Mulai Abdul Aziz is tall and 
well built. His expr(!ssion is intelligent, and 
were his complexion a little healthier in color he 



would be a distinctly liandsome youth. As yet 
he has no sign of a l^eard or mustache — a Moor 
never shaves oil either — but he wears two large 
locks of hair protruding from under his turban 
over each ear. In his long, white, flowing robes 
he presents a fine figure, and on horseback ap- 




MULAI ABDUL AZIZ, SULTAN OF MOKOCCO. 

pears most regal. He is apparently an expert 
rider, and the writer has seldom seen a finer pic- 
ture than the young Sultan fighting a rearing 
roan horse that he was riding. He showed no 
sign of fear, and sat his saddle of ap[)le-gi'een 
silk and gold embroidery with a firmness that 
was really excellent. 

" The every-day life of a Sultan of Morocco is 
a simple one, and most of his days are passed 
within the palace walls. It is seldom, except at 
the great religious feasts or at the reception of 
some European minister, that his Shereefian maj- 
esty appears in public, though he daily passes 
some of his time in a courtyard which is sur- 
rounded by the offices of the various government 
officials. Here in a small room he is visited by 
his viziers and matters of state are placed before 
him, though in this respect Mulai Abdul Aziz 
gives less time to public affairs than did his 
father, the late sultan. Five times in the twen- 
ty-four hours, when the Mueddin chants the call 
to prayer from the mosque towers, it is the duty 
of the Ameer el-Mumeiiin — Commander of the 
Faithful — to be present, and to lead the prostra- 
tions of the worshipers." 



LEA DISC ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



215 



ELMEXEBHI8 POLITICAL PHOSrtCTS. 

•* The ministers of ihe Sultan who come actually 
in contact with him are the grand vizier, the 
chamtH-rhiin, ihe master of the horse, ami the 
vizier of war and foreign affjiirs. It is llie grand 
vizier, however, Kaid Meliedi elMenebhi, who 
e.xphiins matters to his majesty, and all the others 
are liiit instruments in his Imnds, and unable to 
arrange even tlie simplest niattery witliout his 
sanction. El-Menel>hi has rendered vacant nearly 
all these above-mentioned posts, within a year 
or so. by arre.-ting their holders, and has skill- 
fully appointed himself and his relations to fill 
them, and uidess any very unforeseen event 
occuis his power and influence are likely to be 
paramount for a long lime to come. Ho has 
youth, energy, wealth, and ambition, the four 
necessai'v qualifications for a successful political 
career in Morocco." 

Mr. Harris says in conclusion : 

"There is little hope for Morocco from with- 
in. No reforms will l)e introduced voluntarily. 
"Whether Europe could insist u[.'on some amelio- 
ration in the condition of the country is too large 
a question to discuss here. The young Sultan is 
intelligent, but his intelligence wants guiding in 
the rit^ht direction.*' 



MANNERS FOR MEN. 

THE Monthly Review has already done good 
service in publishing the diary of the 
Ameer of Afghanistan. This month it publishes 
a document of almost equal interest, being the 
advice given by the Ameer to his son Nasriillah, 
on the eve of his visit to England. The atlvico 
is contained in a series of thirty-live paragraphs, 
each bigned by the Ameer, and giving the most 
minute instruc:ions as to what Nasruliah must 
8ay and do when brought into contact with Eu- 
ropeans. Both politics and manners are dealt 
with in tletail, negative prohibition taking uj) the 
greater part. 

POLITICS. 

The Ameer evidently values reticence. 

XI. If you are a^^ked about the conMtruction of rail- 
wayHiiiiii t4-l(K'iii)lis ill .Vfuliiiiiistun. yon nlutt^«^y : '-I 
am not authorized to diHcii.-^ thi>*subjert, and tlierefore 
I am not prepared to wiy Huything about it one way or 
th«' othtM-."— .s'/(//i«<; /()/ inc. 

XII. If you an- a>ki-d alxiut the commerce and trade 
in AfKhanlHtan, or if it lie niiMitioned that it has de- 
crio."**!, yon nitisi give the annwer: "Before ihi-^ for- 
eigners have had tlie control of commerce in Afghan- 
i.staTi, which tin- .\fk'haii rnenliaiits have tjiken up 
tlienisi'lvcn now. himI 1 hi)|M' it will make U-hmI prngn-wt 
uiidir the merchauta of the Afghan nation."— iJitfficti 
by me. 



XVI. If you are linked whether ihe AfKhAi)i»tiin p»H». 
pie are displea«eU with their govfriinieiit or uot, you 
mu-.t Miixwer an fnltnWH : That you hH%-e not h«-ard 
almut their di'-plt-aMiire or dix-miit'iii, •'but if you |x-v>- 
ple hear no iii..ii> ah xit ir . do in .\fj;liaiji»tatt, 

then you need nut a.-»k me. .-^ .i by mc 

If Nasruliah met th« Czar he was to s " • 

he was very plea«*?d with his frontier . 

If asked in general al>out Ku&sia, he was to say, 

"If Russia shuuld not U* h : 

Afghanistan, we wuuIJ not U' .. i 

Russia." 

There are further in.siruotions as to the giving 
of money in charity, and also && li pn-sents, and 
modes of athlross. The .\me»r also told his son 
to engage a good mining enginwr, and to buy 
fr<jm two thousand to ten t' i magazine 

riflf.s, with two thousand cartr; .^ ■. ..cU 

But some of the moft interesting paragraphs 
deal with European manners : 

XXVII. U'hen you are in »he eom|Hiny of other gen- 
tlemen, and e>|)ecially when any ladit-HHre prcM-iil, vou 
mUHt take care not to hpit and imi tu put tingcni into 
your no>e, etc. Von t-an Mnnke in the pre>eiice of gm- 
tleiuen, but when ladies an- prvM-nl yiu n>n>t take 
their permission Ijefore »n>oking.— S/y/itti by me. 

XXVIII. Vou may shake handn with ^eiit li-meii at 
the tinu- of f]r->t intriMlnclion, hut with the lailif. you 
must oidy make a In)w whcti you an* lir>i intnMluc««l, 
but not shake hands till you meet them a hecond time. — 
Signal by mc. 

XXIX. I..'idies ran shake Imnils with tlieir glovi-s on, 
hut a g«iith-nian ought to take off tlie glove <if his ri^ht 
hand to .shake hands, and for thJH reason genernlly the 
gentlemen wear u1ovi-h on their left hand and k«-ep the 
glove of the ri^lit hand off to lie alih- t<i shaki- hands 
without any delay; hut they can shake huudst with 
glove:> ou after it is evming.— i>/(;«tti by inc. 

WITH THE Qt'KEX. 

The ailvico as to Nasrulluh's bearing with tho 
Queen is a model : 

II. On your going tn !m^ her mi»je«fy the Queen in 
Ixindon, you must look u|Hin In-r with the Hanu* dignity 
and resp«-ct as you look upon our *' Hoyal Court ;" to 
res(K*ct her majesty more than mys4-lf Is iinner««MNAry 
show of lliiltery, und to pay In-r h--M n*sp«Tt than my- 
Bclf is rndeni-ss and a>{ain'>t roiirt«-«.y. I nitsi not ,:ive 
you more details nnd full imrticnlNm in thin rt>«pert. hm 
you daily practise how t4» |»av your res|>' i » . 

manner to ap|)ear before my rojal c«' 
mc. 

The son of tlio Sultan of Turkey alone was to 
ls> .sliown "siMicial marks of friendship aud 

alTectioii : " 

You must ni«p^ct him i** you rrspert your elder 
bn>ther, nnd ln(|uin> after the heitllh of the SuIiau un 
my Is-half ri|M-iit<slty. nnd you must tell him that ynu 
nri- llrtnkful t» Almighty (om| that you havr had the 
giMHl lock to have the ptennurv uf maktug bin so- 
(|uaintMnce 



L»10 



THE AMERICAS MOSTHLY REI^JEIV OF REyiEiVS. 



AN AUSTRALIAN MAFFIA. 

BLACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE for July con- 
tains a very intorosliiif; article on »'rusli 
Larrikinism in Australia," written by a ^'enlle- 
man who acted as solicitor for one of these pecul- 
iar societies, and who, being in England, feels 
safe enough from their vengeance to make an 
expose of their organization ami methods. The 
Pushes, v/hicli are very widespread and numer- 
ous, are a sort of vulgarized Mafiia, and they pos- 
sess a political influence which reminds us of 
Tammany Hall. The members of the Pushes 
are priirarily "larrikins" and " Hooligans," but 
the persecution to which they are subjected by 
the police has driven them to adopt a formal or- 
ganization, which makes them a terror both to 
hartnless civilians and aspiring politicians. In 
Sydney, many parts of the city are so infested 
with these larrikins tliat for years it has been 
impossible for unarmed civilians to venture out 
after dusk. Formerly the Pushes were insolent 
and open in tlieir methods, for they dealt with 
an unarmed police. Now the police are armed 
with revolvers, and the Pushes have in conse- 
quence adopted secret and cunning methods for 
attaining their ends. For the police, on being 
armed, undertook a series of ferocious leprisals 
against their enemies. Some years age, the 
Pushes beat their victims openly to death in pres- 
ence of policemen ; now the victims disappear 
mysteriously, until they are found in some lonely 
spot beaten to death. As to the methods by 
which the Pushes take vengeance on their ene- 
mies, the writer says : 

''The first and most stringent principle of 
push law enforces obedience to constituted au- 
thority. 'What the king says goes,' is their 
own phrase, and contravention of the maxim is 
punishable in the first instance with the 'sock,' 
in the second with death. The sock is not an 
entirely original species of torture, but it is popu- 
lar with all larrikins, who dearly love an oppor- 
tunity of witnessing its infliction. The offender 
is stripped, gagged, and strapped face downward 
along an ordinary wooden bench, whereupon the 
executioners beat him in turn with a stocking 
filled with wet sand until his flesh is completely 
raw. He is then salted, and kept in durance 
until recovery. On such occasions proceedings 
are conducted with the gravest decorum, — no 
one is peiunitted to speak, and unnecessary vio- 
lence is sternly prohibited. No sympathy is 
manifested for the victim, and such a circum- 
stance as a protest against the barbai'ity of the 
punishment is absolutely unknown. The death 
penalty is rarely exacted, except against outsid- 
ers who have incurred the push vengeance ; but 
in either case the method employed is the same. 



The king chooses for executioners a score of his 
subjects, of whom at least seven are the latest 
recruits of the order. The victim, who is often 
stalked for months before he can be found in or 
decoyed to a favorable spot, is, when caught, 
surrounded, sttxnned, and thrown to the ground. 
No lethal weapon is employed, but each of the 
push silently kicks, and continues to kick, the 
body of the jtrostrate wretch until life is extinct. 
The whole twenty are thus equally rendered 
guilty of murder, and probably no member of 
any push has been enrolled for a longer period 
than two years without being thus stamped with 
the hall-mark of pushdom, which is the brand of 
Cain." 

The methods by which they prevent betrayal 
on the part of ex -members of the societies are 
equally ingenious : 

" If a member desires to sever his connection 
with his push, or to depart from the push district 
m order to reside elsewhere, he is allowed to do 
so only after signing a confession of having 
single-handed committed the last capital crime 
of whicli the push is jointly and severally guilty. 
This document — and there are many sucli — is 
handed to the king, who files it in the Push Book, 
which precious porlolio is naturally kept in a 
place of security. This book is the one really 
weak spot in the push system." 

PUSH POLITICS. 

The Pushes are active in politics. The Australian 
constituencies are small, and a couple of hundred 
Pushes may easily turn the scale. "When a can- 
didate for Parliament is announced, the Pushes 
immediately take him in hand. Hints are con- 
veyed to him to modify his platform in order to 
fall in with the larriKin interest. If he does so, 
his meetings are well attended. But if he re- 
fuses, and is rejected by the Push, his meetings 
are broken up, and can only be held under police 
protection. Respectable persons will not attend 
his meetings for fear of riots, and his cause is 
practically lost. 

THE OBJECTS OF THE PUSH. 

The primary ambitions of all Pushes are iden- 
tical. They seek amusement. At one time they 
formed themselves into clubs to which in mockery 
they gave fashionable titles. It was tlieir rough 
and violent methods of amusing themselves that 
made them social pariahs, and police persecu- 
tion gradually turned them into criminal secret 
societies. So far did they go that the New 
South Wales Legislature found it necessary to 
constitute "assault with intent'' a capiial of- 
fense, and two have actually been executed for 
this offense. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



21' 



THKIH M<>R.\L8. 

Yet the Pushes have a strict discipline of their 
own. Drunkenness is alisulutely forhi-idon, and 
sometimes even punished with deatii. The Pushes 
are obliged to lead contiiuMit lives, and if lliey 
marry, to maintain their families to the l)esl of their 
ability. Gami>ling is encoura>red, but failure to 
pay a gambling debt is punished by clipping the 
offender's right ear, and strict honesty is enforced 
among the members themselves. Few larrikins 
are professional criminals, and they are singularly 
fond of animals — so fond, indeed, that '• Flash as 
a Chinkey's horse, fat as a larrikin's dog," has 
become an Australian proverb. 



THE STUDY OF MAN. 

WITH all the scientific research now going 
on in the world, the complaint is ma«ie 
that the study of living man as he is tc-day is 
sadly neglected. This would cerlaiidy seem to 
be a practical and even necessary line of inquiry, 
especially as regards the period of cliililhooil and 
youth ; but we are told by Mr. Arthur Mac- 
Donald, in the American Journal of Sociology for 
May, that child-study receives as yet but scant 
support, and tiiat the first case in all history of 
a tiiorougii scientific study of a human being is 
that made on tiie French novelist, Zola, in ISO 7, 
by a group of French speciali;?ls. 

To illusti'are some of the results from recent 
incomplete studies of modern man undertaken 
by investigators in various parts of the world, 
^Ir. MacDunald gives a numl)er of tlieir conclu- 
sions. These statements are to be taken in a 
general sense only — i.e., as true in most of tiie 
cases investigated. Following are some of the 
more important conclusions of these investigators, 
as slated by y\v. MacDoiuild : 

" Ma.ximutn growth in height and weight 00- 
curs in boys two years later than in girls (Bow- 
ditch). 

" First-bom children excel later-born in stature 
and weight (Boas). 

"Healthy men ought to weigh an adilitional 5 
pounds for every inch in height beyond 61 inches, 
at which height they ought to weight 120 pounds 
(Lancaster). 

•'(.'best girth increa.ses constantly with height, 
and is generally half tlie length of the Ixjdy 
(Landsberger). 

*' C'hest- girth and circnmferenco of head in- 
crease in parallel lines fDaffner). 

"The relatively large sizeof hear! as compared 
with l>ody in chiMren may l)o dun to the fact that 
from birtli on tlie child ne. ' ' '■< and »4?n8e8 
as much as when grown f\. -). 



"Roys prow more regularly than girls, but 
the growth of girls during school years is greater 
than that uf 1 " ' ' . 

"In lK)ys muscles of the upper 

e.xtremities increase with age as com|tared with 
those of the lower e.\tremities, U-c-auso of their 
sitting more than standing (Kotelmann). 

"Children born in summer are taller tlian 
those bom in winter (Coinl>e). 

" Hoys of small fi ■ 'ten have largo heads 

and are deficient in r. , f charccler, and when 

the chest is contracted and mental action slow. 
this mental condition is due, probably, to lack of 
supply of purified bloo<l (Lihansik). 

" Delicate, slender jHH)ple aro much more sub- 
ject to typhoid fever than to consumption (llil- 
derbrand). 

"Some defective children are ovemomial — 
that is, they are taller and heavier than other chd- 
dren (Hasse). 

"Growth degenerates as we go lower in the 
social scale (British Association for Advane.-munt 
of Science). 

" Dull children are lighter ami pnH'ociuus chil- 
dren heavier than the average child (Torter). 

" As circumference of head increases, mental 
ability increases ; it being understood that race 
and sex are the same (MacDoiuiId). 

"Urban life decreases stature from five years 
of age on (Peckham). 

"Truant boys are inferior in weight, height, 
and chest-girth to boys in general (Kline). 

"City chiMren aro nu)ro vivacious, but have 
less power of endurance, than country children 
(Liharzik)." 



THE SEARCH FOR THE MISSING LINK. 

IN the course of a readable sketch of Prof. 
Ernst Hai^ckel in the August McClure's, 
Mr. Ray Stannanl Baker tells 84jn}ething of the 
scientist's missKdi in the island of Java. Pro- 
fes.sor llaeckel went t«) Java in Septemlx-r of last 
year to investigate further along llio lines of dis- 
coveries of Dr. Dubois, a Dutcii army surgeon. 



THE 



ATE HAN or JAVA. 



Dr. DulK)ib "found some fossilizetl Iwnes, which 
upon careful examination proved to lie the n»- 
mains of a hitherto unknown animal pnr'-t^i"" of 
some of the charncteriHtics of the a|><' ino 

of man. Dr. Dultois gave tiiis animal iho name 

I^ithrrautliropHS » iti), and t»|>«'n Its 

exhibition at iho .. ^ a ngrew at Leyden 
in l.S!i.'> a numl>er of the world's groalest coolo- 
gists and pRleont< at onre (t< that it 

1 'ncerls"'- •' '- • niiio4ii._ i.iiRH'ron- 

1 J man w .xu aucwttors. Judgod 



ei8 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REyiElV OE REl^JEWS. 



by tlie lenpth of ilio femur, or tliighl)oiie — iliat 
of ihe left Ifp—tho cri-aiure iiiiisl liavo liecn 
m*aily equal in size lo a iiKMlern man. Hut llie 
sha|>o of tlie skull indicates that lie was only a 
little more inlelligont than the api'S, tlit; size of 
liis brain being only abuiit two-lliinls thai of a 
civilized man. although equal to that of a modern 
Veddah woman of Ceylon, the liunuin being 
lowest in the scale of intelligence. This ances- 
tor of ours was probably well coveretl with hair, 
was tailless, like the present-day baboons and 
men, and had the power of walking upright. 
His arms were doubtless long, so that he might 
climb and swing ai)out among the trees of his 
native jungle. Curiously enough, also, certain 
growths on the thiiih-bone of this ages-dead ciea- 
ture indicate tiiat during life he was lame, suf- 
fering from a malady to cure which in man 
requires the most careful hospital treatment. 
And yet there are evidences that the creature 
recovered, though jiossibly remaining lame, and 
it juay have been that it was on account of this 
serious handicap in life that his skeleton readied 
the place where it was preserved through all the 
centuries, while his fellow-ape-men wholly disap- 
peared. 

HE LIVED 270,000 YEARS AGO. 

" In the jungles of southeastern Asia and the 
islands near by, which have long been known to 
science as the cradle of the human race, and 
which are still inhabited by the very lowest or- 
ders of human beings, the jnlliecauthrnpus lived 
with the elephant, ta[)ir, rhinoceros, lion, hippo- 
potamus, gigantic pangolin, hyena, and other 
animal.-?, remains of which weie founti round 
about him. Jt has been computed that this an- 
cestor lived somewhere al^out the beginning of 
our last glacial epoch, some 270.000 years ago. 
■In oth^r words, about 17,000 generations have 
been liorn and have died Ix-tween him and our- 
selvi'S. It will assist our understanding of what 
t!.is relationship really means to know that merely 
250 geiieraticns carry us back beyond the dawn 
of history, 5,000 years ago. 

''To the discovery of these few bones the 
scientific world attached the utmost importance, 
as giving intlisputable visual evidence of one of 
the steps by which the ape- form of creature has 
developed through the processes of evolution to 
the man-form. Yet the discovery, though im- 
mensely significant, was meager enough. Hei-e 
were two bits of bone, a skull-cap and a femur 
and two teeth, very dark of color and thoroughly 
petrified — all too little to satisfy the knowledge- 
seeking appetite of tin; zoologist. Consequently, 
Dr. Dut>ois pu-t-sued his invesiigations in Java, 
spending much money in making fuither excava- 



tions, but to no purpose so far as the discovery 
of other remains of the ape-man was concei'iied. 
.And finally Professor Ilaeckel hirns(!lf deter- 
mined to go to Java, hoping, yet hardly expect- 
ing, to find some further evidences of the ' miss- 
ing link.' 

THE " MISSING LINK " NOT INDISPENSABLE. 

"It is significant that, although he is now in 
the land of the pitliecaiiUirfipus on such an er- 
rand. Professor Haeckel has long assei-ted that 
the story of the origin of man is complete in all 
of its ei-sential details; all that remains lo be 
done is to fill in heie and there such concrete 
evidences as paleontological and zoologi"al re- 
search shall reveal. This belief in the thoiough 
establishment of the law of development is vig- 
orously expressed in all of Professor Haeckel's 
later books, especially in his great work, ' ^'-^ys- 
temalic Phylogeny, ' which comprehends in three 
volumes, on an immense scale, a systematic ar- 
rangement of the vegetable and animal worlds, 
living and extinct, on the basis of the law of ev- 
olution — a vast pedigree- tiee, with man at the 
top and the lowest, non nucleated cell at the bot- 
tom. To such a scientist as Professor Haeckel, 
therefore, there is in theorv no ' inissin"; link,' 
— the scheme of creation is complete. If thei'e 
are links between different S[)ecies of animals 
which have been lost in the la[ise of the ages — 
and there ai'e many such — the scientist may 
name and describe them with great accuracy, 
fitting them into his pedigree as hypothetical 
species. Tiie 'search for the missing link,' 
therefore, becomes a seaich either for the ac- 
tual fossil bones of missing species, or else for 
the living representative of those species, al- 
ready anticipated by scientists. Twenty-five 
years before Dubois unearthed the bones of the 
ape-man in Java, Pi-o lessor Haeckel had foreseen 
just such a creature, and had given it in his ped- 
igree the name Pithecanthropus allaius.^^ 



TIGERS KILLED TO ORDER. 

SEARDLEY WILMOT, in the July Temple 
• Ba7; writes upon the supei'natural in India. 
The particulars he gives about the power pos- 
sessed by some of the natives over wild animals 
will give rise to many incredulous questionings. 
The charm-vender, who in this case was a wizened, 
emaciated, feeble old person, would make no 
promises to Mr, Wilniot and his friend that tigers 
would be forthcoming on the morrow, but he 
consented to join the hunt. Mr. Wilmot gives 
the following description of the events which then 
took place : 

"1 was both astonished and angry when the 



LEADISU ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



210 



tippr cliarmer stopped at the c<lgo of a small 
patch of ^nass whirli iiii;:lit have ConceaU-tl a pig 
»>r dt-er, hut i-eriaiiily could not. in iiiv opinion, 
afford suitable cover for a tiger. When I ivp- 
irsrnied this to the old man. he merely replied ; 
•Tlie ti^er is there;' and wo. travei-sing the 
grass, pa'isotl out on the other siilo without dis- 
coverin<r any living creature. We again appealed 
to our leader to cease his fooling and take us to a 
more suilalde spot, but were mot by the same 
stolid reply. 

SIX TIGERS IX FIVE DAYS. 

"There was notliing to ho done but to try 
again, ami this time we discovered an immense 
tiger lying crouched l)etweon two elephants. He 
arose on being discovered, and walked slowly 
in front of the liowdah to the edge of the patch 
of grass ; there turning in a dazed way, ho calmlv 
legardevl us, and fell at once with a bullet be- 
hind the shoul'ler. The e.xtiaordinary behavior 
of this tiger impressed me more as a sportsman 
than the proceedings of the old man ; but we 
both acki owledged tliat the incident was in every 
way uncanny. It was yet early in the dav. and 
the bell a;;ain soumling, we were led in a bee 
line to another tiger, which suffered itself to be 
slaughtered in a similar manner. In five davs 
we bagged si.\ ti<rei-s, and only desisted because 
the old man e.\[)lait\ed that if we killed all the 
tigers his trade in charms wouM be ruined. Con 
cludin<; that virtue lay in the bell, we offered 
lar>:e sums for its purchase ; these were sternly 
declined, the owner protesting that he would not 
part with it till his death, and then only to his 
son." 

EFFICACY OF A "CHARM." 

The tiger-charmer, however, taught ^^r. Wil- 
mot's orderly a charm which ho sai<l wouM de- 
liver tigers into their hands. A few days later 
they tried the charm on an old and cunning 
tiger, with the following results : 

" 1 was full of faith in our venture, resolved 
in my own mind that if nolhin;; happened it 
would be due to some error in our incantations ; 
and in this frame of mind 1 was not surprised to 
s«^o our tiger arise from Iwueath a thorn bush in 
a most unlikely locality and walk in tin; usual 
dazed condition in front of the line of elephants. 
His ap[)ejir!ince and iwhavior were greeted with 
a murmur of satisfaction by the elepliant-drivers ; 
here, they said, is a beast wo have all known f»)r 
years, aiid who has already shown hiinwdf »U|Ki- 
rior to our calculations ; today he is indifferent 
tohis'lfate; what manner of <li.inii is thi.s that 
can destroy his sense?" 



INDIAN BASKETRY IN THE FAR WEST. 

ALTHOUGH 8|>ocimon8 of Indian bai*ket 
^*- work now coinman'l fjir higher pricit 
that formerly, it is a rejrn-ital.le fan t' • •' art 
itself is dying out; the sq-iawg who , .. u 

are not receiving anything like fair r«Murn for 
their skill and industry, nor d<M»8 the ri.ning gen 
oration feel encourapd to cnniinue in so unprulit- 
able an employment. 

Trobably no one in this country has maile a 
more thorough study of Indian basketry than the 
curator of the National .Museum, Trof. Otis T. 








Ml ■.> 



»»-v.. - 1^1 )), tf 

|\V; •■ ■i--v::jo.-.rr!*'''-"''»«2!fc" 

\;-'^ I '.'iifT^,-, •»>'..• ^ H' fli 



I 



m 



COH.K.n Ii\-Ki I .1 Ml MADE IIV TMK ZIMS «>r JfKW Mr.XI<t>. 

Ma.'^on. In an article contributed to the Xurlh- 
rrt.->t ^fllt/llznle for June, l'rofes,Hor Mason de- 
scribes the coiled basketry found among the In- 
dians of the racific 8lo|>e. S|>oaking of the work 
done by the squaws of the INimos, the riickitats, 
the Washoes, and thi« Woacoes, l*rulcstiur Mason 
says : 

" In the coiling of the finer pieces, months 
of steady toil are e.\|HMided. The makers of 
these treasures are among the most forlorn arlixts 
on earth. One is iilletl with coni|tauiun and 
amazement, seeing oin* of them at work, herstdf 
unkempt, her garmenUs coarMt and often dirty, 
lior house and surrounding suggestive of any* 
thing but beauty. Models, drawings, |>aiierns, 
pretty bits of color elTeel. she ' llor 

patieriiH are in her memory ni<. ,. ^lon— 

in the mountains, the watiT cotirM^. the lakoc 



S20 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



Hf: Jfi 



Mrm 



A SQIARE INCn FHOM 
THE ZlNl BASKET 
JAR. 



and forests, and in tribal talos and Tiiytlis. Ilor 
tools aro a rudo knife, a pointed bono ; tliat is 
all. 

•'Yet her art has nioaninps that lie beyond 
the obvious beauties of the workmanship. The 
triangles on one of her specimens are Jiiountaiii- 
peaks ; every one with a 
name. This bold cycloitl, 
ascending like a stairway 
from bottom to top of an- 
oilier bowl, is the trail over 
which weary feet must pass up 
the sliininj; steps of nature. 
Tlie whole basket country is a 
range of verdure-clad moun- 
tains, wliore the ideal vege- 
tation for the basket-malcer — 
the redbud, the Hind's wil- 
low, and the carex roots — reach perfection in 
certain vallevs. For these baskets the sounding 
beaches of the Pacific are visited for their pearly 
shells, and the forests hunted for birds of bright- 
colored j)lumage. The basket-maker must be 
mineralogist, botanist, geologist, spinner, weaver, 
colorist, designer, poet, and sorcerer." 

MARVELOUS EFFECTS IX MOSAIC. 

"Indian basketry is either plicated with the 
fingers or sewed with an awl or needle. It is 
the needle or 'point' basketry, to use a lace- 
maker's term, that is under consideration here. 
You will find it in northern Africa in the soft, 
thick ware of the Moors ; in Siam, done in 
rattan, wherein the regular glossy fiber conspires 
with the small, delicate hand of the artist ; but 
in perfection you will find it on the Pacific 
coast. 

"There, varied materials take away the mo- 
notony of Africa and Asia. Diffei'entcolored 
materials, dyes and pigments, overlaying and 
applique work, feallier and quill woi'k, shell and 
bead work, and, aljove all, tlie pi-imitive mythol- 
ogy dominating the ornamentation, produce the 
myriad effects over which the collector is in ec- 
stasies. Coiled basketry is a mosaic, the elemen'.s 
being stitches all of the same width and length. 
The marvel is that such bold effect? as clouds, 
flames, mountain-chains, and water are success- 
fully produced within these limits. 

"The most delicately woven coiled basket in 
the world is the work of a Yokiaia woman, liv- 
ing on Russian River, California. Her name is 
Keshbim, and if she had lived long ago she 
would have been one of the dryads, for all wood 
lore is hers. She knows where the slender wil- 
lows grow, and can S(!e beneath the ground the 
tough white roots of the sedge. Keslibim worked 
seven months continuously on the little treasure. 



no liigger than a pint cup, which is now in the 
National Muscmuu. It is beyond all price, this 
basket ; for the magic in Keslii)im's stubby fin- 
gers is an unequaled gift that will die with her. 

"The fouiulation of the basket is of willow 
rods, and the sewing is done, not with linen 
tlii(>ad, but with roots split so fine that in some 
parts there are sixty stitches to the inch. Tlie 
design is the pictograph of a feast at which Kesh- 
bim would give this basket to her dearest friend, 
demanding something equally precious in return. 
On the bottom are black-and-white squares in 
checkerwork. These repi'esent the mats that 
she will spread on the ground at the feast. The 
band of rhomboid figures around the bottom is 
the roof of the dance lodije, with rafters crossed 
and intei'laced. Tlie human figures about the 
top are Keshbim and her friends, men and women 
dancing and celebrating the food-falling, or 
acorn-harvest." 



A KING WHO CAN WRITE. 

IN the July Pearson's, most people will turn 
with interest to Mr. Robert Sherard's paper 
on "King Oscar of Sweden," who, however, in- 
sists strongly on being known as King of Sweden 
and Norway. Mr. Sherard says: 

"All things taken into consideration, one may 
justly describe King Oscar as the most accom- 
plished king in the world. He is an excellent 
musician, he is a great traveler, he is a doctor of 
philosophy, he is a popular poet and a splendid 
speaker. He has the reputation, also, of being 
a wit. And he has found time to distinguish 
himself in all these ways in spite of the fact that 
he has had, as a king, one of the most difficult 
tasks that has fallen to the lot of any monarch of 
recent years. For he has to wear two crowns, 
and whatever may be the case with a single 
crown, there can be no disputing the fact that 
the head that wears two crowns always lies 
uneasy. " 

A DEMOCRATIC RULER. 

The King's tastes were far more inclined to- 
ward the life of a country gentleman with literary 
and musical instincts and a passicm for traveling. 
He would never, from choice, have worn a 
crown. He and his family mix freely with their 
people ; indeed, in many ways more freely, it 
would seem, than any European sovereign. Mr. 
Sherard says : 

" One sees them everywhere. I have ridden 
in a street car with the princes, and have looked 
into the same shop-window as the King. But 
this familiarity lias bred no contempt, but rather 
a more profound feeling of attachment. 



LEAD IK G ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



'Zit\ 



" There is no king in Europe who is more ac- 
cessible in liis kinjrly capacity than Kin^ Oscar. 
It is true tiiat liuring the siunmcr inunths any- 
body wlio seeks after the conversation of kings 
can enjoy a chat any day on the front at Ostend 
with Leopohl of Belgium, who is always rea'lv 
for a -crack' witli stiuugors of respectable ap- 
pearance, but there the King of the Belgians is 
under an incognito. 

"The audience-room at Stockliolm is open to 
all. No other form of presentation is needed 
than the mere formality of writing one's name in 
a book three days before the o{)en reception is 
held, which takes place every week, while the 
King is in Stockholm, on Tuesday afternoons. 
Here people of every class and of all parts of the 
two kingdoms, to say nothing of curious foreign- 
ers with their red guide-ijooks in their hands, 
may be seen in communion with their monarch, 
— bulky fanners from the north, squat Lapps, 
bronzed sailors, and frock-coated townsmen. lie 
has a word for them all." 

Besides original works, the King has published 
many translations, especially from German. lie 
is an early riser, and a hard, systematic worker, 
— altogether, a very symjjuthique character, as 
the French would say. 



BEHIND THE SCENES OF THE FRENCH 
THEATER. 

MD'AVEN'EL, in continuation of his series 
of articles on the machinery of modern 
life, begins in the second June number of the 
Revue lies Deux Mondts a section on the theater. 
Although, as is well known, the mounting of 
stage plays in Paris is, as a rule, much less ex- 
I)en8ive tiian in New York and London, it is still 
interesting to see in what directions French man- 
agers spend the money that they have available. 
In one respect there can be no doubt that English 
and American theaters compare favorably with 
French ones — namely, in the precautions against 
fire. The French fireman is a sokiier who is 
serving his three years with the colors, and counts 
the days before his release with the impatience of 
a schoolboy awaiting the holidays. M. d'Avenel 
found in one of the Paris theaters the scribble<l 
words, "318 days more tomorrow morning;" 
indeed, the firemen are so fond of writing on the 
walls these pathetic inscriptions that one often 
sees notices posted forbid<ling the practice. 
Further, by an extraordinary piece of adnr 
trative stupidity, there are n«;ver the same 
men at a givcm theater on two sucxjessivo nig 
with the natural n'sult that they are not surti- 



ciently acquainted with the i ■ 
theater to be of much use in li. 



IV of each 
of a fire 



To pa.«« on to the actual arrangem«'rt« behind 
the scenes, M. d'Avenel coinplams of the tinall* 
' ■ ■ • • Jir- 

' . ■ . - - - ■ . ■- ' ^• ' ^l»e 

architect of which was so an.xiou8 to provide 
.staircases and cor t that 

anything like a j , ... . -.-...u yu "lie 

stage has to go through the \ . e. 

The accommodation for scenery is not less mea- 
ger ; in most of the 1 ' ' ' ,h a rule. 

it will only take the i. . . .ur four or 

five acts, and if more is wanted it must be 
brought from the quarters at Clichy, where is 
situated the storehouse cf vhich is com- 
mon to all the theaters u .e a »ubven- 
tion from the state. Hecently the government 
sold the other storehouse which it poeseaaed. 

SniFTIXQ 8CEXERV. 

Tt is a curious and perhaps rather melancholy 
experience to go through a miscellaneous assort, 
ment of scenery ; here is a bit of bosky dell 
carefully numl>ered "Romeo IV. 3," whicli 
means that it is wanted fur the fourth act of 
" Komeo and Juliet." Of course, the more elab- 
orate pieces of scenery require a large numU>r of 
workmen to o(>erate them. At one theater, 
where a piece was played in as many as twenty 
scenes, the stall of mechanists numbered i<0 men, 
of whom only 1*2 were employed in the day>lime, 
v.-hile at the Opera the workmen at niglit vary 
from lOU to 130, with 75 men employed ail day. 

M. il'Avenel descrilxjs in great detail the in- 
genious devices adopted by tiieatncal managers 
to produce the various illusions on the - nd 

it is curious to note the strength ol .ju 

which, for e.xample, will firndy prevent tiie 
change from day into night or from night into 
(lay, which may ha demanded by the phiy, from 
being eflected with a n-asonable gradation, whicli, 
though otdy taking a few minutes longi-r, would 
greatly assist the illusion in the 8{>ectaior'i mind. 

176,000 POINDS or n.\iR. 

As regards the dresses of the actors and ac- 
tress«'s, the theaters whii'h receive a >" " b- 
vention have workrooms in winch t: ■ .i>8 

are ma<le, while the other theaters onicr tliem 
from various shops. Among other i: 

facts which .M. d'.Avenel telln us is that i. 

with the amount of huir retjuirod for theatncAl 

wigs and beani.s ; the mere weight of hair an- 

1 in Fr ' r this i not 

.. , "0 kilo-... . •-. or u . ''0 

, .unds avoiidtifMiis. Al>out half this vasl ntaas 

of hair comes fn»m Fn'Dch lua«l«, tho other half 

1 II. 



frotn .""■ 
all. froi 



ary, iUl} , au<l, above 

ri. 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REyiEU'' OF REyiElVS. 



THE CHILDREN'S EXHIBITION AT PARIS. 

IN the lievue tie Pans, Madame Tinayor de- 
scribes doliglitfully a dfliglitful exliiliilion. 
Bv a happy iuspiiaiion, tlie charniing " Little 
PalaVe," which is one of the permarieiiL buikiiiigs 
erectPil in connection with last yeai's great ex- 
hibition, has been filled with every kind of exhibit 
connected with children and infancy. The French, 
as a nation, are devoted to children — some people 
think too devoted ; for the French child, save in 
some exceptional cases, really lives with his pa- 
rents, even one-year-old babies being often, for 
instance, present at all the family meals. Ac- 
cordingly, in this exlubition the tastes of all those 
interested in children, from the practical and 
from the sentimental point of view, have been 
consulted ; and sid(! by side with model cradles, 
patent feeding-bottles, and all kinds of baby in- 
cubators may be seen a marvelous collection of 
toys, ancient and modern, and a unique set of 
paintings and portraits of lovely and famous chil- 
dren of both past and modern days. 

" WHEX I WAS LITTLE." 

"Every visitor to this exhibition," says the 
writer, " cannot but feel, as he walks through 
the room, recollections of liis own childhood 
crcwd upon him, and even the most frivolous 
cannot but be impressed by tlie curiously fleeting 
character of childhood." Nowhere is this more 
shown than in the section of the exhibition where 
are gathered together the portraits of famous 
people in early youth, iiicluiliiig touching coun- 
terfeit presentments of the luckless Louis VII., 
the King of Rome (the Eaglet), and the Prince 
Imperial. 

DOLLS WIIC ARE ORPHANS. 

Every woman who remoml)ers how great a 
part dolls played in her life will look tenderly at 
the great collectioi: of orphan dolls here gathered 
together, and which range from medieval wooden 
images, dressed in gorgeous brocades and cloths 
of gold and silver, to the modern pouj)ee, who 
bears an almost startling resemblance to real life. 
The liti.le arms which once nui'sed these dolls so 
tenderly are now, for the most part, dust ; and 
yet tln-se orphan dolls seem surrounded by an 
atmosphere of love and jU'otection far more than 
do their modern sisters, who, however perfect 
and lifelike in appearance, have never been 
play(!d with, and are, when ail is said and done, 
only trade exhibits. 

OLD-TIME SCHOLARS. 

One section of the exhibition shows us schools 
and scholars of every century, and it is pleasing 
to learn that in this matter the worM has become 



reallv more humane. Those pictures, for in- 
statK-e, whicli sliow medieval schools nearly al- 
ways chose to describe the unforiuiiat*! scholar 
being severely punished. Royal children were 
not exempt, from blows, and Louis XII 1. prob- 
ably owed his lifelong delicacy to the brutality 
with which he was ireatiid by his tutors. Near 
by may l)e seen curious drawings done by chil- 
dren who afterward developed into the great 
painters of their day. 



THE SOCIAL, POLITICAL, AND RELIGIOUS 
TENDENCIES OF YOUNG FRANCE. 

THE editor of La Revue, thinking that France 
may be at a turning point, and certainly is 
at a critical period, of her history, has conceived 
the idea of collecting, through their presidents, 
the views of all the chief associations — political, 
religious, and social — into which French youth 
has banded itself together. The results, given 
in the number for June 15- are as insti'uctive as 
the views expressed are contradictory. Mon- 
archists and socialists, Catholics, anti-religionists, 
and ecstatic advocates of a new religion, anti- 
Seinites crying ''d has les Jui'fs,^^ and federal- 
ists. On the whole, the tone of the French 
youth is hopeful, but the brightness is twice 
overcast by the darkness of the most hopeh'ss 
pessimism. The general opinion, indeed, is that 
there is much rotten in the state of France. This 
is quietly taken for granted by one and all. 

WHO IS TO BE THE MOTHER OF THE NEW FRANCE ? 

Cooperation, association, taking power from 
the state to give it to organized, intelligent labor, 
— in some form or other the cooperative idea has 
considerably more votes than any other. 

Republicanism also finds many fervent advo- 
cates, the monarchists' claim being voiced by a 
solitary individual. France, says one writer, is 
to fulfill Victor Hugo's ideal and be a Christ 
among the nations. Republicanism, provided 
that it unites with the necessary strength the 
maximum of justice, is more likely to give France 
the glorious future the dawn of which seems to 
him already breaking. 

Religion is naturally held by some, and espe- 
cially by Catliolic associaiions, to be the one solu- 
tion fo!' all France's difficulties. One representa- 
tive thinks that the old religious principles being 
dead, a new religion must t)e founded. Another 
pleads for a religi(;n of humanity ; a third for 
"socialism transformed into a religion." "able 
to glorify life on earth and exalt human dignity," 
adds a fourth. Besides the advocates of the new 
religions, those of orthodox Catholicism are ar- 
I'ayed in ooasiderable force. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



SS3 



"Republicanism, stroncly tinfcod with social- 
ism," iliat is tlie dominant note of young France 
ot tlie twentieth coniuiv. 



GERMAN SCHOOLS. 
"^ITK Enirlish School and Its German Rivals" 

A is llie title of a very interestin;; arlii-lo in 
the Coiitempnrinij Review for July. The writer 
is Mr. R. E. Hii;.'hes, and his views are all the 
more interesting because he apportions prai.se and 
blame very impartially, and is by no means a 
partisan of the eMucaiional system of either conn- 
try. The first tiling he notes is that the German 
school IS philosoi)hical and logical, whereas the 
British scht)<)l is like the British constitution, — 
it works well, but nohody knows how or why. 
Mr. Hughes by no means thinks that everything 
is in favor of the German system. He says : 

" I believe that the most valuable factors, such 
as the elasticity, originality, and self-help, which 
characterize the democratic system, and which 
cannot be summed up and esiimaied in a com- 
parison s.ich as 1 am making, are of much greater 
value than that beautiful symmetry and philo- 
sophical unity that undoubtedly characterize the 
more highly organized system of Germany." 

KIXDERGARTEKS. 

In Germany, infant schools do not exist, being 
replaced in large towns by kindergartens, fur 
children under six years old. The German kin- 
dergarten class has never more than ten pupils, 
which is a grt-at advantage over the British class, 
which contains sometimes si.xty. 

Mr. Hughes says that it is a mistake to think 
that Freiich and German chiklren get more 
schooling ami h.-ave school at a later age than 
Englisli hildnn. In France, a chihl may leave 
school at elevt-n if he pass certain examinations. 
Where the English child has eight or nine years' 
schooling, the French or German child has only 
seven or eight. In oug respect the Germans are, 
however, much superior, and that is in average 
attendance. 

CURBICLLA. 

As to curricula. Mr. Hughes says : 
" First, that there is a philosophical basis to 
German education ; and, second, tliat no practical 
work in .sci<-nce worth sfteaking of is done in 
(jerman primary or higher priiiutry .ichools, and 
indeed 1 may add in but a few secondary schools 
either. Neither do we find that the girls are 
taught either cookery or laundry work, nor is 
manual instruction taken up in the G«'rman 
schools to anything like the extent that we miglit 
imagine ; f'»r example, in the wealthy and pro- 
gressive city of Uoiogne not a single school gives 



manual training a place in it« curriculam. In- 
dee«l, the German teacher is fierfeclly candid ; he 

1 « ' "of the 
1'-: _ -■ - "..-■ ^ ^.;. . ..;.:cal edu- 
cation, and what not. Now, I hope yon will not 
misunderstand me. I am !:j»«'akihg of the aver- 
age German teacher, neither c ■ r 

revolutionary, but typical. If ' ;« 

EnglantI from the markets of the world, it m'ill 
not be because her teclrnical training is better 
than ours, — in fact, I think it Is n«»t. — but be- 
cause either her primary or secon«Iary schools, 
or both, are suj^erior. as training-grounds, to llie 
corresponding English schcv.ls. ?• "v. I 

believe that if England l..srs lier rcial 

supremacy it will be because of her inefficient and 
inadequate svstem of secondary schools." 

German children are tausilit tlu'ir own lan- 
guage very can«fully, and all dialectical idioms 
eliminated. Handwriting is generally very goo«l. 
Arithmetic is taught on the blackboard and oral- 
ly, rarely with hooks and slates. In elementary 
science England is ahead of Germany, but in 
modern languages she is, of course, bidiind. In 
Germany, teaching is a fine art ; but there is, 
says Mr. Hughes, a certain amount of formalism 
in it. 

" The teaching is sometimes too sic d 

in character, and the originality and : . ■•- 
fulness characteristic of the fiiu-st teaching are 
often lacking in the German teaching of to-day. 
Still, with all this, the more I study and think 
about the (ierman teacher, the more I admire 
the care with which he builds up the new knowl- 
edge firndy up<n) the old, the honesty with which 
he performs his task, never allowing a sense of 
injustice or injury to interfere with the due dis- 
charge of his duties ; the enthusiasm with which 
he is iml)ued, the high coi n he has formed 

of the ohligations of his ; -ion, the candor 

with which he gives his opinion, and the self- 
respect that animates him in all his acti»>ns. — 
these are traits which unite him, in my niuid, 
to all that is best in our English teacher." 



THE THREE-YLAR COLLEGE COURSE. 

IN most of the recent discursion of ihu shortened 
college course no account has U-en taken 
f)f the fa<'t that several liundrt'd Ilarvunl grwdu- 
ates have already received degn-es after oidjT 
three years of c«>llege study, and prettuinaiily 
should Ik* able to furr 'e or 

less value as to the ad... .... :. agf of 

the shortene*! cour»«'. President Thwing, of the 
Western HesiTve I'niversiry, has thought it 

worth w' ' collect •' -nions ' ' •' '•n 

ou the V of c»' g a c- . ^ «« 



224 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RF.yiEll^ OF REVIEW'S. 



in three years, aiul in the July numbor of tlio 
/" ' o jiresouts a siunniary of tlio replies ho 

h.. ■ ved. 

The men who have taken the shortened collofje 
coiii-se all absent to the ptMU'ral proposition that 
the length of the course sliould be made to do- 
piMid on the student himself. Who are the men 
who should complete their course in the three-year 
period ? President Thwing classifies them thus : 

" The men who should complete their course in 
the shorter period- are of three classes. 1. Those 
who use a college ethication as a means of fit- 
ting themselves for professional study and prac- 
tice should be content with the shorter time. In 
particular, those students who purpose to become 
physicians should complete their college work in 
three years. To the student who is to become a 
physician the question of time is a serious con- 
sideration. Not only has the medical school 
lengthened its course from two years to three and 
from three years to four, but post-graduate studies 
and training demand an additional period of four 
years. The deans of our best medical schools are 
now advising their students to spend eiglit years 
in professional study. To tlie four years spent 
in the medical school should be added one or two 
years in a hospital, and also two or three years 
of residence abroad. Such a prolonged cur- 
riculum demands that time be saved at whatever 
point it may be possible. 

" 2. The need of economy in time is not con- 
fined to the medical school, althpugh it is there 
most highlv accentuated. A consideration of 
quite a different character applies to other pro- 
fessions than the medical. The student who 
goes to college in order to secure training for 
professional pui'poses not infrequently finds that 
in three years he has received all the training of 
which he is naturally capable. Further training 
would prove to be overtraining. Overtraining 
is a training in which no proper response is 
found in the man himself to the stimulus given 
from without. The stimulus to think is applied 
to the mind overtrained ; but the mind does not 
think as a result of the stimulus. An influence 
which would usually quicken the mind now proves 
powerless. The mind has become stale. It has 
lost interest. It has no spring, no buoyancy. 
Its mood of eagerness and enthusiasm is sup- 
planted by a mood of indifference and sluggish- 
ness. Several of my correspondents write of 
this lamentable condition as actually existing in 
their own case, and as one which would have 
been much aggravated by a fourth year at college. 

"3. There are also certain types of men who 
are more benefited by the briefer period of col- 
legiate residence. One type is represented by 
the indolent man. .Most college mea are not, 



despite the too common contrary opinion, to be 
charged with laziness. But, of cuurbo, tliere 
are college men w'.:o are lazy, and, of course, 
too, they are more numerous tiian they ought to 
be. The best method of dealing with such men 
consists in simply obliging them to work hard — 
to work ten hours a day for six days a week 
and for more than four weeks of evei'v month. 
For men of this type, the shorter course is un- 
doubtedly the better. It must be remembered 
that a man may even be indolent for three years 
and still graduate at their close. A physician 
writes me : ' I entered college from Phillips 
Academy, Andover, and went through largely 
on my fitting-school training, developing such 
lazy habits that another year could not have 
changed me for the better.' Certainly, for a 
man of this type three years are ample. 

"The m.an, too, who is inclined to be scatter- 
brained and desultory in habits of thought and 
study finds a gain in the shorter period. Con- 
centration of intellectual power represents, of 
course, one of the most precious results of a 
college course ; and this concentration is fostered 
by the three years' period. One of the chief ad- 
vantages of the examination system, for instance, 
is the necessity of applying all of one's powers to 
a definite duty for a specific time, — an advantage 
which is specially precious for the man of loose 
intellectual habits." 

IN SOME CASES, FOUR YEARS BETTER THAN THREE. 

President Thwing admits, however, that the 
three years' course is subject to serious objections. 
In the first place, there are fewer opportunities 
for general reading and for special investigations. 
The tendency of w^ork done under such straitened 
conditions is in some degree narrowing. 

"The longer period, too, is of peculiar value 
to those men who are slow of development. 
Such men are more numerous than is usually 
supposed. They do not find themselves, they do 
not come to themselves, until the last half of the 
college course. To them the freshman year is 
the continuation of the senior year of the fitting- 
school. The sophomore year shows some signs 
of development. The junior year gives evi- 
dence of increasing power. But it is only in the 
last year that these men really prove the worth 
of the stuff which is in them. Every college 
officer knows of scores of such sluggish men. It 
would be a misfoi'tune, some would say it would 
be a shame or a sin, to deprive these slow -grow- 
ing plants of a fitting opportunity for develop- 
ment. In most colleges, the last half of the 
course is, for these slow-moving men, the period 
of blossoming and of fruitage. Any cutting off 
from the length of the college course would 



LEADISG ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



SS5 



mean to them the cutting off of that part wliich 
is the more vahiable. 

'• For tlie iiii'ii, too, who go into business a 
distinct disadvantage lies in lije shorter period. 
Tlie merch